College of Liberal Arts

Dean's Circle 2016-17 Current Members

The Dean’s Circle is a group of donors who provide critical support that allows the college to seize opportunities as it strives toward its goal of excellence in Liberal Arts. All members will be invited to an annual Dean’s Circle event each fall. In addition, members are recognized on the Liberal Arts website and will receive periodic updates from the Dean. All giving, to any area of the College, is counted toward Dean's Circle membership. Click here to read more about how to join the Dean's Circle.

For questions regarding the Dean's Circle, please email us.

Gold Level Donors ($20,000+)
Silver Level Donors ($10,000-19,999)
Bronze Level Donors ($2,500-9,999)
Friend Level Donors ($500-2,499)

Gold Level Donors ($20,000+)

Mr. and Mrs. Todd S. Aaron
Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. Beecherl
Mrs. Elisabeth K. Butzer
Mr. Gary T. Crum and the CFP Foundation
Mr. Frank W. Denius and the Cain Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen S. Coats
Mr. Robert K. Conklin
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew J. Cozby
Mr. John L. Crawley
Mr. Robert W. Decherd
Dr. Carolyn H. Denham and Mr. Robert E. Denham
Mr. Martin W. Dies III
Mr. and Mrs. Crawford H. Edwards
Embrey Family Foundation
Creekmore & Adele Fath Charitable Foundation
Dr. and Mrs. Wilson S. Geisler III
Drs. David G. Genecov and Lisa W. Genecov
Dr. Austin M. Gleeson
Dr. Melissa C. Smith and Dr. Charles R. Hale
Mrs. Patricia H. Kelso
Laura and John Arnold Foundation
Mr. W. Austin Ligon        
Mr. Joe R. Long and Dr. Teresa L. Long
Louis & Patricia Kelso Trust
H. Malcolm Macdonald Charitable Trust
Mr. J. Mark Metts
The Milisci Family Foundation
The William A. and Elizabeth B. Moncrief Foundation
Mulva Family Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. James J. Mulva
Mr. and Mrs. J. Fulton Murray III
The New York Community Trust
David M. Newberger Philanthropic Fund of the Dallas Jewish Community Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Patton, Jr.
James and Ruth Pennebaker
The Bernard & Audre Rapoport Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Harry M. Reasoner
Roberta Wright Reeves Trust
The Thomas W. Smith Foundation
The Stedman West Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart W. Stedman
Mrs. Ellen C. Temple
The Dedman Foundation
Bill and Katie Weaver Charitable Trust
Mr. and Mrs. Craig L. Weiss
Mrs. Marilyn M. White
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Young

Silver Level Donors ($10,000-19,999)

Ms. Carla A. Blumberg
Charles Butt
Dr. Guy N. Cameron
Cogburn Family Foundation
Mr. John C. Cummings
Mr. Carter D. Copeland and Ms. Leslie A. Fallon
Mr. Robert L. Gartner
Dr. and Mrs. Richard L. Harper
Mr. Melvin J. Berning, Jr. and Ms. Mary Dell
Mr. and Mrs. Adam N. Lampert
Joan D. Lewis, Ph.D.
Drs. David and Jane Malin
Mr. Craig Massey
Mr. James W. McBride
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth J. Moore
Once Upon a Time…
Mrs. Althea E. Osborn
Ms. Julia S. Tucker and Mr. Nicholas R. Rasmussen
Dr. Ion M. Ratiu
Mr. Samuel D. Rhea
Drs. Dina M. and Joel F. Sherzer
Mr. and Mrs. Alden B. Smith
Peyton and Carolyn Townsend
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce E. Truitt
Mr. Scott Edward Van Pelt
The Gil and Dody Weaver Foundation

Bronze Level Donors ($2,500-9,999)

Mr. and Mrs. Fields Alexander
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Appleman
Mr. and Mrs. Morton W. Baird II
Dr. and Mrs. Robert H. Baker
Ms. Jodi M. Batten-Savoie
Mr. and Mrs. G. Robert Beckham
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher K. Bell
Mr. and Mrs. Bjorn Billhardt
Phil and Sherri Bishop
Mr. George H. Blume II
Mr. and Mrs. David K. Boone
Miss Michelle K. Brock
Mr. and Mrs. Sam J. Brown
Mr. Larry A. Campagna
Dr. Beth A. Chambers & Mr. James M. Chambers
Mr. and Mrs. Coby C. Chase
Dr. Stephen L. Chew and Dr. Daisy Y. Wong
Dr. and Mrs. George S. Christian
Mr. Travis Michael Cosban
Mr. Morris S. Crim
The Joan & Keys A. Curry Foundation
Al and Julie Tindall DeVincentis
Mr. David L. Draper
Mrs. Christine C. Egan
Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Ellis, Jr.
Dr. Larry R. Faulkner
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Frankel
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph A.C. Fulcher
The Gale Foundation
Dr. Stephanie L. Kodack and Dr. David A. Garza
Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Gilmer III
Mr. and Mrs. Brian T. Gladden
Mr. and Mrs. Neil A. Goldberg
Mr. Marshall P. Gorges
Ms. Zenzi M. Griffin
Mr. and Mrs. John V. Hanke
Mr. and Mrs. James T. Hanna
Ms. Joyce Anne Hendy
Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Hicks
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Hitchcock
Mark W. Holt, M.D.
Hunt Family Foundation
Dr. Robert Icenhauer-Ramirez and Ms. Jennifer B. Poppe
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Jabour
Mrs. Melinda N. Jackson
Mr. William J. Jackson
Douglas and Emily Jacobson
Mr. William E. Joor III
Mr. and Mrs. Dee J. Kelly, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William F. Kemp
Mr. Mark Fries and Ms. Sara S. Kennedy
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Kerr
Rear Admiral J. Weldon Koenig
The L & M Charitable Foundation
Mr. Scott Thorne Langston
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew S. Levy
Mr. Clyde R. Littlefield
Dr. Xuecheng Liu and Ms. Rong He
Ms. Lucia Palacios Maley
Drs. Jane T. and David H. Malin
Mr. William J. McDonald
John and Virginia McIntyre
Mr. and Mrs. Richard T. McMillan II
Drs. Madeline C. Sutherland-Meier and Richard P. Meier
Ms. Kim Metrick
Dr. Howard Miller
Dr. and Mrs. Max K. Miller
Mr. and Mrs. William B. Nelson
Mr. and Mrs. Howard D. Nirken
Dr. Peter R. Orszag and Ms. Bianna Gologdryga
Ms. Susan G. Palombo
Dr. Emiko Petrosky
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Phaneuf
Ms. Jana Edwards and Mr. Frederick H. Poppe
Bethel and Jonathan Quander
Mr. Sean P. Rodriguez
Rogers and Rogers Trust
Dr. and Mrs. Glenn A. Rogers
Dr. and Mrs. Howard Rubin
Dr. and Mrs. Aziz Shaibani
Ms. Leslie Shaunty and Mr. Robert M. Topp
Mrs. Dolores Silva Smith
Mr. and Mrs. William S. Snyder
Quinlan Sparks
Mr. Nedrick L. Stagg
The Susser Family Foundation
Mrs. Ruth L. Suzman
Mr. Michael D. Svetlik and Ms. Stacey B. Down
Mr. and Mrs. Larry E. Temple
Dr. and Mrs. Everett M. Upshaw
Mr. J. Thomas Ward
Dr. and Mrs. J. Garland Watson, Jr.
Mr. W. Thomas Weir
Dr. and Mrs. Walter D. Wetzels
Mr. and Mrs. John F. Wombwell
Mr. and Mrs. James C. Wynne III
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Yoder

Friend Level Donors ($500-2,499)

Chris and Sterling Abbott
Mr. Matthew C. Acosta
Ms. Louise D. Actkinson
Drs. Mahmoud M. Al-Batal and Kristin E. Brustad
Mr. Charles Andersen
Mr. and Mrs. Michael G. Appleman
Dr. Kathleen M. Aronson
Margaret and Wayne Arrington
Donald P. Atkins, M.D.
Mr. and Mrs. Mark D. Atkinson
Ms. Allison T. Bacon
Susan C. Baker, Ph.D.
Mr. Vivek Bakshi
Ms. Paula J. Bales
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel J. Balz
Dr. Kathleen S. Banks and Mr. Ben L. Banks
Mr. Gregory P. Barra
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Barrera, Jr.
Ms. Joan M. Barrett
Dr. and Mrs. Roby C. Barrett
Mrs. Carol Querolo Bartz
Mrs. Joan R. Baskin
Dr. and Mrs. John M. Beall
Mr. Kevin Howard Beaty
Mr. and Mrs. Brent R. Bechtol
Mr. and Mrs. John T. Beliveau
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry A. Bell, Jr.
Mr. Douglas A. Black
Mr. and Mrs. Jack E. Blake, Jr.
Ms. Allison F. Bloom and Mr. Gabriel Rutman
Ms. Ann L. Boehnke
Dr. Don and Ay-Chyi Boudreaux
Dr. James E. Brady
Dr. William R. Braisted
Ms. Helen Bramlett and Mr. Dalton Dietrich
Mr. James J. Braniff IV
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Bratic
Ms. Jennifer Una Bratton
Sabine Bredow
Mr. and Mrs. Henry P. Browder, Jr.
Ms. Lisa A. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. John M. Bryant
The Bucy Family Fund
Mrs. Mary L. Binkley Budd
Mr. Alan M. Buie
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Caldwell, Jr.
Ms. Emily Thornton Campbell
Ms. Sue M. Cannon
Ms. Alice Clement Carrington
Ms. Marianne Carrol
Cindy and Jay Carter
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel T. Casey
Ms. Cristin M. Castro-League
Mr. and Mrs. William J. Cato
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest M. Charles
Mr. and Mrs. William D. Chatham
Captain Cody D. Cheek
Mr. and Mrs. James L. Chenoweth
Paul B. Clayton, Jr., Ph.D.
Rear Admiral and Mrs. Brady M. Cole
Dr. Rex W. Cole
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Collins
Captain and Mrs. Clinton J. Coneway
Mr. Sean C. Connors
Mr. Jim F. Cook
Dr. and Mrs. Eli P. Cox III
The Honorable Christi L. Craddick
Mr. James Crank
Mr. Christopher C. Crawford
Mr. and Mrs. R. Caven Crosnoe
Mr. and Mrs. Alex Crumbley
Mr. and Mrs. Scott C. Crutchfield
Mr. John M. Cummings
Mr. and Mrs. Josiah M. Daniel III
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Dannenbaum
Mr. Steven Hoang Dao
Marilyn M. Dau
Mr. and Mrs. E. Ted Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Victor de la Garza, Jr.
Ms. Georgiann D. Dealey
Mr. Thomas B. DeBesse
Mr. William Charles Delatour
Mr. and Mrs. Jim H. Derryberry
Dr. Manuel R. Diaz, Jr.
Ms. Anne H. Dibble
Jeff Diebner, M.D. and Debra K. Diebner, M.D.
Mr. Patrick Martin Dies
Mrs. Alison A. Dieter
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Docekal
Doll Family Foundation
Mr. Ross E. Dowling
Alnita R. Dunn, Ph.D.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. P. Dupree
Mr. Brad N. Eastman
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Egan
Dr. Nora England and the Nora England Institute
Mr. and Mrs. Jason A. Ennis, Jr.
Mrs. Judith B. Enstone
James T. Escobedo, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Fainter, Jr.
Mrs. Margaret Fanning
Mr. Jens M. Fischer
Ms. Susan S. Fisk
Ms. Maria Luisa Flores and Mr. Scott M. Hendler
Dr. Oliver Freiberger
Mr. and Mrs. Warren S. Freund, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Steven J. Friesen
Ms. Hilary Frisbie
Ms. Joye E. Frost
Mr. Roy Henry Coleman Fulcher
Karl Galinsky, Ph.D.
Mrs. Kate F. Garland
Mr. F. John Garza
Mr. and Mrs. Michael L. Gaskin
Dr. and Mrs. J. David Gavenda
Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey S. Genecov
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence L. Germer
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Geshwiler
Mr. Anirban Ghosh
Mr. Malcolm C. Smith and Ms. Pamela M. Giblin
Mr. Stephen S. Gilstrap
Mr. Lynn Glass
Mr. and Mrs. Julius Glickman
Ms. Carolyn S. Glidewell
Mr. Eric J. Goepfert
Ms. Carolyn Holt Goldston
Barry J. Gomel
Ms. Gwynn Hanmer Gorsuch
Jerry R. Grammer, Ph.D.
Ms. Emily Jane Groendyke
Mr. Kent Guida
Carol and Robert D. Gunn
Dr. and Mrs. Myron P. Gutmann
Dr. Jo Ann Hackett and Dr. John Huehnergard
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Hancock
Mr. and Mrs. Randall S. Harris
Ms. Lisa J. Harris and Mr. Bruce J. Elfant
Mr. Christopher L. Hartwell
Mr. and Mrs. Richard G. Hatfield
Mr. and Mrs. Derek R. Hawkins
The Honorable and Mrs. Albert Hawkins III
Dr. Mark D. Hayward and Ms. Linda S. Abbey
Dr. Jerald L. Head
Mr. William Powers, Jr. and Ms. Kim L. Heilbrun
Mr. and Mrs. J. Richard Heinzkill
Dr. and Mrs. Gregory L. Hemphill
Mr. and Mrs. David W. Hilgers
Mr. and Mrs. Paul H. Hillegeist
Mrs. Barbara Snyder and Mr. Benjamin L. Hinds
Mr. Charles F. Hinger
Mr. Michael L. Hoffman, P.C.
Mr. Curtis J. Holcomb
Ms. Lorraine Hood-Jack
Mr. Robert J. Hoodis
The Honorable and Mrs. Harry L. Hudspeth
Mr. and Mrs. Kevin H. Hugman
Kitty and Robert Hunter
Inman Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. Michael P. Irvin
Mr. and Mrs. Steven L. Isenberg
Mr. John Cloar Jackson IV
Dr. Robin R. Jacquet-Williams
Mr. and Mrs. J. Lamar Johnson
Mr. Boisfeuillet Jones, Jr.
Mr. Ryan Thomas Jordan
Yue-Sai Kan
Mr. and Mrs. Edward W. Kaska, Jr.
Dr. George H. Kelling
Ms. Marsha Kelman
Mr. Alexander Charles Kick
Mr. Barron U. Kidd
Captain Michael E. Kidd, U.S.N.
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Kilpatrick
Paul E. Kim, M.D.
Dr. Allan G. King and Ms. Rebecca E. Hamilton
Drs. Karen R. and Robert D. King
Dr. Louis Carlton Kirby II
Ms. Kiersten D. Kita
Ms. Sally S. Kleberg
Dr. Sue Ellen Young Knolle
Dr. and Mrs. Michael F. Koehl
Mr. and Mrs. Rodney C. Koenig
Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Krumholz
Ms. Julie C. Kyse
Mrs. Stephanie M. Ladden
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip V. Ladin
Ms. Melissa Anne Lally
Mr. Jason S. Lamin
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Lapeyre, Jr.
Mr. Ryan L. Latham
Mrs. Lorraine Leftwich
Mr. William L. Atkins and Ms. Myra L. Leo
Mr. Joseph D. Lesley
Mr. Bradley S. Lewis and Ms. Lori Wittlin
Mr. and Mrs. Campbell C. Lewis
Mr. Gregory O. Lipscomb
Ms. Cathy Ling-Wei Chen and Mr. Xiaoyu Greg Liu
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen S. Livingston
Dr. Anitha M. Logan
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick S. Lutts, Sr.
Ms. Alice A. Lynch and Mr. Sam Norwood
Dr. and Mrs. Louis J. Maher, Jr.
Drs. Marion T. and Hans M. Mark
Mr. Jonathan G. Mark
Mr. Lester A. Marks
Dr. James F. Martin
Mr. Paul Martin
Mr. Steven B. Martin
Mr. and Mrs. Wilson K. Mason
Dr. and Mrs. Norman L. Mason
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Matthews
Mr. and Mrs. William E. Matthews
The Honorable and Mrs. Terry McCall
Mrs. Patricia M. McCauley
Mr. Raimund McClain
Dr. and Mrs. Charles L. McClenon
Dr. James T. McCracken
Mr. and Mrs. Kent McGaughy
Mr. Ryan D. McGlothlin
Mr. and Mrs. Leo McIntyre III
Mr. Gregory McKinney
Mary Lynn and Vic McNallie
Mr. and Mrs. Dan P. McWiggins
Mr. and Mrs. John D. Menke
Dr. Alida C. Metcalf
Mr. and Mrs. Larry E. Meyer
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas M. Mickelsen
Mrs. Joan A. Miers
Dr. Beth W. Miller
Mr. James Minmier
Mr. Reza K. Mojtabaee-Zamani
Kimberly E. Monday, M.D.
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin H. Montgomery
Mr. Mark A. Moreno
Ms. Stephanie S. Morgan
Jim and Lynn Moroney Family Foundation
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Moroney III
Rosemary Morrow, Ph.D.
Alexander P. Mourelatos, Ph.D.
Mr. Leopoldo Ricardo Munoz
Mr. and Mrs. Luke A. Musselman
Dr. Jan E. Mutchler
Mrs. Kathleen G. Myers
Mr. Soham D. Naik
Mr. Benjamin J. Nale
Dr. and Mrs. William R. Nethercut
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey S. Newberg
Mr. and Mrs. Milam F. Newby
Ms. Casey Taylor Nice
Mr. Philip M. Nybro
Mr. Dan T. O'Neil and Ms. Deborah J. Maurstad-O'Neil
Ms. Laura Cerniglia O'Toole and Mr. Brian J. O'Toole
Dr. John Obert-Hong
Mr. and Mrs. D. Dudley Oldham
Mr. and Mrs. Rufus W. Oliver III
Mr. Tyler H. Onitsuka
Mrs. Ruth M. Ott
Mr. and Mrs. W. Jeffrey Paine
Mr. and Mrs. Justin T. Painter
Raymund A. Paredes, Ph.D.
Mr. and Mrs. Norman W. Parrish
Mr. Christopher R. Parry
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Paslay
Patrick Stephens Lutts Revocable Trust
Nivin Pei
Mr. and Mrs. Hugh C. Pendery
Mr. J. Stephen Penner
Dr. Bobby J. Perales
Mr. Jeffrey L. Petterson
Dr. Steven R. Pliszka and Ms. Alice Narvaez
Ms. Christine A. Plonsky
Dr. Robert Icenhauer-Ramirez and Ms. Jennifer B. Poppe
Mr. Russell S. Post
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel V. Pozza, Jr.
Mrs. Melissa Pratt
Mr. Elton R. Prewitt
Dr. and Mrs. Hervey A. Priddy
Mr. Eric J. Pulaski
Mr. Titus K. Purdy
Mr. and Mrs. Vidal J. Quevedo
Mr. J. Stephen Quinn
Esther L. Raizen, Ph.D.
Mr. and Mrs. George E. Ramsey III
Ms. Jennifer L. Ramsey
Drs. Chaula J. Rana and Robert A. Zajac
Dr. Eileen Donohue and Mr. John N. Rando
Mr. Arthur L. Rankin
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Rankin
Mr. Thomas W. Ray
Ms. Janet G. Redeker
Mr. Michael Rein
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Reynolds
Ms. Caitlin E. Rhodes
Sarah L. Rintamaki
Patricia Roberts-Miller, Ph.D.
Mrs. Nancy J. Roberts
Mr. and Mrs. Whit Roberts
Lieutenant and Mrs. W. Launtz Rodgers III
Ms. Mary Jo Rogers
Mr. Scot M. Rogerson
Dr. and Mrs. David I. Rosenfield
Mr. H. B. Ruckman III
Mr. John Russo
Ms. Maidie Ryan
Captain and Mrs. Gabriel R. Salazar
Mr. John R. Salazar
Mrs. Catherine T. Salz
Ms. DeMetris A. Sampson
Ms. Mary Sanger
Mr. Jonathan Schofer
Dr. Christopher B. Schulze
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Schweinfurth
Mr. Gary S. Selken
Ms. Josephine C. Sherfy
Mr. Jonathan J. Shie
Mr. Zev A. Shulkin
Mr. Martin J. Siegel
Mr. Charles W. Simons
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen P. Sims
Mr. and Mrs. Shaka D. Smart
Mr. Michael P. Smart
Mr. Gordon D. Smith
Ms. Walta M. Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Julien R. Smythe
Mrs. Sandra E. Snyder
Dr. Patricia A. Somers
Dr. and Mrs. Bruce E. Spivey
Dr. and Mrs. Sam R. Stanbery, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Standifer
Mr. Daniel A. Steinhauser
Mr. Kevin Wayne Stelter
Dr. Michael B. Stoff and Ms. Raquel Schuster
Mr. and Mrs. Trond and Katie Storli
Mr. Matthew O. Strickland
Dr. Douglas A. Stuart
Mrs. Kellye F. Stuart
Robert W. Sugerman, M.D.
Mr. and Mrs. Terry J. Sullivan
Mr. James Summitt, Jr.
Miss Rebecca L. Susser
Mr. Michael A. Swartzendruber
Mr. and Mrs. Li Ray Teng
Ms. Cara-Lynne Thomas
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Thomas
Mr. and Mrs. John P. Thompson, Jr.
Mrs. Andrea F. Tingleff
Ms. Karin B. Torgerson
Roy H. Trawick, M.D., P.C.
Mr. Mark Tschurr
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas M. Turner
Mr. and Mrs. Eric J. Ueber
Dr. Datla G. Varma
Mr. and Mrs. Adan G. Vega
Dr. and Mrs. Richard M. Vigness
Ms. Glenna Wagenschein
Mr. and Mrs. W. David Walter
Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Waltmon, Sr.
Mr. Marshall B. Wegner
Colonel David M. Wells
Mr. Thomas L. Whatley
Dr. Stephen White
Ms. Sarah H. Wieser
Mrs. Carolyn H. Wildenthal
Mrs. Vasilia T. Wilkes
Kathy S. Williams, Ph.D.
Mr. R. Samuel Williams
Dr. M. Wright Williams and Dr. Michelle M. Byron
Mr. Bill B. Wilson
Donna F. Wilson, Ph.D.
Jim and Lela Windham
Dr. William J. Winslade
Dr. Gary R. Wolfe
Ms. Sarah B. Wolfe
Ms. Margaret L. Woodland
Dr. and Mrs. Paul B. Woodruff
Mrs. Beata Backo-Wukasch and Dr. M. Charles Wukasch II
Mr. and Mrs. Adam J. Zaner
Abraham Zilkha, Ph.D.
Dr. and Mrs. Philip D. Zinn
Lieutenant Colonel David R. Zinnante

This list represents members whose gifts were received between September 1, 2016 and February 15, 2017. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this list. If your name was omitted, misspelled, or incorrectly listed, please accept our apologies and notify us so we may correct the error.