An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary - Þ

by Bosworth and Toller

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Þ

Þ FOR the Runic þ, see þorn.

þá; adv. conj. Then, when. When the word stands at the beginning of a clause and may be translated by then, the verb generally precedes its subject; if it is to be translated by when the subject generally precedes the verb. I. then, at that time :-- Ic ofstikode hyne. Swíþe þrýste ðú wǽre þá (tunc), Coll. Monast. Th. 22, 19. Ðá wæs ðæt Agustinus gelaþode tó his sprǽce Brytta bisceopas interea Augustinus convocavit ad suum colloquium episcopos Brittonum provinciae, Bd. 2, 2; S. 502, 5. Godes ðeówas ðá náne landáre hleótan ne móston, Homl. Th. ii. 224, 4. On anginne ðissere worulde menn móston lybban be heora lustum ðá ... wé ne móton lybban be úrum lustum nú, Homl. Skt. i. 16, 233. Hit mæg eów nú fremian swá micclum swá hit ðá mihte, Homl. Th. ii. 378, 12. Se stán ðe ðæt wæter ðá of fleów, ii. 274, 1. Hé on fulluhte underfangen næs, forðan ðe Martinus ðá on neáwiste næs, 504, 24 : Homl. Skt. i. 6, 112. On ðære tíde ðe Ehfrid and Ædelréd wunnon, ðá æt sumon gefeohte wearð án ðegen áfylled, Homl. Th. ii. 356, 24. II. marking sequence, then, after that, thereupon :-- Ðá cwæð hé : 'Gá gé on mínne wíngeard.' And hig þá férdon, Mt. Kmbl. 20, 4. Sum iungling com mid gyrde tó mé, and wearp hí ðá tó mé, Homl. Th. ii. 312, 17. Se engel mé lǽdde ðá furðor ... Efne ðá æteówdon lígas ... Ic ðá beheóld ðone ormǽtan líg, 350, 15-21 : 456, 24-26. Eft ðá on ðære þriddan nihte middan hé gewát of ðisum lífe. Þá cómon eft englas and hine gelǽddon, 336, 2-5. Hwæt ðá com sum man, 286, 19. Hwæt ða hǽþenan þá hine bestódon, Homl. Skt. ii. 28, 104. Þá se bisceop dyde up ðone sanct, i. 21, 139. III. as adverbial connective, (1) of time, when :-- Þá hé út eode embe underntíde, hé geseah óðre ídele standan, Mt. Kmbl. 20, 3 : 3, 7. Hwæt hé dyde, þá hine seó menego þreáde, Blickl. Homl. 19, 11, 31 : 5, 25. (2) of cause or reason, when, since, as :-- Hí héton hine secgan hweþer hé cristen wǽre, þá hé wilnode þyllíces, Homl. Skt. ii. 28, 106. Hwá mæg áuht óþres cweþan bútan ðú wǽre se gesǽligesta, ðá ðú mé wǽre ǽr leóf þonne cúþ, Bt. 8; Fox 24, 26. III a. where the form is doubled, or combined with ðe; v. also IV. (1) marking time, when :-- Crist sylf gefæstnode his sprǽce, þá ðá hé spræc tó ánum Samaritaniscan wífe, Homl. Th. i. 482, 24. Ðæt Drihten cwǽde tó Nichodéme, án ðæra ealdra, ðá ðá hé his láre sóhte, ii. 238, 4, 9. Ðá ðe (cum) hé in áre wes, Ps. Surt. 48, 21 : 106, 6. (1 a) where the two forms are separated :-- Þá heó þá in tó ðære hire moddrian eode, sóna ðæt cild onsprang, Blickl. Homl. 165, 28. (2) marking cause or reason, when, since, as :-- Ðá cwæð his geféra, ðæt hé gefyrn smeáde hwǽr hí bigleofan biddan sceoldon, ðá ðá hí ða fare férdon búton wiste, Homl. Th. ii. 138, 33. (3) marking condition, when, if :-- Ðæt hit wǽre geðúht ðæs ðe máre gemynd ðæs fæder, ðá ðá se sunu, his yrfenuma, wæs gecíged ðæs fæder naman, Homl. Th. i. 478, l l. IV. in correlative combinations, then ... when, when ... then :-- Ðá se cyng ðæt hiérde, þá wende hé hine west, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 9 : 90, 22-24. Þá (then) þú cýþdest ðæt þú neatest hwelces endes ǽlc angin wilnode, þá ðú wéndest ðæt steórleáse men wǽron gesǽlige, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 12, 34. Þá þá (cum) hé fæste feówurtig daga, þá ongan hyne syððan hingrian, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 2. Ðá ðá hé ealdode, þá clypode hé his yldestan cniht him tó, Homl. Th. ii. 234, 22 : 286, 6 : 390, 19-22. Þá hé ðá út faran wolde, þá hét hé beódan, Chr. 905; Erl. 98, 21 : 894; Erl. 90, 33. Ðá se wísdóm ðá þis spell áreht hæfde, ðá ongan hé giddian, Bt. 19; Fox 68, 19. Þá þe ... þá sóna, Blickl. Homl. 163, 15. Þá geseah Abraham Drihtnes dæg, þá þá hé ðás gerýnu tócneów, Homl. Th. ii. 234, 22. Se Frysa ðá, þá ðá hé hine gehæftan ne mihte, lét hine faran, 358, 22. IV a. in combination with other demonstrative forms :-- Mid ðý ðe heó gehýrde ðone fruman, þá cwæþ heó þus, Blickl. Homl. 7, 20. Þǽr ðú cýþdest ðæt ðú nystest mid hwilcan gerece God wylt ðisse worulde, þá ðú sǽdest ðæt . . ., Bt. 5, 3; Fox 14, 4. ¶ See git, gita, gén, géna, nú for other instances of the word. [Chauc. Piers P. tho, thoo : O. Frs. thá : O. Sax. thó, thuo : O. H. Ger. dó : Icel. þá]

þaca, þeaca, an; m. A covering, roof :-- Ðone song hé gehýrde tó him neálǽcan, óð ðæt hé becom tó ðeacan ðære cyricean (ad tectum oratorii), Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 43. Cf. Bordðeaca, brodthaca testudo, Txts. 101, 1999. Bordþacan latrariis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 50, 52. v. ge-þaca and þæc.

þaccian; p. ode. I. to pat, clap, strike gently, with the open hand or the like :-- Wildu hors, ðonne wé hié ǽresð gefangnu habbaþ, wé hié ðacciaþ and stráciaþ mid brádre handa equos indomitos blanda prius manu tangimus, Past. 41; Swt. 303, 10. Ðaccige hé hine selfne mid ðǽm fiðrum his geðóhta cogitationum alis semetipsos feriant, 64; Swt. 461, 17. Ǽlc ðara manna ðe óðerne swíðe lufaþ, hine lyst bet þaccian and cyssan ðone óðerne on bær líc, ðonne ðér ðǽr cláðas beotweóna beóþ, Shrn. 185, 31. [This carter thakketh his hors uppon the croupe, Chauc. C. T. 7141. Nicholas had ... thacked hire about the lendes wel, 3304.] II. to clap, put one thing to another :-- Nim ða wyrta and wyrce tógadere ... þacc yt þanne gelómelíce betwex ðan scaldrun take the herbs and work together ... clap the mixture often between the shoulders, Lchdm. iii. 118, 14.

þacian; p. ode To thatch :-- Me mæcg in Agusto and Septembri and Octobri ðacian, Anglia ix. 261, 17. [Thakkyn howsys sartatego, Prompt. Parv. 490. M. H. Ger. Ger. dachen to roof.] v. þeccan.

þadder; adv. Thither, whither :-- Ðadder (ðider, Rush.) ðes færende is quo hic iturus est, Jn. Skt. Lind. 7, 35. [Perhaps a form due to Scandinavian influence. Cf. Icel. þaðra there. But see þæder.]

þæc, es; n. I. a roof :-- Ðá geségon hí ðone hræfn ða glofe teran uppe on ánes húses þæce ... Wilfrið mid gyrde of ðæs húses hrófe ða glofe gerǽhte, Guthl. 11; Gdwin. 54, 16-22 : Ps. Th. 128, 4. Gé þearfum forwyrndon, ðæt hí under eówrum þæce mósten in gebúgan, Exon. Th. 92, 6; Cri. 1504. Se ðe on þæce siǽ qui in tecto, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 24, 17. Hé mycelne aad gesomnode on beámum and on ræftrum and on wágum and on watelum and on ðacum advexit plurimam congeriem trabium, tignorum, parietum, virgeorum, et tecti fenei, Bd. 3, 16; S. 542, 23. Bodigaþ on þacum praedicate super tecta, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 10, 27. Nam ic wyrðe ðæt ðú gá under þacu mínne (sub tectum meum), 8, 8. II. the material of which a roof is composed, thatch :-- Ðæs húses hróf wæs mid ðæce beþæht culmen domus erat foeno tectum, Bd. 3, 10; S. 534, 32. Ða tær ðæt hors ðæt ðæc of ðære cytan hrófe, Homl. Th. ii. 136, 16. [Chauc. thacke (in houses of thacke) thatch : Prompt. Parv. thak for howsys sartatectum : tectura, tegimen, Wrt. Voc. i. 237, col. 1. O. H. Ger. dah tectum, opertorium : Ger. dach : Icel. þak roof.] v. fen-þæc; þaca.

þæcele, an; f. A torch, light :-- Þæcile fax, Wrt. Voc. i. 284, 20. Ðecele facula, ii. 77, 5. Ða fýr feóllon on ða eorþan swelce byrnende þecelle vise nubes ardentes de celo tanquam faces decidere, Nar. 23, 26 : 14, 15. Stód se leóma him of swylce fýren ðecelle (þecele, Bd. M. 476, 15) ongeán norðdǽle portabant facem ignis contra aquilonem, Bd. 5, 23; S. 645, 29. Ðæccilla (ðæcela, Rush.) lucerna, Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 34 : Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 4, 21. Þæccille (ðæcella, Rush.), Jn. Skt. Lind. 5, 35. Ðæccillæ (ðæcela, Rush.) lucernae, Lk. Skt. Lind. 12, 35. Dryhtnes ðecelan, Salm. Kmbl. 838; Sal. 418. Ðæccillas lampades, Mt. Kmbl. p. 9, 20. Mid brondum ɫ ðæccillum cum facibus, Jn. Skt. Lind. 18, 3. [Cf. Ælc beorn hæfde on heonde ane þechene bærninde, Laym. 8084.] v. fæcele.

þæcen. v. þecen.

þæc-tigele, an; f. A tile for a roof :-- Þaectigilum imbricibus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 56. [v. Halliwell's Dict. thack-tiles, and cf. Jamieson's Dict. thack-stone.]

þæder; adv. Thither, whither :-- Gá ðú and lǽde ðís folc þæder þe ic þé ǽr sǽde tu vade et duc populum istum, quo locutus sum tibi, Ex. 32, 34. On mergen com se biscop þæder, Shrn. 139, 35. Hé þæder in eode, 156, 13. [Cf. Icel. þaðra there : Goth. þaþró thence.] v. þadder, þider, and next word; and cf. hwæder.

þædres; adv. Thither :-- Hidres ðædres (ðidres, Cott. MSS.) hither and thither, Past. 22; Swt. 169, 13. v. preceding word.

þæge, þage; pron. pl. They, these :-- Þæge twégen dagas, Lk. Skt. 11, 5 margin. Sume ðæge wǽron hǽðene erant gentiles quidam ex his, Jn. Skt. 12, 20. He wyrcþ máran ðonne þæge (þa, MS. A.) synt majora horum faciet, 14, 12. Saga mé hwanon wæs Adames nama gesceapen? Ic ðé secge, fram iiii steorrum. Saga mé, hwæt hátton ðage? Salm. Kmbl. p. 180, 1. [Laym. þaie, þaye they, the (pl.), those.]

þǽh though. v. þeáh.

þǽnan; p. de To moisten :-- Gif tó stíð sié; þǽn (printed þæm; but see geþǽn mid hunige, 144, 1) mid ðý hunige, Lchdm. ii. 108, 17. Þénda smerwunga wyrce of ele make moist smearings of oil, 182, 16. [Halliwell gives thean moist, damp, as a Westmoreland word; and Jamieson has thain, thane with the same meaning.] v. of-þænnan (read -þǽnan; the form ofþǽne is subjunctive, not imperative), þínan, þwǽnan, þán, þánian.

þǽnian, þænnan, þænne. v. þánian, þennan, þanne.

þǽr, þár, þára; adv. There, where. I. local, (a) with demonstrative force, (i) there, in that place :-- Hig cómon tó ðære stówe, and hé gebæd hine þǽr (ibi) tó Gode, Gen. 13, 4 : 18, 24. Gif ðú þǽr (ðér, Lind. : ðǽr, Rush. ibi) geþencgst ðæt ðín bróðor hæfþ ǽnig þing ágén ðé, lǽt þǽr (ibi) ðíne lác beforan ðam altare, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 23-24. Hé wæs ána þǽr (ðér, Lind. : ðǽr Rush.) solus erat ibi, 14, 23. Hé his bigleofan þǽr feccan sceolde, Homl. Th. ii. 156, 6. Gif þár man án bán findeð unforbærned, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 21, 12. Hé férde tó Bethania and lǽrde,hí þár (þǽr, MS. A.), Mt. Kmbl. 21, 17. Gé gegearwiaþ ús þára (ðér, Lind. Rush.) illic parate nobis, Mk. Skt. 14, 15. Ic næs þára (ibi), Jn. Skt. 11, 15, 31. Swíþe earfoþháwe ac hit is ðeáh þára very difficult to see, but still it is there, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 31. (2) thither, to that place :-- Wæs Hæsten þǽr cumen mid his herge, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 16. Ne mæg þǽr inwitfull ǽnig geféran, Cd. Th. 58, 18; Gen. 948 : Elen. Kmbl. 1467; El. 735. Ic ðǽr cwom tó ðam hringsele Hróðgár gretan, Beo. Th. 4023; B. 2009. (b) with relative force, (1) where, in which place :-- Nellen gé goldhordian eów goldhordas on eorþan, þǽr (þár MS. A. : ðér ɫ huér, Lind. : þǽr, Rush. ubi) óm and moððe hit fornimþ, and þǽr (þár, MS. A. : ðér, Lind. : þǽr, Rush.) þeófas hit delfaþ and forstelaþ : goldhordiaþ eów goldhordas on heofenan, þǽr (þár, MS. A.) náðor óm ne moððe hit ne fornimþ, and þár þeófas hit ne delfaþ ne ne forstelaþ, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 19-20. On wésten þǽr ǽr Adam forwearþ, Blickl. Homl. 29, 18 : 39, 5. On ðære byrig þǽr se cyning ofslægen læg, Chr. 755; Erl. 50, 13. Sum feóll ofer stánscyligean þár hit næfde mycele eorðan, Mk. Skt. 4, 5. (2) whither, to which place :-- Ic lǽrde on temple þár (þǽr, MS. A. : ðiddir, Lind. : ðider, Rush. quo) ealle Iudéas tógædere cómon, Jn. Skt. 18, 20. In ðam éðle ðǽr hé ǽr ne cwom, Exon. Th. 27, 26; Cri. 436. Tó ðam lande þǽr ðé lust myneþ tó gesécanne, Andr. Kmbl. 588; An. 294. (c) in correlative combinations, (1) þǽr ... þǽr there (where, thither, whither) ... where (there, thither, whither) :-- þǽr (þár, MS. A.) ðín goldhord is ðǽr (þár, MS. A.) is ðín heorte ubi est thesaurus tuus, ibi est cor tuum, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 21 : 18, 20. Sceáwa þǽr dust and drýge bán, þǽr þǽr ðú ǽr gesáwe fægre leomu, Blickl. Homl. 113, 21. (2) where the two forms are not separated, and may be translated by where :-- God gefilde mid flǽsce þǽr þǽr ðæt ribb wǽs, Gen. 2, 21. Mín þén biþ þǽr þǽr (þár þár, MS. A.) ic eom ubi sum ego illic minister meus erit, Jn. Skt. 12, 26. Man mót hine gebiddan, beó þǽr þǽr he beó, Homl. Skt. i. 13, 67. (d) with a demonstrative and relative force, as in modern where, whither :-- Ðæt hí geworhten stǽnene weal ðǽr se cásere hét eorþwall gewyrcan, Bd. 1, 12; S. 481, 8. Ðæt hí woldan andlyfne niman ðǽr hí hit findan mihton, 1, 15; S. 483, 39. Se monlíca wunode þǽr hié strang begeat wíte, Cd. Th. 155, 4; Gen. 2567. Hé nǽnne ne mæg gebringan þǽr hé him gehét, Bt. 32, 1; Fox 114, 4. Ðá becom hit þǽr se cynincg feóll, Homl. Skt. ii. 26, 208 : Beo. Th. 718; B. 356. Far þǽr ðú freónda wéne, Exon. Th. 119, 29; Gú. 262. II. metaph. usages, (1) there, in that case, then :-- Þǽr ðú cýþdest ðæt ðú nystest ... þá ðú sǽdest ðæt ..., Bt. 5, 3; Fox 14, 2. Hú ne is se anweald þonne þǽr náuht is not, then, power in that case nought? 16, 2; Fox 54, 7. Geðence hé ðæt hé biþ self suíðe gelíc ðám ilcan monnum ðe hé ðǽr ðreátaþ, Past. 17; Swt. 117, 16 : 54; Swt. 425, 22 : 12; Swt. 75, 13 (but see note on the last passage). (2) Þǽr þǽr then when, when, þǽr when :-- Ðý læs hié selfe ácwelen ðǽr ðǽr hié ða óðre lácniaþ ne alios medendo ipsi moriantur, Past. 48; Swt. 371, 11. Ðǽr ðǽr ús God forbeád cum nos Deus prohiberet, 59; Swt. 451, 5. Sín ðíne suna and ðíne dohtra geseald óðrum folce þǽr ðú on lócie (videntibus oculis tuis), Deut. 28, 32. Hí clumiaþ mid ceaflum þǽr hí sceoldan clypian, L. I. P. 5; Th. ii. 308, 21. (3) in case that, if :-- Ðǽr wé ús selfum démden ðonne ne démde ús nó God si nosmet ipsos dijudicaremus, non judicaremur, Past. 53; Swt. 415, 5. Ðǽr mín ágen folc mé hýran cúðan si plebs mea audisset me, Ps. Th. 80, 13 : Bt. 32, 2; Fox 78, 1 : 37, 3; Fox 100, 4 : 36, 2; Fox 174, 5. Geornor wé woldon beón forsugiende, þǽr wé for eówerre ágenre gnornunge móste, Ors. 3, 8; Swt. 122, 10 : Exon. Th. 375, 20; Seel. 141 : Cd. Th. 279, 7; Sat. 234. Ðǽr Moyses ne hulpe si non Moyses stetisset, Ps. Th. 105, 19 : Past. 46; Swt. 355, 4 : Cd. Th. 49, 24; Gen. 797 : Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 70, 5. Ðár ðú nú gemyndest ða word ðe ic ðé sǽde on ðære forman béc, ðonne miht ðú be ðám wordum genóg sweotole ongitan ðæt ðæt ðú ǽr sǽdest ðæt ðú nystest si superiora concessa respicias, ne illud quidem longius aberit, quin recorderis, quod te dudum nescire confessus es, Bt. 35, 2; Fox 156, 21. III. preparing the way for the subject, there :-- Ðá com þǽr rén and þǽr (þár, MS. A.) bleówun windas et descendit pluvia et flaverunt venti, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 25, 27. Þá æt sumum cirre cómon þǽr sex scipu tó Wiht, Chr. 897; Erl. 95, 18. Eálá hwæt þǽr wæs fæger eáðmódnes geméted on ðære á clǽnan fǽmnan, Blickl. Homl. 9, 21. Þǽr is mid Estum án mǽgð, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 21, 13. IV. in combination with suffixed prepositions the word has the force of a pronoun; see the forms given as compounds (though the attachment is rather slight, see e. g. þær-on) which follow. [Laym. þar, þare, þear : Orm. þær : A. R. þer : Gen. and Ex. ðor : Hav. þor, þore : O. Sax. O. L. Ger. thár : O. Frs. thér : O. H. Ger. dár, dára. Cf. Goth. Icel. þar.]

þǽr-ábútan; adv. Thereabout, about that place :-- On Antiochian byrig and ðǽrábútan gehwǽr, Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 595. Tó ðám ðe ðárábútan (-onbútan, MS. A.) stódon circumstantibus, Mk. Skt. 14, 69.

þǽr-æfter; adv. Thereafter, after that :-- Gif se terminus gescýt on sumon dæge ðære wucan, ðonne byþ se sunnandæg þǽræfter Eásterdæg, Lchdm. iii. 244, 18. Hié áhebbaþ hié ofer hiera hiéremenn, and ne ondrǽdaþ ðone dóm ðe ðǽræfter fylgþ, Past. 19; Swt. 145, 9.

þǽr-æt; adv. Thereat :-- His horsbǽr wæs fram his discipulum gehealden, and monige unfrume ðǽræt hǽlo onféngon, Bd. 4, 6; S. 574, 7.

þæran (? þærran) to dry, wipe :-- Hé ðá hét geótan wæter on mundleów and ongan his þegna fét þweán and þæran (other MSS. have þar an, þær ana; the Latin in Jn. 13, 5 is extergere. The word intended seems to be one corresponding to Icelandic þerra, which, as well as the form mundlaug, the equivalent of the rather uncommon mundleów, the modern version in that language uses in this passage) mid ðý líne, ðe hé wæs begyrded, Homl. Ass. 155, 103.

þǽr-big; adv. Thereby, by that (person or thing) :-- Gif hwá gefare and nán bearn ne gestriéne, gif hé bróðor lǽfe, fó se tó his wífe. Gif hé ðonne bearn ðǽrbig(-bié, Cott. MSS., by the wife) gestriéne, ðonne cenne hé ðæt ðam gefarenan bréðer ðe hié ǽr ǽhte, Past. 5; Swt. 43, 14.

þǽr-binnan; adv. Therein :-- Philippus þǽrbinnan ne mehte, Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 112, 36. Se bisceop bebeád, ðæt hí heora lác geoffrodon binnon ðam temple, and hét hí ðǽrbinnon andbidigan, Homl. Th. i. 450, 25.

þǽr-bufan; adv. Besides, over and above that :-- Hé cwæð : 'Biscepe gedafnaþ ðæt hé sié tǽlleás.' Ðǽrbufan (v. 1 Tim. 3, 2 sqq. for the additional remarks referred to) is geteald hwelc hé beón sceal, gif hé untǽlwierðe biþ, Past. 8; Swt. 53, 10.

þærf need, þærf leavened, þærh. v. þearf, þeorf, þerh.

þǽr-in; adv. Therein, wherein :-- Hé wæs on Simones húse, þǽrin geát ðæt wíf ða deórwyrþan smerenesse on his heáfod, Blickl. Homl. 73, 3.

þǽr-inne. v. þǽr-út, -úte.

þǽr-mid; adv. I. therewith, with that :-- Ðá geseah hé treów licgende, and ðæt lytel; ongan ðá þǽrmid delfan, Homl. Skt, ii. 23 b, 767. II. temporal, straightway, at the same time :-- Ðá forceáw hé his ágenan tungan and wearp hine ðǽrmid on ðæt neb foran, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 52, 25.

þǽr-néhst; adv. Next to that :-- Godes grið is ealra griða geornost tó healdanne, and þǽrnéhst þæs cynges, L. Eth. vii. 1; Th. i. 330, 3.

þǽr-of; adv. Thereof, of or from that :-- Genim ðás ylcan wyrte, wyrc clyþan þǽrof, Lchdm. i. 196, 23. Ðæt ic macige mete ðínum fæder þǽrof ut faciam ex eis escas patri tuo, Gen. 27, 9.

þǽr-ofer; adv. Thereover, over that :-- Se fnobeám ofersceadaþ ðæt lond, ðæt hit under him ne mæg gegrówan, ne hé self nánne wæsðm dǽrofer ne bireþ, Past. 45; Swt. 337, 12. Hig tódðldon hys reáf, and wurpon hlot þǽrofer, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 35.

þǽr-on; adv. I. thereon :-- Hé com tó ðam treówe, sóhte wæstm ðǽron, and nǽnne ne gemétte, Homl. Th. ii. 408, 1. Se déma hét wyrcan áne hencgene and hét hón ðone bisceop þǽron, Homl. Skt. ii. 29, 253 : Blickl. Homl. 71, 7. II. therein :-- Hér is án lytele burg, ðǽr ic mæg mín feorh on generian. Hió is án lytel, and ðeáh ic mæg ðǽron libban, Past. 51; Swt. 399, 24. Áwyrtwala grǽdignysse of ðínre heortan, and áplanta þǽron ða sóþan lufe, Homl. Th. ii. 410, 2. Segeþ þǽron (in the book), ðæt sum ríce man wǽre, Blickl. Homl. 197, 27. III. thereinto :-- Ðú ne cymst þǽron non ingredieris eam, Deut. 32, 52. Ðá hét hé gefeccan ǽnne ǽrenne oxan, and ða hálgan ðǽron dón, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 422. IV. thereof :-- And hé ne cúðe nán þing þáron (cf. næs heora nán ðe þár ǽnig þing on cúðe, 41, 24), Gen. 39, 23.

þǽr-onbútan. v. þǽr-abútan.

þǽr-ongeán; adv. There against, on the contrary; per contra :-- Englas cýðaþ ðíne dǽda beforan Godes gesihðe, and deófol áwrit þǽrongén ealle ðíne misdǽda, Wulfst. 248, 21.

þǽr-oninnan; adv. Therein, thereinto :-- Healreced gewyrcean, and þǽroninnan eall gedǽlan, Beo. Th. 142; B. 71.

þǽr-onufenan. v. ufenan.

þǽr-onuppan; adv. Thereupon, thereon :-- Ða hǽþenan byrnende gléda streáwodon, and ðǽronuppan deófle offrodon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 35 : 13, 25.

þǽr-riht; adj. Straight :-- Þárrihtum strictis (but the passage glossed is strictis mucronibus; the glosser seems to have given two senses of the word, as he gives evaginatis besides the English word), Hpt. Gl. 495, 50. v. next two words.

þǽr-rihte; adv. Straightway, forthwith, at once, immediately :-- Ðárrihte confestim, continuo, statim, protinus, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 229, 16-230, 1 : mox, Zup. 241, 6 : confestim, Scint. 236, 1. Gé gemétaþ þǽrrihte (sóna statim, Mt. Kmbl. 21, 2) getígedne assan, Homl. Th. i. 206, 10 : 494, 13 : Mt. Kmbl. 3, 16 : 27, 51. Ðá cwæð hé : 'Geweorðe leóht.' And leóht wæs þǽrrihte geworden, Lchdm. iii. 232, 9. Ðǽrryhte æfter rehte sanctus Paulus paulo post subdit, Past. 51; Swt. 395, 26. Hé wæs hálig þǽrrihte, swá hraðe swá hé mann wæs; Homl. Th. i. 2oo, 8. Sóna ɫ ðariht statim, Mk. Skt. Rush. 1, 20. v. next word.

þǽr-rihtes; adv. Straightway :-- Þǽrrihtes protinus, Hymn. Surt. 92, 37 : 113. 35.

þærscan, þærsc-wald, -wold, þærst. v. þerscan, þerscold, dærst.

þǽr-tó; adv. Thereto. (1) marking position or order, next, then :-- Ðara is se forma Maximianus, ðǽrtó se óþer Malchus, and se ðridda þǽrtó Martinianus, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 3-5. (2) marking addition, besides :-- Ic gesett hæbbe wel feówertig lárspella and sumne eácan ðǽrtó, Ælfc. T. Grn. 14, 1. Hé nówiht ágnes hæfde bútan his cyricean and ðǽrtó feówer æceras, Bd. 3, 17; S. 543, 32. (3) marking association :-- Ðá stód ðære sunnan cræt mid feówer horsum on áne healfe; on óðre healfe stód ðæs mónan cræt and ða oxan ðǽrtó, Homl. Th. ii. 494, 24. Hé becwað his láford his beste scip, and ða segelgerǽda ðártó, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 351, 25. (4) where movement, lit. or fig., is implied :-- Ðæt hé ús gebringe tó his écan gebeórscipe, se ðe ús ðǽrtó gelaðode, Homl. Th. ii. 378, 6. Ðá dǽlde se cásere ðæt ríce on feówer, and sette ðǽrtó feówer gebróðra, i. 478, 20. Ðone óþerne ðe hine ðǽrtó neádode, Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 227. (5) thereto, for that end :-- Úres Hǽlendes geríp mænigfeald is and feáwa wyrhtan þǽrtó, Homl. Skt. ii. 29, 129.

þǽr-tóeácan; adv. Besides, moreover :-- Hé úrum gyltum miltsaþ, and ðǽrtóeácan ðæt heofenlíce ríce behǽt, Homl. Th. ii. 84, 8. On ðæt gerád ðæt se eorl him tó handan lét Uescam, and þǽrtóeácan ðes cynges men sacleás beón móston, Chr. 1091; Erl. 227, 9.

þǽr-tógeánes; adv. I. local, opposite :-- Ic ðǽrtógeánes standende ego e contra stans, Coll. Monast. Th. 22, 15. Seó heofen ... and seó eorðe þǽrtógeánes, Homl. Skt. i. 13, 166. II. on the contrary :-- Se góda man biþ ðæs Hálgan Gástes templ. Swá eác ðǽrtógeánes se fordóna man biþ deófles templ, Homl. Th. i. 262, 17 : Wulfst. 59, 3. III. as an equivalent, as a set off, in return :-- Wé habbaþ heom geunnen ... and hí ús þártógénes gifeþ ..., Chart. Th. 436, 11-20. Se cyng ðone castel æt Bures gewann . . . Ðǽrtógeánes se eorl gewann ðone castel æt Argentses, Chr. 1094; Erl. 230, 9. IV. in reply, in refutation :-- Ðonne cweðaþ hí : 'Hé magon ðás bán beón geedcucode?' Ac wé cweðaþ þǽrtógeánes, ðæt God mæg eal ðæt hé wile, Homl. Th. i. 236, 8 : Homl. Skt. ii. 27, 162.

þǽr-under; adv. Beneath :-- Ealle ða ðe ofer óðre bióþ heáfda ðara ðe ðǽrunder bióþ, Past. 18; Swt. 131, 24.

þǽr-uppan; adv. Thereupon :-- Him wæs his myxen forlǽten, ðæt hé þǽruppan sittan mihte, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 200.

þǽr-út; adv. Thereout, outside :-- Moyses oft eode inn and út on ðæt templ, for ðæm hé wæs ðǽrinne getogen tó ðære godcundan sceáwunga, and ðǽrút (ðǽrúte, Cott. MSS.) hé wæs ábisgod ymb ðæs folces ðearfe, Past. 16; Swt. 101, 25.

þǽr-úte; adv. Without, outside :-- Náhton hié náþer ne þǽrinne mete ne þǽrúte freónd, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 92, 34. v. preceding word.

þǽr-wiþ; adv. I. therewith :-- Hí sint þǽrwiþ gemengde, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 29. II. in return, in exchange :-- Drífaþ hider eówre orf and ic sylle eów þǽrwið mete adducite pecora vestra, et dabo vobis pro eis cibos, Gen. 47, 16.

þǽr-ymbe; adv. About that :-- Hig tó lyt þǽrymbe þenceaþ, Wulfst. 273, 1.

þǽr-ymbútan; adv. Thereabouts :-- Hé (the Roman name) com tó Parþum ... hé wæs ðǽrymbútan manegum folce swíþe egefull, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 13. On gehwylce healfe ðǽrymbútan circumquaque, Bd. 3, 17; S. 543, 26.

þæslǽcan; p. -lǽhte To agree, accord, fit :-- Þæslǽcan congruant, Wrt. Voc. ii. 133. 40. Þæslǽcende congruentes, convenientes, Hpt. Gl. 508, 5. v. ge-þæslǽcan.

þæs-líc; adj. I. suitable, seemly, becoming, fit, meet, congruous :-- Gehýþlíc, þæslíc vel gescrǽpe commodus, i. honestus, congruus, utilis, aptus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 131, 81. Ðæslíc (operae) pretium (v. operas pretium, congruum neádþearflíc, Hpt. Gl. 477, 38), Anglia xiii. 33, 163. Gif líf his on wyrþscype sí wel þæslíc si vita honore sit condigna, Scint. 125, 5. Swíde þæslíc anginn menniscre álýsednysse wæs ðæt se engel wearð ásend fram Gode tó ðam mǽdene, Homl. Th. i. 194, 27. Hit nis ná gedafenlíc ne þæslíc, ðæt ic ðe swá grimlíce forworht eom, ðæt ic ðíne anlícnysse sceáwige, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 434. Náht þæslíces deáðe nihil dignum morte, Lk. Skt. 23, 15. Forbærn mid fýre þæslícum (congruo), Hymn. Surt. 29, 25 : Hpt. Gl. 443, 15. Ðæt hí Godes þénunge mid þæslícere endebyrdnysse gefyldon, Homl. Th. i. 508, 29. Þurh þǽslíce deádbóte per dignam poenitentiam, Scint. 40, 2. Swá þæslíc folc and him swá gecwéme, Lchdm. iii. 434, 8. Ða gelimplícan, þæslíc congrua, i. convenientia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 133, 39. On þæslícum tíman competentibus horis, 132, 66. Þæslícum congruis, aptis, opportunis, Hpt. Gl. 437, 63. Hwæt mæg beón þæslícre what can be more fitting? L. E. I. 27; Th. ii. 424, 5. II. comely, fair, elegant :-- Mid þæslíce getingnysse elegante (pulchra) sententia ɫ peritia, Hpt. Gl. 528, 3. Ðá geseah ic týn geonge men genóh þæslíce on líchaman, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 370. III. accordant, in agreement, in harmony :-- Ða cýðnessa nǽron þæslíce .. . And hyra cýðnys næs þæslíc convenientia testimonia non erant . . . Et non erat conveniens testimonium illorum, Mk. Skt. 14, 56-59. v. ge-, unþæslíc, and next word.

þæslíce; adv. I. in that way, so :-- Þæslíce ita, Hpt. Gl. 417, 8. Hé ne dyde þæslíce ǽlcere þeóde non fecit taliter omni nationi, Ps. Lamb. 47, 20 : Blickl. Gl. Hié ðæt gewinn ðá þæslícost angunnan ðe hí hit ǽr ne angunnen they began the contest then just as if they had never begun it before; sic quasi ex integro nova bella nascuntur, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 150, 31. II. suitably, fitly, meetly :-- Se dǽdbóte þæslíce déþ se ðe gylt his bóte lahlícre beheófaþ ille poenitentiam digne agit, qui reatum suum satisfactione legitima plangit. Scint. 46, 1 : R. Ben. 70, 21. Hé hlód ða flówendan láre ðe hé eft þæslíce bealcette, Homl. Th. ii. 118, 22. Þæslícor dignius, Germ. 390, 33. v. un-þæslíce.

þæslícness, e; f. Fitness, meetness, agreement with what is right :-- Ða hláfordas hé manode ðæt hí milde wǽron heora ðeówum mannum mid þæslícnysse (v. Col. 4, 1 : Domini, quod justum est et aequum, servis praestate), Homl. Th. ii. 326, 27. v. un-þæslícness.

þǽsma, an; m. Leaven :-- Þǽsma godcundre rihtwísnesse fermentum divinae justitiae, R. Ben. 10, 18. [O. H. Ger. deismo fermentum : Du. deesem leaven.]

þæt; pron. v. se.

þæt; adv. After that, then :-- Ǽrest ymbe heora landgemǽra : andltang Temese, ðæt (ðonne in other MS., v. l. 8) up on Legean, L. A. G. 1; Th. i. 152, 18. Ǽrest on Ucingford ... þæt tó brocenan beorge; swá tó Wuduforda; þæt tó Luttes beorge; ... þæt ðurh ðone mór, Chart. Th. 186, 3-12. This use is very common in charters.

þæt; conj. That. I. introducing substantive clauses, (1) where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the nominative, and (a) stands as the subject of the verb in the main clause :-- Genóh byþ ðam leorningcnihte þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) hé sý swylce his láreów, Mt. Kmbl. 10. 25. On ðæs engles wordum wæs gehýred þæt þurh hire beorþor sceolde beón gehǽled wall wífa cynn, Blickl. Homl. 5, 23 : Andr. Kmbl. 181; An. 91. Hú mænige geár synt þæt ðú on ðysúm wéstene eardodest, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 513. (b) where þæt or hit stands as subject in the main clause :-- Hú hit beón mæg, þæt se Hálga Gást cumeþ ufan on ðé, Blickl. Homl. 7, 35. Þæt geweorþeþ on dómes dæge, þæt hé cymeþ tó démenne cwicum and deádum, 11, 3 : Andr. Kmbl. 1147; An. 574. Ðæt is gedafenlíc, ðæt ðú Dryhtnes word healde, Elen. Kmbl. 2334; El. 1168. Mid ðæm cræfte ðe ðá scondlícost wæs; þæt wæs, þæt hié from heora wícstówum under ðære eorþan dulfon, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 90, 29. Nis þæt feor heonon, þæt se mere standeþ, Beo. Th. 2729; B. 1362. Hit is for seofon and feówertigum wintrum, þæt ic of ðære hálgan byrig út fór, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 516. (c) where it further explains a noun in the main clause :-- Ðæs gástes wæstmas synd ða gódan ðeáwas, þæt se man lufige God ... and beó gesibsum, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 53. Wæs ðæt weátácen wíde gefrége, þæt hié ðæs cnihtes cwealm gesóhton, Andr. Kmbl. 2243; An. 1123. (2) where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the accusative, and (a) stands as object to the verb in the main clause :-- God geseah þæt hit gód wæs, Gen. 1, 4. Ic wát ðæt ðú eart gecýðed, Elen. Kmbl. 1627; El. 815. (b) where it is in apposition to þæt or hit standing as object in the main clause :-- Gif his sunu and ðæs sunsunu þæt begyten, þæt hé swá micle landes habbaþ, L. Wg. 11; Th. i. 188, 23. Wé leornedon æt him ðæt wé flugen . . . and eác ðæt, ðæt wé his ege ús ne ondréden, Past. 3; Swt. 33, 23, Ic þæt wát, þæt ús gescildeþ weoruda Dryhten, Andr. Kmbl. 867; An. 434. (c) where it further explains the object of the verb in the main clause :-- Helmstán ða undǽde gedyde, ðæt hé Æðerédes belt forstæl, Chart. Th. 169, 19 : Elen. Kmbl. 989; El. 496. Ǽlc man sylle ðone áð, ðæt hé nelle þeóf beón, L. C. S. 21; Th. i. 388, 7. Ic bebeóde wundor geweorðan, ðæt ðeós onlícnes eorðan séce, Andr. Kmbl. 1461; An. 731. (2 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted, and the clause taken with the accusative of the main clause is equivalent to the accusative and infinitive construction :-- Þeóf ðone ðe wé geáxian, þæt ful sý, L. Ath. v. 1; Th. i. 228, 13. Woruld-gerihta ic wille þæt standan on ǽlcum leódscipe, L. Edg. S. 2; Th. i. 272, 23. Se ðe mon gesihþ ðæt stronglíc weorc wyrcþ, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54, 29 : Homl. Th. i. 234, 3. Gif gé gesáwen hwelce mús þæt wǽre hláford ofer óþre mýs, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 52, 2. Ealle ða weód ðe hé geseó ðæt ðám æcerum derigen, 23; Fox 78, 23. Swá fela manna swá man wite þæt ungelygne sýn, L. Ath. iv. 1; Th. i. 222, 10. (3) where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the genitive or dative. (a) where in the main clause is a verb, verbal noun, or adjective taking after it such a case, and (a) where the substantive clause stands as object :-- Ǽnig ne wénde, ðæt hé lifgende land begéte, Andr. Kmbl. 755; An. 378. Saga þonc ðæt ic his módor gewearð, Exon. Th. 13, 30; Cri. 210. Is nú þearf micel þæt wé wísfæstra wordum hýran, Andr. Kmbl. 2335; An. 1169. Ic áhebbe míne hand . . . þæt is ne underfó ánne þwang I lift my hand (in testimony of this) that I will not take a thing, Gen. 14, 23. Ðonne hió geornast biþ þæt heó áfǽre fleógan, Ps. Th. 89, 10 : Elen. Kmbl. 536; El. 268. (a 1) where the subject is omitted :-- Ǽlc mynetere ðe man tíhþ þæt fals feoh slóge, L. Eth. iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 12. (b) where the main clause contains a case of a pronoun in apposition to the substantive clause :-- Ne ðurfon wé ðæs wénan, þæt ús wuldorcyning wille eard áléfan, Cd. Th. 272, 5; Sat. 115. Nánne mon ðæs ne tweóþ, ðæt se seó strong, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54, 28. Hié þæs ðone willan næfdon, þæt hié heora noman hié benǽmon, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 94, 7. Gif þæs geweorðe gesíðcundne mannan, þæt hé unrihthǽmed genime, L. Wih. 5; Th. i. 38, 4 : Andr. Kmbl. 615; An. 308. Ne magon wé þæs wrace gefremman, þæt he ús hafaþ ðæs leóhtes bescyrede, Cd. Th. 25, 16; Gen. 394. (c) where the clause explains the noun in the main clause :-- Wolde ic ánes tó ðé cræftes neósan, þæt ðú mé getǽhte hú . . ., Andr. Kmbl. 969; An. 485. Gé wiðsócon sóðe and rihte, ðæt in Bethleme bearn cenned wǽre, Elen. Kmbl. 781; El. 391. (β) where the clause is equivalent to a phrase, preposition and noun, with adjectival force, (a) defining the noun in the main clause :-- Hit wæs ðá se tíma, þæt wínberian rípodon now the time was the time of the first-ripe grapes (A. V.), Num. 13, 21. Nis seó þráh micel, þæt ðé wǽrlogan swencan móton the time of your affliction is not long, Andr. Kmbl. 215; An. 108. Nis seó stund latu, þæt ðé wælreówe wítum belecgaþ, 2423; An. 1213. Nú is se dæg cumen, þæt úre mandryhten mægenes behófaþ, Beo. Th. 5297; B. 2646 : Val. 1, 9. (b) in apposition to a pronoun in the main clause :-- Wæs seó hwíl þæs lang, þæt ic Gode þegnode the time of my serving God was long (or þæs = so?), Cd. Th. 37, 5; Gen. 585. II. introducing clauses expressing end or purpose, that, in order that :-- Sete ðíne hand ofer hí þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) heó hál sý ut salva sit, Mk. Skt. 5, 23. Ðǽr se bisceop oft wæs, þæt hé fullade ðæt folc, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 15. Se deófol genam ðæt wíf him tó gefylstan, þæt hé ðone hálgan wer ðurh hí geswice, Homl. Th. ii. 454, 1. Hí cómon him tó, þæt hí hine geneósodon, 7. II a. with a negative, that ... not, lest :-- Ic ne underfó ánne þwang, þæt ðú ne secge eft (ne dicas) : 'Ic gewelegode Abram,' Gen. 14, 23 : Lk. Skt. 8, 12. Waciaþ and gebiddaþ þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) gé on costnunge ne gán (ut non intretis), Mk. Skt. 14, 38. Hig ne eodon intó ðam dómerne, þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) hyg nǽron besmitene ut non contaminarentur, Jn. Skt. 18, 28. III. introducing clauses denoting result, manner, kind, degree, (1) where no demonstrative word in the main clause is antecedent to the subordinate clause, that, so that, so as (with infin.) :-- Hú mihtest ðú sittan on middum gemǽnum ríce, þæt ðú ne sceoldest ðæt ilce geþolian ðæt óðre men? Bt. 7, 3; Fox 22, 17 : Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 522. Asyrie hæfdon LX wintra and án hund and án þúsend, þæt hit ná búton gewinne næs, Ors. 1, 8; Swt. 42, 4. Nis nǽnigu gecynd, .... ðæt he ne sý fýres cynnes, Salm. Kmbl. 847; Sal. 423. Hé rád þæt hé wæs et Ceastre he rode so that he was at Worcester, Chart. Th. 71, 11 : Andr. Kmbl. 1576; An. 789 : 1474; An. 738. Man gecwǽman ne mæg twám hláfordum ætsomne, þæt hé ne forseó þone óðerne, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 220, 224. Þǽr is án mǽgð þæt hí magon cyle gewyrcan, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 21, 13. Tó ðám handum ðæt ðæt fel of gǽþ, Lchdm. iii. 114, 3. Hwylc man is þonne ǽfre, þæt hé wéne ... whatever man is there (of such a kind), that he can suppose ..., Wulfst. 214, 14 : Cd. Th. 227, 20; Dan. 189. Hyge wæs oncyrred, þæt hié ne murndon, Andr. Kmbl. 73; An. 37. Gif mon sié dumb oþþe deáf geboren, þæt hé ne mæge his synna andettan, L. Alf. pol. 14; Th. i. 70, 14. Æfter ðære gebysnunge wurdon árǽrede muneclíf mid ðære gehealdsumnysse, þæt hí drohtnian on clǽnnesse, Homl. Th. i. 318, 8. Gewunige hé fæstende, þæt hé wite þæt seó mæsse sý gesungen let him continue his fast so, that he may know the mass has been sung, L. E. I. 39; Th. ii. 438, 3. Gif ceorlisc man geþeó, þæt hé hæbbe .v. hída landes, L. Wg. 9; Th. i. 188, 5 : 10; Th. i. 188, 7. Ða Gotan læssan hwíle hergedan, þæt hié þurh Godes ege þæt hié náþer ne þa burg ne bærndon ne þæs þone willan næfdon .... Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 94, 5. (1 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted :-- Nemne him mon .v. men, and begite þara .v. .1., þæt him mid swerige, L. Ath. i. 9; Th. i. 204, 11. Hwylc is manna þæt feores neóte . . . oððe hwylc manna is þæt his ágene sáwle genérige, Ps. Th. 88, 41 : Elen. Kmbl. 750; El. 375 : Exon. Th. 273, 20; Jul. 519. (2) where the clause stands as relative to a preceding demonstrative word :-- Hé lǽrde hig swá þæt (ita ut) hig wundredon, Mt. Kmbl. 13, 54. Þæt wíte wæs tó þæs strang, ðæt ǽghwelc man sceolde mid sáre on þás world cuman, Blickl. Homl. 5, 28. Swelc wæs þeáw hira þæt hié ǽghwylcne ellþeódigra dydon him tó móse, Andr. Kmbl. 51; An. 26. Swá is þære menigo þeáw, þæt . . ., 355; An. 178. Ðýn mægen is swá mǽre, mihtig Drihten, swá þæt ǽnig ne wát eorðbúende þa deópnesse Drihtnes mihta, ne þæt ǽnig ne wát engla hádes þa heáhnisse heofena kyninges, Hy. 3, 31-35. Gif his sunu and his sunu sunu þæt geþeóþ, þæt hí swá micel landes habban, L. Wg. 11; Th. i. 188, 10. (2 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted :-- Nis nǽnig swá snotor, ne þæs swá gleáw, þæt ásecgan mæge, Cd. Th. 286, 12; Sat. 351. (See also se, V, swá.) IV. introducing clauses expressing cause, reason :-- Hwæt þence gé betwux eów, þæt (forðon, Lind. : forþon þæt, Rush.) gé hláfas nabbaþ why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread? Mt. Kmbl. 16, 8. Byþ ðé meorð, þæt ðú ús on láde líðe weorðe, Andr. Kmbl. 551; An. 276. V. where the main clause is not expressed, (1) in narrative :-- Ǽrþon ðe seó heánnes ðæs walles gefylled wǽre, þæt se cyning ofslegen wæs and þæt ylce geweorc Óswalde forlét (some form equivalent to it happened appears necessary before þæt, which word there is nothing in the Latin to suggest : Priusquam altitudo parietis esset consummata, rex ipse occisus opus idem Osualdo reliquit), Bd. 2, 14; S. 517, 31. Ðá æt nýhstan mid fultume his freónda þæt hé gelýfde, 3, 22; S. 552, 26 : 3, 24; S. 556, 21 : 4, 27; S. 604, 32 (cf. 3, 9; S. 533, 16-19 : 4, 3; S. 569, 1-3). And þæs embe áne niht ðæt wé Marian mæssan healdaþ, Menol. Fox 39; Men. 20 and often. Nó þæt ðín aldor wolde Godes goldfatu in gylp beran, Cd. Th. 262, 34; Dan. 754 : 288, 9; Sat. 378 : 304, 24; Sat. 634. (2) in the titles of chapters :-- Caput II. Ðæt se ǽrra Rómwara Cásere Breotene gesóhte, Bd. 1, 2; S. 475, 2 and often. (3) in exclamations :-- Wá þæt ðes tówyrpþ Godes templ, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 40. Eálá þæt nán wuht nis fæste stondendes weorces, Bt. 9; Fox 26, 21 : Met. 9, 55 : 18, 1. Eálá, mín Drihten, þæt ðú eart ælmihtig, 20, 1. Eálá, þæt ic eam ealles leás écan dreámes, Cd. Th. 275, 7; Sat. 168. VI. where the construction is elliptical :-- Þrý dagas tó láfe syndon þæt hié þé willaþ acwellan three days remain before the day comes on which they mean to kill you, Blickl. Homl. 237, 26. [O. Sax. that : O. Frs. thet : O. H. Ger. daz : Icel. at.] v. þætte; conj.

þætte ( = þæt þe; v. se, IV. 3); pron. I. as a relative, that, which :-- Ðæt ðú hyra frumcyn ícan wolde, þ̄te æfter him cenned wurde, Cd. Th. 236, 9; Dan. 318 : 245, 32; Dan. 472. Ðæt hé ne forleóse his dreámes blǽd and his dagena rím and his weorces wlite and wuldres leán, þætte heofones cyning syleþ tó sigorleánum, Exon. Th. 97, 11; Cri. 1589. Metod fét eall þ̄te gróweþ, Met. 29, 70. Ðætte tǽlwyrðes sié, ðæt hié ðæt tǽlen, Past. 28; Swt. 195, 24. Wíslíce gé dyde, þ̄te mannum bedígled wæs on eorðan þæt gé þæt on heofenas sóhtan, Blickl. HomI. 201, 1. II. combining antecedent and relative, that which, what :-- On hire wæs gefylled þ̄te on Cantica Canticorum wæs gesungen, Blickl. Homl. 11, 15. Dó á þætte duge, Exon. Th. 300, 10; Fá. 4. Wá ðæm ðe gemonigfealdaþ ðæte (dætte, Cott. MSS.) his ne biþ, Past. 44; Swt. 329, 18.

þætte ( = þæt þe; cf. eác wæs ðæt ðe beforan ðæm temple stód ceác, Past. 16; Swt. 105, 1, and : Ðá wæs þ̄te scyttelas wurdan tóbrocene, Blickl. Homl. 87, 5. Þætte is used in the same way as þæt, q. v.); conj. That. I. introducing substantive clauses. (1) where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the nominative, and (a) stands as the subject of the verb in the main clause :-- Cúþ is þ̄te Drihten fæstte, Blickl. Homl. 27, 23 : 87, 5. Wearð undyrne cúð, gyddum geómore, þætte Grendel wan wið Hróðgár, Beo. Th. 305; B. 151. (a 1) where the subject of the substantive clause is omitted :-- Nis eów forboden, þ̄te ǽhta habban, gif gé ða on riht strénaþ, Blickl. Homl. 53, 27. (b) where þæt or hit stands as subject in the main clause :-- Hit is áwriten ðætte Dauid, ðá hé ðone læppan forcorfedne hæfde, ðæt hé slóge on his heortan, Past. 28; Swt. 198, 16. Is þæt þeódnes gebod, þ̄te . . ., Exon. Th. 202, 13; Ph. 69. Ðæt gelimpan sceal, þætte lagu flóweþ, 445, 2; Dom. 1. Þæt gesýne wearð, þætte wrecend lifde, Beo. Th. 2517; B. 1256. (c) where it further explains a noun in the main clause :-- Ne biþ swylc cwénlíc þeáw . . ., þætte freoðuwebbe feores onsæce leófne mannan, Beo. Th. 3888; B. 1942. Treów wæs gecýþed, þætte Gúðláce God leánode, Exon. Th. 129, 12; Gú. 420 : Cd. Th. 223, 3; Dan. 114. (2) where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the accusative, and (a) stands as object to the verb in the main clause :-- Hér sagaþ se godspellere, þ̄te Hǽlend wǽre lǽded on wésten, Blickl. Homl. 27, 3 : 41, 34. Hæbbe ic gefrugnen, þ̄te is feor heonan æþelast londa, Exon. Th. 197, 19; Ph. 1. (b) where it is in apposition to þæt or hit standing as object in the main clause :-- Hí þæt ne gelýfdon, þ̄te líffruma áhafen wurde, Exon. Th. 41, 16; Cri. 656. (c) where it further explains the object of the verb in the main clause :-- Bodan sægdon sóðne gefeán, þætte sunu wǽre Meotudes ácenned, Exon. Th. 28, 24; Cri. 451. Men geségon þeódwuodor micel, þ̄te eorðe ágeaf ða hyre on lǽgun, 71, 15; Cri. 1156. (3) where the clause is equivalent to a noun in genitive or dative :-- Gode ælmiehtigum sí ðonc, ðætte wé nú ǽnigne onstál habbaþ láreówa, Past. pref.; Swt. 4, 1. Se ðæs onsóce, þ̄te sóð wǽre mǽre mihta waldend, Cd. Th. 244, 21; Dan. 451. II. introducing clauses expressing end or purpose, that, in order that :-- Beforan ðam temple stód ǽren ceác, ðætte menn meahten hira honda ðweán, Past. 16; Past. 105, 1. Sprec tó ðínum discipulum, þ̄te sý geblissad heora heorte, and hié sýn ofergytende ðisse sǽwe ege, Blickl. Homl. 233, 36. III. introducing clauses expressing result, manner, kind, degree. (i) where no demonstrative word is antecedent to the subordinate clause, that, so that :-- Hí wénaþ þ̄ hí mægen eall ðás gód gegaderian tógædere, þætte nán búton ðære gesomnunga ne sié, Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 3. Daniel sægde him wíslíce wereda gesceafte, þ̄te sóna ongeat cyning ord and ende ðæs ðe him ýwed wæs, Cd. Th. 225, 28; Dan. 161. Woldon hié feorhleán fácne gyldan þ̄te hé þ̄ dægweorc dreóre gebohte so that he should pay for that deed with blood, 187, 14; Exod. 151. (1 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted :-- Nis ǽnig man þætte swá bereáfod sié, Met. 22, 49. Nǽnig manna is þætte áreccan mæg, Andr. Kmbl. 1091; An. 546 : Cd. Th. 210, 2; Exod. 509. (2) where there is a demonstrative form as antecedent :-- Hé beóþ swá geþwǽra, þætte nó þ̄ án þ̄ hí magon geféran beón, ac ðý furþor þ̄ heora nán búton óþrum beón ne mæg, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 17. Ðǽr wæs swíþe swéte stenc swá þ̄te ealle ða slépan ðe ðǽr wǽron, Blickl. Homl. 145, 29. Ðínne líchoman hié tóstenceaþ swá þ̄te ðín blód fléwþ ofer eorðan swá swá wæter, 237, 6. (2 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted :-- þ̄ nis nán man, þ̄te sumes eácan ne þurfe, Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 6. IV. where the main clause is not expressed :-- Ðonne hí niðer ástígaþ tó áðweánne hiera niéhstena scylda, hié beóþ onlícost suelce hí beren ðone ceák . . ., ðætte (the case is such, that) suá hwelc suá inweard higige tó gangenne on ða dura ðæs écean lífes, hé ondette ǽlce costunge, Past. 16; Swt. 105, 14. Æfter ðæm ðe Rómeburg getimbred wæs twá hunde wintra and IIIIX, þætte (it came to pass, that) Cambisis féng tó Persa ríce, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 78, 2 : 4, 1; Swt. 154, 2. And ðæs embe fíf niht ðætte fulwiht tiid éces Drihtnes tó ús cymeþ, Menol. Fox 22; Men. 11, and often. Eálá þ̄te ðis moncyn wǽre gesǽlig, gif heora mód wǽre riht, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 40. Ðætte oft ðæs láreówdómes ðénung biþ swíðe untǽlwyrðlíce gewilnad, Past. 7, arg.; Swt. 47, 20, and often.

-þafa. v. ge-þafa.

þafet[t]ere, es; m. One who agrees or consents, one who is remiss in allowing :-- Ðý læs se ðafetere, se ðe wile forgiefan ðæt hé wrecan sceolde, tó écum wítum geteó his hiéremenn ne rector remittendo quod ferire debuit ad aeterna supplicia subditos pertrahat, Past. 20; Swt. 149, 21. Ðæt hé swá stiére ðǽm ungeðyldegum irsunga, swá hé ðone hnescan ðafettere on recceléste ne gebrenge sic ab impatientibus extinguatur ira, ut tamen remissis ac lenibus non crescat negligentia, 60; Swt. 453, 25.

þafian; p. ode. I. to consent to, agree with, approve of, assent to, allow, permit. (a) with accusative :-- Ic Beágmund ðis ðeafie and wríte, Chart. Th. 472, 22, 24, 28, 19, and often. Swá hwylc swá morþorslege þafaþ and hine man ðonne fremmeþ quicunque ad homicidium consenserit, et id postea factum fuerit, L. Ecg. C. 22; Th. ii. 148, 14. Heó hine monede ðæt hé weoruldhád forlǽte and munucháde onnfénge. Ond hé ðæt well ðafode he readily consented to it, Bd. 4. 24; S. 598, 3. Ðé sint tú gearu swá líf swá deáð, swá ðé leófre biþ tó geceósanne; cýð hwæt ðú ðæs tó þinge þafian wille say which alternative you mean to accept, Elen. Kmbl. 1213; El. 608. Nǽfre ic ðæs þeódnes þafian wille mǽgrǽdenne I will never consent to marriage with the prince, Exod. Th. 249, 8; Jul. 108. (b) with dative :-- Gé þafiaþ eówer fædera weorcum consentitis operibus patrum uestrorum, Lk. Skt. 11, 48. Ðafande woeron feh him tó seallanne pacti sunt pecuniam illi dare, Lind. 22, 5. (c) with a clause :-- Gif hé þafaþ ðæt hé út gá of minstre si consenserit, ut egrediatur de monasterio, R. Ben. Interl. 98, 17. Þafodest ðú ðæt mé þeówmennen drehte, Cd. Th. 135, 21; Gen. 2246. Þafa ðæt ic út ádó ðæt mot of ðínum eágan sine eiciam festucam de oculo tuo, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 4. Ða eorlas þafigan ne woldon ðæt hié forléton leófne láreów, Andr. Kmbl. 804; An. 402. II. to submit to, bear, suffer, endure :-- Ðé þincþ se earmra se ðæt yfel déþ ðonne se ðe hit þafaþ miserior tibi injuriae illator, quam acceptor esse videretur, Bt. 38, 6; Fox 208, 19. Sum gewealden-mód þafaþ in geþylde ðæt hé sceal, Exon. Th. 297, 20; Crä. 77. Eal ðæt hé for ús þafode and ðolode, Wulfst. 23, 22. Ða eádigan martyras mænigfealde earfoðnyssa ðafedon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 12, 89. Se þeódcyning ðafian sceolde Eofores ánne dóm, Beo. Th. 5919; B. 2963. Þafigan, Cd. Th. 227, 22; Dan, 190. Ic sceal þinga gehwylc þolian and þafian on ðínne dóm I must suffer and submit to everything, as you decide, Exon. Th. 270, 6; Jul. 466. Hié derede ǽgðer ge þurst ge hǽte, and ealne ðone dæg wǽron ðæt þafiende, Ors. 5, 7; Swt. 230, I7. III. to bear with, tolerate :-- Hé ilde and ðafode ða scylda and ðeáh hé him gecýðde et dissimulavit culpas, et innotuit, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 22. [Non me demergat tempestas louerd ne þaue þu þat storm me duue, O. E. Homl. ii. 43, 15. ʒef ha ne letteð me nawt, ah þauieð ant þolieð, Marh. 15, 19. Ne mahe ʒe nawt do me, bute þet he wule þeauien and þolien ow to donne, Jul. 19, 9. Þatt Godd ne þole nohht ne þafe laþe gastess to winnenn oferrhannd off uss, Orm. 5457. Euerilc husfolc ðe mai it ðauen on ger sep oðer on kide hauen, Gen. and Ex. 3139. Was neuere non þat mouhte þaue Hise dintes, noyþer knith ne knaue, Havel. 2696.] v. geþafian.

þafung, e; f. Consent, permission :-- Be bisceopes pafunge cum consensu episcopi, L. Ecg. C. 26; Th. ii. 152, 3. Be his þafunge permissionem suam, R. Ben. Interl. 77, 6. Ðú wéndest ðæt seó weord ðás woruld wende búton Godes geþeahte and his þafunge, Bt. 5, 1; Fox 8, 32. Ne mæg se deófol mannum derian bútan Godes ðafunge, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 196. Þet weas mid Earnulfes þafunge (geþafunge, MS. A.), Chr. 887; Erl. 87. 3. [Vlesches fondunge goð to uorð upe me þurch min þafunge, A. R. 344, note.] v. ge-þafung.

þage, þáh though. v. þæge, þeáh.

þametaþ? :-- Flódas hafettaþ (þametaþ, MS. M.) handum flumina plaudent manu, Ps. Spl. 97, 8.

þan, þon; adv. I. then, from that time, after that :-- Wæs wyrd ungemete neáh ... nó þon lange wæs feorh æþelinges flǽsce bewunden, Beo. Th. 4838; B. 2423. [Goth. þan : O. Sax. O. Frs. O. L. Ger. þan.] II. so, as :-- Wiþ ðæs ic wát ðú wilt higian þon ǽr þe ðú hine ongitest towards it I know thou wilt hasten as soon as thou perceivest it, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 34, 8. [Cf. O. Sax. than lango the hé mósta is juguði neotan, Hél. 3498.] III. with comparatives, in negative sentences. (a) with adjectives, (α) followed by ðonne or ðe, any :-- Gif hió bearn gestriéne, næbbe ðæt ðæs ierfes þon (þe, MS. H.) máre þe sió módor if she have a child, it shall not have any more of the property than the mother, L. Alf. pol. 8; Th. i. 66, 20. On óðrum ærne ðæt næbbe þon má dura ðonne sió cirice, 5; Th. i. 64, 15. Ne eart ðú þon leófre, ðonne se swearta hrefn thou art not any more dear, than the black raven, Exon. Th. 370, 4; Seel. 52. Nǽfre hlísan áh meotud þan máran þonne hé wið monna bearn wyrceþ weldǽdum, 191, 10; Az. 86. Hé ne úþe ðæt ǽnig óþer man ǽfre mǽrða þon má gehédde, ðonne hé sylfa, Beo. Th. 1012; B. 504. (α 1) where þon is preceded by wihte, any at all :-- Ne mót hé ðara hyrsta lǽdan of ðisse worulde wuhte þon máre ðonne hé hider bróhte (cf. ne lǽt hé his nánwuht of ðís middanearde mid him máre ðonne hé bróhte hider, Bt. 26, 3; Fox 94, 15-17), Met. 14, 10. (β) where the comparative takes the dative after it :-- Hé ðám ðe on sceare máran wǽron on ðám mægnum eáþmódnesse and hýrsumnesse nóhte ðon læssa wæs in respect to the virtues of humility and obedience he was not any less than those who were greater in the matter of the tonsure, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 18. (γ) where neither particle nor case follows the comparative :-- Næs ðá wordlatu wihte þon máre þæt se stán tógán then was there not any more delay at all in obeying the command, so that the stone split open, Andr. Kmbl. 3043; An. 1524. Náhte ic ðínre nǽfre miltse þon máran þearfe never had I any greater need of thy mercy (than I now have), Judth. Thw. 22, 35; Jud. 92. (b) with adverbs, (α) followed by ðe :-- Hé nát hwæt him tóweard biþ, þon má þe ðú wistest he knows not what will happen to him any more than thou knowest, Bt. 11, 1; Fox 32, 14. Wé his ne gefrédaþ, þon má ðe mon his feax mæg gefrédan bútan his felle, Past. 18; Swt. 139, 20. Him ðæt nó ne derede, ðon má ðe ceald wæter, Shrn. 83, 17 : Exon. Th. 364, 33; Wal. 80. (β) without ðe :-- Ic ða word gehýrde and nóht ðon ǽr ðære ærninge blon ego audiens, nihilominus coeptis institi vetitis, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 15. Hé georne wiðsóc Iósepes húse ne þon ǽr geceás Effremes cynn he utterly refused the house of Joseph, nor any more readily did he choose the race of Ephraim, Ps. Th. 77, 67. Ǽfre ic ne hýrde þon cymlícor ceól gehladenne I have not ever heard of a vessel any more fairly laden, Andr. Kmbl. 721; An. 361. Ðá ne wolde se pápa ðæt geþafigean ne ða burhware ðon má etsi pontifex concedere voluit, non tamen cives Romani potuere permittere, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 33. Ne bewerede Penda ðon má gif hwylce men woldan Godes word lǽron ðæt hí ne móstan nec prohibuit Penda, quin etiam verbum, si qui vellent audire, praedicaretur, 3, 21; S. 551, 23. Ne ðon má se ðe gehát gehǽt, ne wéne hé ðæt hé sié á ðý neár hefonríce, gif hé hine from went ðæm gehátum nor any more let him that vows a vow suppose that he be ever the nearer heaven, if he turns from those vows, Past. 51; Swt. 403, 2. Ne biþ sond þon má wið micelne rén húses hirde nor any more is the sand a guard for a house against much rain, Met. 7, 20 : 8, 23 : 11, 69. Bútan ðú úsic þon ófostlícor hreddan wille if you do not save us any quicker, Exon. Th. 17, 18; Cri. 272. (β 1) where áwiht or wuhte precedes þon, any at all :-- Ðǽr nǽnegu biþ niht on sumera, ne wuhte þon má on wintra dæg tóteled tídum, Met. 16, 14 : 20, 108. Áwiht þon má, Ps. Th. 63, 7. [O. Sax. ni . . . than mér the not ... any more than. Cf. Goth. ni ... þana mais : O. H. Ger. dana mér.]

þán; adj. Moist :-- Þa þánan madentia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 93, 71 : 57, 12. [Thone, thoney = damp, is found as a word of E. Norfolk and of some Midland counties in Marshall's Rural Economy (1795-6), and in Ray's North-country words (1691); v. E. D. S. Pub. Reprinted Glossaries, B. 3, 5, 15.] v. þánian, þǽnan.

þanan, þonan (-on, -un, -en); adv. I. with demonstrative force, thence :-- Þanan illic (-inc?), Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 55. Ðonan illinc, 44, 54. (1) marking the point from which motion takes place :-- Hé þanon (þonan, Rush.: þona, Lind. inde) eode, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 21. Þanon h-e com on Iudéisce endas inde exsurgens uenit in fines Iudaeae, Mk. Skt. 10, 1. Hé wand up þanon, Cd. Th. 29, 7; Gen. 446. Hé fór þanun (þanon, MS. A.: ðonan, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 11, 1. Þanun (-en, MS. A.), 12, 9. Monige þonan gewitan, Bd. 4, 25; S. 601, 34. Þonan, Exon. Th. 235, 9; Ph. 554. Hé ða hálgan sáuwla þonon álǽdde, Blickl. Homl. 67, 19. Hát mín blód þonon ádrýgan, 183, 27. (1 a) followed by a relative particle, the two words together having force of relative :-- Þider cuman, þonan þe hit ǽr com, Bt. 25; Fox 88, 31. On ða rícu, þonon þe hé ǽr sended wæs, Blickl. Haml. 9, 25. Ðý læs hé áfealle ðonon ðe hé fæsðlícost tó hopian scolde, Past. 51; Swt. 395, 11. (2) marking the point from or in regard to which direction or position is estimated :-- Ðanon ðe hé blǽwþ him byþ nama gesett from the quarter that the wind blows is a name made for it, Lchdm. iii. 274, 11. Ðæt flód ys þanon tódǽled on feówer eán from that point the stream runs in four separate channels, Gen. 2, 10. Ðá hé on botme stód, ðá him þúhte ðæt þanon wǽre tó helle duru hund þúsenda míla gemearcodes, Cd. Th. 310, 7; Sat. 722. Hé ðær rom geseah unfeor þanon standan, 177, 9; Gen. 2927 : Beo. Th. 3615; B. 1805. God wæs mín on ða swíðran, ðanon ic ne wende ǽfre tó aldre onsión míne, Elen. Kmbl. 696; El. 348. Hé sǽde ðæt ðæt land sié swíþe lang norþ þonan he said that from that point the country stretches very far to the north, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 4. Seó burh is west þonon from ðære stówe on ánre míle, Blickl. Homl. 129, 3. (3) marking the place from which an action or operation proceeds :-- Nalles þanon (from hell) gehéran in heofonum háligne dreám, Cd. Th. 284, 26; Sat. 327. Gesæt him be healfe . . ., þanon básnode hwæt him gúðweorca gifeðe wearð, Andr. Kmbl. 2131; An. 1067. Hié ealle on yppan wunedon, þonen bídende ðæs Hálgan Gástes, Blickl. Homl. 133, 26. God wunaþ on ðære ceastre his ánfealdnesse; ðonan hé ðǽlþ manega gemetgunga eallum his gesceaftum, and þonon (-an, Cott. MS.) hé welt ealra, Bt. 39, 5; Fox 218, 18-21. Þonan án cyning rícsaþ . . ., ealra gesceafta waldeþ (cf. þǽr rícsaþ án cyning, se hæfþ anweald eallra óþra cyninga heic regum sceptrum dominus tenet, Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 17), Met. 24, 31. (4) marking source, origin :-- Mænige gefóþ hwælas and micelne sceat þanon (inde) begytaþ, Coll. Monast. Th. 25, 3. Þanon wóc fela geósceaftgásta, Beo. Th. 2535; B. 1265. Þonon Eómer wóc, 3925; B. 1960. Ðære wrǽnnesse wódþrág ... gedrǽfþ sefan ingehygd : þonan mǽst cymeþ unnetta saca, Met. 25, 43. (5) marking cause, reason :-- Ne gehýrdest ðú Drihten cweþende, for þon þe ic eów sende swá swá sceáp on middurn wulfum? Þanon wæs geworden . . . ic bæd úrne Drihten ðæt hé hine æteówde, and hraþe hé mé hine æteówde, and hé mé tó cwæð . . . 'Ic sende tó ðé Andreas,' Blickl. Homl. 237, 30, Þonne God gangeþ for his folc ... þanon eorðe byþ onhréred, Ps. Th. 67, 8. (6) temporal, from that time, after that :-- Ðæt hé unæþele á forð þanan wyrð, Met. 17, 28. Hé forlǽt his æþelo, and ðonan wyrþ anæþelad óþ ðæt hé wyrþ unæþele, Bt. 30, 2; Fox 110, 22. Þanon forþ exhinc, Anglia xiii. 393, 404 : de cetero, 439, 1059. Ðanon forþ exinde, 444, 1130. Hé ða gefeán ðæs heofonlíces éðles þanon forð geseón ne mihte, Wulfst. 1, 6. Siððan ongon Cain ceastre timbran ... Þanon his eaforan ǽrest wócan bearn from brýde on ðam burhstede. Se yldesta wæs Iared háten afterwards did Cain build a city ... Not till after that were children born to his son (Enoch) in that town. The eldest was Irad (v. Gen. 4, 17, 18), Cd. Th. 65, 4; Gen. 1061 : 210, 14; Exod. 515. II. with relative force, whence, (1) referring to the point from which motion takes place :-- Ic gecyrre on mín hús þanon (unde) ic út eode, Mt. Kmbl. 12, 44. Cunnaþ fýr eft tó his éðle, ðanon hit ǽror cwom, Salm. Kmbl. 834; Sal. 416. Hé gewát on Hibernia, ðonan hé ǽr com, Bd. 4, 25; S. 600, 13. Þonan, Exon. Th. 17, 12; Cri. 269. He tó ðæm fæderlícan setle eode, þonon hé nǽfre onweg ne gewát, Blickl. Homl. 117, 1. (2) referring to the point from or in regard to which direction or position is estimated :-- On heofonas, þonon hé nǽfre won wæs, Blickl. Homl. 131, 17 : 91, 5. (3) referring to the place from which an action or operation proceeds :-- Hé hine sylfne hefeþ on heánne beám, þonan ýþast mæg síð bihealdan, Exon. Th. 205, 15 : Ph. 113. (4) referring to source or origin :-- Ðæt sum gestreón mé ic begyte þanon ic mé áféde ut aliquod lucrum mihi adquiram, unde me pascam, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 21. (5) referring to cause or reason :-- Hé má gewunode on his smiþþan sittan, ðonne hé wolde on cyricean singan. Ðonon him gelamp ðæt sume men gewuniaþ cweþan magis in officina sua residere, quam ad psallendum in ecclesia concurrere consuerat. Unde accidit illi, quod solent dicere quidam, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 18. III. in correlative combinations :-- Ðæt mé þincþ wiþerweard þing . . . ðætte þonan ðe hí teohhiaþ ðæt hí scylan eádigran weorþan, ðæt hí weorþaþ ðonan earmran, Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92, 24-27. Ðonon ðe hí útan bióþ áhæfene, ðanon hié bióþ innan áfeallene, Past. 50; Swt. 391, 12. [O. Sax. thanan : O. Frs. thana : O. H. Ger. danán inde, illinc.] v. next word, and þe, II. 1.

þanane; adv. I. thence. (1) local :-- Ne gǽst ðú þanone (-ene, MS. A.: þonan, Rush.) non exies inde, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 26: Lk. Skt. 12, 59. Ðá gewát ic þanone, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 422. Ðanonne, Judth. Thw. 23, 21; Jud. 132. (2) temporal, after that :-- Rursum, dein vel þonane, Wrt. Voc. ii. 139, 63. (3) causal :-- Ðonne mon lǽt tóslúpan ðone ege ..., ðonne wierþ gehnescad ðonone sió ðreáung ðæs anwaldes, Past. 40; Swt. 289, 3. II. whence :-- Wígheard tó Róme wæs onsended, ðonone hí hider onsendon gewritu, Bd. 3, 29; S. 561, 3. [O. L. Ger. thanana: O. H. Ger. danana.] v. preceding word.

þanan-forþ. v. þanan, I. 6.

þanan-weard; adj. Moving thence :-- Bebeád hé him, ðæt hé geara wiste, ðæt hé hine nǽfre underbæc ne besáwe, siþþan hé þononweard wǽre lex dona coerceat, ne dum Tartara liquerit, fas sit lumina flectere, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 170, 9. [Cf. þeone Godd warp hire (pride) sone se ha iboren wes; & as ha nuste hwuch wei ha come þeneward, ne con ha neauer mare ifinden na wei a&yogh;ainward, H. M. 43, 8.]

þanc, es; m. I. thought :-- On ðeóstrum ne mæg þances gehygdum ǽnig wíslícu wundur oncnáwan, Ps. Th. 87, 11. Þances gleáw þegn, Andr. Kmbl. 1113; An. 557. Þonces gleáw, Exon. 207, 19; Ph. 144. Þurh gemynda spéd, móde and dǽdum, worde and gewitte, wíse þance, Cd. Th. 118, 1; Gen. 1958. Ge þanc ge þeáwas, word and weorc georne gerihtan, L. P. M. 3; Th. ii. 288, 16. Drihten, úre mód gebíg, þanc and þeáwas on ðín gewil, Hy. 7, 78. [Þu þi þanc (þoht, and MS.) al forhele, Laym. 4360. He put a swuc þonc in hire heorte, A. R. 222, 25.] II. kindly thought, favour, grace :-- Oft hé þearfendra béne þance (graciously) gehýrde, Ps. Th. 101, 15. Ðis is landa betst, ðæt wit þurh uncres hearran þanc habban móston (cf. hie thuru thes késures thank ríki habda, Hél. 66), Cd. Th. 49, 22; Gen. 796. III. agreeableness, pleasure, satisfaction; in phrases, (a) æfter þance according to what is agreeable, agreeably, pleasantly :-- Hé his líchoman forwyrnde woruldblissa . . . Him wæs Godes egsa mára in gemyndum ðonne hé menniscum þrymme æfter þonce þegan wolde he refused his body worldly delights ... There was too much fear of God in his mind for him to partake of human glory, following the dictates of pleasure, Exon. Th. 112, 7; Gú. 140. (b) on þanc, tó þances, tó þance to the satisfaction of a person, so as to please, cf. O. Frs. tó thanke : Icel. til þakka eins, i þökk við einn to one's liking : Ger. zu Danke :-- Hié nánwuht gódes ne magon Gode bringan tó ðances nullum boni operis Deo sacrificium immolant, Past. 46; Swt. 349, 8. Ðú hæfst tó þance geþénod ðínum hearan, hæfst ðé wið Drihten dýrne geworhtne (cf. habda ira Drohtine gethionód te thanka, Hél. 506), Cd. Th. 32, 20; Gen. 506 : Beo. Th. 763; B. 379. Se bisceop ðæs getíðode on ealra ðæra witena þanc the bishop granted it to the satisfaction of all the witan, Chart. Th. 303, 2. Cúð dyde Nergend ðæt Noe ðæt gyld on þanc ágifen hæfde (the sacrifice had been well pleasing), Cd. Th. 91, 2; Gen. 1506. Him wíf sunu on þanc gebær to his delight his wife bore him a son, 167, 31; Gen. 2774. Ic ðé on hleóðre hearpan gecwéme . . . Ic ðé on þanc móte sealmas singan, Ps. Th. 107, 3 : Andr. Kmbl. 3242; An. 1624. On þonc, Exon. Th. 402, 7; Rä. 21, 26. Hé of stánclife burnan leódum lǽdde on leófne þanc, Ps. Th. 135, 17. (c) on þance pleasing, agreeable, grateful, cf. thín thionost is im an thanke, Hél. 118 : O. H. Ger. in thanke, danche gratus :-- On ðonce mé syndon ðíne word and ðín lufu gratias ago benevolentiae tuae, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 23. Mé is ðín cyme on myclum ðonce gratus mihi est multum adventus tuus, 4, 9; S. 577, 21 : Exon. Th. 387, 22; Rä. 5, 9. Ðonne wǽron ǽgþer góde, ge ða ǽrran ge ðás æfterran, and nǽron náðere an þance quid aliud colligi datur, nisi semper bona esse, sed ingrata? Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 86, 10. Nǽnegum þúhte dæg on þonce gif sió dimme niht ǽr egesan ne bróhte (cf. þancwyrþre biþ ðæs dæges leóht for ðære egeslícan þióstro ðære nihte, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 28), Met. 12, 16. IV. thanks :-- Gode ælmiehtegum sí ðonc, ðætte . . ., Past. pref.; Swt. 2, 18. Him ðæs þanc sié, Cd. Th. 68, 13; Gen. 1116 : Hy. 7, 58 : Andr. Kmbl. 2900; An. 1453. Ðisse ansýne Alwealdan þanc gelimpe, Beo. Th. 1861; B. 928. Swǽ gelǽrede biscepas, swǽ suǽ nú Gode ðonc wel hwǽr siendon, Past, prep.; Swt. 9, 4 : 1; Swt. 27, 3 : Andr. Kmbl. 2302; An. 1152. Ða gesceafta nǽron nánes ðonces ne nánes weorþscipes weorþe, gif hí heora unwillum hláforde hérden, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 160, 20. Hié ða lác þégon tó þance (thankfully, gratefully), Andr. Kmbl. 2225; An. 1114. Hé him dǽda leán gieldeþ, ðám ðe his giefe willaþ þicgan tó þonce, Exon. Th. 109, 26; Gú. 96. Hié on þanc curon æðelinges ést they accepted Lot's kindness with thanks, Cd. Th. 147, 20; Gen. 2442. Þanc ágan, habban to have thanks, be thanked for something (gen., prep., or clause) :-- Ðæs áge þrynesse þrym þonc, Exon. Th. 37, 27; Cri. 599. Hafa árna þanc, Cd. Th. 147, 6; Gen. 2435. Hæfþ se þeówa ǽnigne þanc, forþam ðe hé dyde ðæt him beboden wæs, Lk. Skt. 17, 9. Þonc hafa, Iofes, ðæt ic ða móste oferwinnan, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 156, 27. Þanc cunnan, witan [cf. He cuðe him ðerof wel gret ðhanc, Gen. and Ex. 1659. Sche ... can hem therfore as moche thank as me, Chauc. Kn. T. 950] to feel grateful, be thankful for something (gen.) :-- Ðám ðe þonc Gode wíta ne cúþun, ðæs ðe hé on ðone hálgan beám áhongen wæs to those who felt no gratitude to God for his sufferings, for his being hung on the cross, Exon. Th. 67, 22; Cri. 1092 : 74, 29; Cri. 1213. Ðú Waldende ðínre álýsnesse þonc ne wisses, 90, 5; Cri. 1474 : 85, 5; Cri. 1386. Ðú ðæs ealles ǽnigne þonc ðínum nergende nysses on móde, 91, 29; Cri. 1498. God nele, ðæt him man his gifena þanc nyte, Wulfst. 261, 17. Þancas, þanc dón to give thanks; gratias agere : þanca dǽd gratiarum actio, Scint. 50, 5 :-- Hé Gode þancas dyde gratias agens, Mk. Skt. 14, 23 : Lk. Skt. 22, 17. Ðé ic þances dó, forðam ðe ic ne eom swylce óðre men, 18, 11 : Jn. Skt. 11, 41 : Scint. 50, 2, 3. Þanc ic dó, ðú góda hyrde, forðon ðás sceáp mé efenþrowiaþ, Blickl. Homl. 191, 24. Þanc gegildan [cf. Me him ne yeldeþ þonkes of his guodes, Ayenb. 18, 6] to pay thanks, give from a feeling of gratitude, to reward a service :-- Him God wolde æfter þrowinga þonc gegyldan, ðæt hé martyrhád gelufade, sealde him snyttra, Exon. Th. 130, 23; Gú. 442. Þanc, þancas secgan [cf. To zigge grat þank, Ayenb. 18, 17] to express thanks for something (gen., prep. clause), give thanks :-- Hé Gode his góda ðanc sægde (gratias agebat), Bd. 3, 12; S. 537. 26 : Cd. Th. 16, 4; Gen. 238 : Andr, Kmbl. 2937; An. 1471 : Blickl. Homl. 103, 25 : 217, 34. Ne sæcgaþ ús nénne þanc, Homl. Skt. i. 3, 332. Saga écne þonc, ðæt ic his módor gewearþ, Exon. Th. 13, 28; Cri. 209. Wé sculon simle secgan Gode ðoncas for eów, Past. 32; Swt. 213, 10. ¶ Þances, genitive, used alone or in combination with noun or pronoun, and having adverbial force (cf. O. L. Ger. thankis gratis : O. H. Ger. danches sponte, ultro, gratis). (1) thanks to a person on whom a result depends, by (one's) grace, favour :-- Ðæt næs ná eówres þances ac þurh God it was not thanks to you but by God's will; non vestro consilio sed Dei voluntate, Gen. 45, 8. Sege mé hwæþer se ðín wela ðínes þances swá deóre seó ðe for his ágenre gecynde tell me whether that wealth of thine is so precious thanks to thee or from its own nature, Bt. 13; Fox 38, 6. Hié rícsedon næs ðeáh mínes ðonces ipsi regnaverunt, et non ex me, Past. 1; Swt. 27, 14. Godes þonces by God's grace, Chr. 897; Erl. 94, 29 : 883; Erl. 83, 18. (2) where there is voluntary or unforced action, of (one's own) accord, with (a person's) consent, willingly, voluntarily :-- Hé him hiera ðonces gestiéran ne meahte he could not restrain himself from them (his vices) of his own accord, Past. 3; Swt. 35, 18. Gewilde man hí tó rihte þances oþþe unþances let them be compelled to right whether they will or no, L. Eth. ix. 40; Th. i; 348, 28. Hé nam sume mid him, sume þances, sume unþances he took some of them with him, some willingly, others against their will, Chr. 1066; Erl. 198, 36. Ðá þancodon hý ðyses Gode and mé swýþe georne, and heom eall ðis swýþe wel lícode, and cwǽdon ðæt heora þances ðis on écnesse stande they said that they approve of the arrangement remaining in perpetuity, Chart. Th. 117, 7. Ágenes þances sponte, Germ. 395, 64 : L. C. S. 75; Th. i. 416, 22. Gif hwá þeóf geméte and hine his þances áweg lǽte búton hreáme if any one come upon a thief and of his own accord let him get away without hue and cry, 29; Th. i. 392, 14. Hwæþer ðe ðú hý forseó and ðínes ágenes þonces hí forléte búton sáre ðe ðú gebíde hwonne hí ðé sorgiendne forlétan whether thou despise them and of thine own accord abandon them without a pang, or wait till the time comes when they abandon thee sorrowing, Bt. 8; Fox 26, 12 : 7, 2; Fox 18, 13. Ðonne sió sául hire unðonces gebǽdd wierð ðæt yfel tó forlǽtanne ðæt hió ǽr hire ágnes ðonces gedyde, Past. 36; Swt. 251, 14. [Hi wenden alle fra þe king, surge here þankes and sume here unþankes, Chr. 1140; Erl. 265, 12. Bluðeliche he wule herkieu þet þe preost him leið on; ah þenne þe preost hine hat a&yogh;efen þa ehte þon monne þet hit er ahte, þet he nulle iheren his þonkes he will not listen to that if he can help it, O. E. Homl. i. 31, 8. Þe sulve mose hire þonkes wolde þe totose, O. and N. 70. Lordschipe wol not his thonkes han no felaweschipe, Chauc. Kn. T. 768.] (3) where there is uncontrolled or independent action, at (one's) pleasure or will :-- Ðú wéndest ðæt seó wyrd ðás woruld wende heore ágenes þonces búton Godes geþeahte and his þafunge thou didst suppose that fate turned this world at her own pleasure without the counsel and consent of God, Bt. 5, 1; Fox 8, 31. (4) where there is independent condition, in or of itself :-- Gif se weorþscipe and se anweald ágnes ðonces gód wǽre, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54, 9. Se anweald his ágenes ðonces gód næs, ðá se gód næs ðe hé tó com, 16, 4; Fox 58, 19. (5) for (one's) sake :-- Wé biddaþ ðé ðæt ðú hit ús ðínes fæder þances forgife we pray thee to forgive us it for thy father's sake, Gen. 50, 17. Gedǽle hé ðæt wurð Godes þances pretium Dei gratia distribuat, L. M. I. P. 43; Th. ii. 276, 23 : L. Pen. 14; Th. ii. 282, 11 : L. E. I. 25; Th. ii. 422, 8, 9 : L. Ath. v. 8, 1; Th. i. 236, 8 : Wulfst. 238, 28 : Homl. Skt. i. 23, 200 : Lchdm. i. 400, 9. Ic ann ðæs landes intó mynstre Sca Marian þances, Chart. Th. 558, 33. Ungeniédde mid eówrum ágenum willan gé sculon ðencean for eówre heorde Godes ðonces nals na for fraceðlecum gestreónum providentes non coacte, sed spontanee secundum Deum, neque turpis lucri gratia, sed voluntarie, Past. 18; Swt. 137, 20. Hié ða miclan feorme þigedon Cristes þonces ðe hié ǽr þigedon deófla þonces, Ors. 6, 21; Swt. 272, 22-24. [Goth thank fairhaitan χ&alpha-tonos;ριν &epsilon-tonos;χειν, Lk. 17, 9 : O. Sax. thank grace, pleasure, thanks : O. Frs. thank, thonk : O. H. Ger. danc, thanc gratia : Icel. þökk pleasure, thanks.] v. bealu-, fore-, ge-, hete-, hyge-, inge-, inwit-, nearu-, or-, searu-, un-þanc; un-þances.

þanc-ful[l]; adj. I. thoughtful :-- Mǽden carful þancful nytwyrþe clǽne a maiden born on the ninth day of the moon will be careful, thoughtful, useful, chaste, Lchdm. iii. 188, 14. II. spirited; animosus :-- Cild ácenned (born on the thirteenth day of the moon), þancfull (animosus), þríste, reáful, ofermód, him sylfum gelícigende, Lchdm. iii. 190, 13. III. pleasing, agreeable, cf. Icel. þekki-ligr handsome, pleasant :-- Ðoncful gratiosus, Wrt. Voc. i. 61, 31. Þanefulle idoneam, ii. 44, 26. Wé hálsiaþ, God, ðæt þeów ðín cync úre ... tó ðé ... þancfull mæge becuman quaesumus, Deus, ut famulus tuus rex nosier ... ad te ... gratiosus ualeat pervenire, Anglia xiii. 381, 228. Þancfullust hýrsumnysse wæstm gratissimus obedientie fructus, 371, 84. IV. thankful, grateful :-- Ðæt folc wearð swá fægen his cystignessa and swá þancful, ðæt hig worhton him áne anlícnesse of áre, Ap. Th. 10, 10. Beóþ þancfulle grati estote (Col. 3, 15), Homl. Th. i. 606, 18. Wesaþ þancfulle þon Hǽlende eóweres andleofan, Blickl. Homl. 169, 16. V. content, satisfied :-- Ðancful contentus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 16, 6. Þancfull, 24, 66. Ðæt hé doncfull sí stýre him ðæs bebodenan folces contentus sit gubernatione creditae sibi plebis, Bd. 4, 5; S. 572, 33. Ælþeódige bisceopas sýn ðoncfulle (contenti) heora gæstlíþnesse and feorme, S. 573, 3. Scottas wǽron ðancfulle (contenti) heora gemǽrum, 5, 23; S. 646, 36. [O. H. Ger. un-dancfol ingratus.] v. un-þancful[l].

þancfullíce; adv. Thankfully, gratefully :-- Ðá ongeat Eustachius ðæt seó foresǽde costnung him ðá æt wæs, and þancfullíce hí underféng, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 144. v. scearp-þancfullíce.

þanc-hycgende thoughtful :-- Hé, gumena nát hwylc, þanchycgende ðǽr gehýdde deóre máðmas, Beo. Th. 4462; B. 2235.

þancian; p. ode. I. to thank, give thanks, express in words or have in mind feelings of gratitude, (1) absolute :-- Drihten ðancode, ǽrðan ðe hé ða hláfas tóbrǽce, Homl. Th. ii. 400, 16. Hé genam ðone calic þanciende accipiens calicem gratias egit, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 27. (2) with dat. of person to whom thanks are given :-- Ðé þanciaþ Cristes þegnas, Hy. 7, 52, 49. Hí tó ðé cleopiaþ and ðé lofe þanciaþ clamabunt et hymnum dicent, Ps. Th. 64, 14. Hé Gode þancode, Mk. Skt. 8, 6: Homl. Skt. i. 3, 454. Hé feóll tó his fótum and him þancode cecidit ante pedes ejus gratias agens, Lk. Skt. 17, 16. Þearfan ic lǽrde ðæt hié Gode þancodon, Blickl. Homl. 185, 18. Wé sceolon him ðancian, Homl. Th. ii. 400, 18. Hig ðone hláf ǽton Drihtne þanciende, Jn. Skt. 6, 23. (3) with gen. of that for which thanks are given :-- Wé þanciaþ ðínes weorðlícan wuldordreámes, Hy. 8, 9. Hié þanciaþ þrymmes þrístum wordum, Cd. Th. 242, 26; Dan. 425. Ne sceal hé beón tó georn deádra manna feós, ne tó lyt þancian heora ælmessan, Blickl. Homl. 43, 13. (4) with dat. of person to whom thanks are given, and (a) gen. of thing for which :-- Hí Gode þonciaþ blǽdes and blissa, Exon. Th. 77, 14; Cri. 1256. Hé ðæs þancode Gode, Homl. Skt. i. 4, 237. Hié Gode þancudan ðæs siges, Blickl. Homl. 203, 33. Ðanca Gode ðínre gesundfulnysse, Homl. Th. i. 400, 13. Þeáh hí his ðé ne ðancien, Ps. Th. 4, 8. Sceolde hé his Drihtne þancian ðæs leánes, Cd. Th. 17, 10; Gen. 257. (b) with gen. of a pronoun and clause stating cause of thanks :-- Se gomela Gode þancode ðæs se man gespræc, Beo. Th. 2799; B. 1397: Elen. Kmbl. 1921; El. 962. Heó Gode þancode ðæs ðe hió sóð gecneów, 2276; El. 1139: Beo. Th. 1255; B. 625: Andr. Kmbl. 2022; An. 1013. Þoncade, Exon. Th. 148, 25; Gú. 750. Hí Gode þancodon ðæs ðe hí hyne gesundne geseón móston, Beo. Th. 3257; B. 1626. Þancedon, 460; B. 227. (c) the cause of thanks given in a clause introduced by ðæt :-- Ic ðancige ðé, ðæt ic ne eom ná swilce óðre magnum, Homl. Th. ii. 428, 19. Hí þanceden þeódne, ðæt hit þus gelomp, Cd. Th. 298, 16; Sat. 534. Ðanca Gode, ðæt he ðé gefultumode, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 14, 8. (5) combining the construction of (2) and (3) :-- Ic þancige Gode and eów eallum ðe me wel fylston, and ðæs friðes ðe wé nú habbaþ, L. Edm. S. 5; Th. i. 250, 4. II. to express thanks by action, shew gratitude :-- Wé ðé freóndlíce wíc getǽhton ðú ús leánest nú unfreóndlíce fremena þancast as friends we assigned thee a dwelling, thou dost now unkindly requite us and shew thy gratitude for benefits, Cd. Th. 162, 31; Gen. 2689. Sceolde hé mid láce his clǽnsunge Gode ðancian he should shew his gratitude to God for his cleansing by a gift, Homl. Th. i. 124, 10. III. to feel gratified, to rejoice :-- Þancaþ ɫ blissaþ gratatur, Hpt. Gl. 522, 60. Ðám ðe þanciaþ yfelum mínum qui gratulantur malis meis, Ps. Spl. 34, 29. [O. Sax. thankian: O. Frs. thonkia: O. H. Ger. danchón satisfacere, benedicere, remunerare: Icel. þakka.] v. ge-þancian.

þanc-metegung, deliberation. v. next word.

þanc-metung, e; f. Deliberation, consideration :-- Gif hé mid ðancmetuncge (-metegunge, MS. B.: þoncmeotunge, Bd. M. 88, 4) and ðreodunge geþafaþ si ex deliberatione consentit, Bd. 1, 27; S, 497, 23.

-þancness. v. nearu-þancness.

þancol; adj. Addicted to thought, acute :-- Cild ácenned (born on the sixteenth day of the moon) þancul (efficax; cf. scearpþancfullíce efficaciter, Scint. 206, 14; and see scearpþanclíce), staþolfæst, Lchdm. iii. 192, 8. Saga, þoncol mon, hwá mec bregde of brimes fæþmum, Exon. Th. 382, 17; Rä. 3, 12. v. deóp-, fore-, ge-, gearo-, hete-, hyge-, scearp-, searuþancol; þancol-mód.

-þancollíce. v. deóp-þancollíce.

þancol-mód; adj. Having the mind addicted to thought, of acute mind, wise, intelligent :-- þancolmód wer, þeáwum hýdig, Cd. Th. 102, 24; Gen. 1705. Seó gleáwe hét hyre þínenne þancolmóde heáfod onwríðan, Jud. Thw. 24, 5; Jud. 172. Ealle witen eorðbúende þoncolmóde ðæt hí ðǽr ne sint, Met. 19, 14.

þanc-snot[t]or; adj. Wise in thought, wise :-- Þoncsnottor guma breóstgehygdum his bearn lǽrde, Exon. Th. 301, 19; Fá. 21. Fore there neidfaerae naenig uuiurthit thoncsnottura than him tharf sié, Txts. 149, 17.

þancung, e; f. Thanking, thanks, thanksgiving :-- Gode sié lof and wuldor and dǽda þoncung ealra ðæra góda ðe hé ús forgifen hafaþ, Chart. Th. 136, 32. Sáwla þancung thanksgiving by souls, Hy. 9, 45. Ic ete mid micelre þancunge manduco cum gratiarum actione, Coll. Monast. Th. 34, 29. Mid ealre þoncunga, Blickl. Homl. 31, 21. Hé underféng ða lác mid ðancunge, Homl. Th. ii. 170, 16. [Be] ðæncunge ðǽm ðe wið ðýfðe fylstaþ, L. Edm. S. 5; Th. i. 250, 3. Ongan se bisceop ðancunge dón Drihtne episcopus gratias coepit agere Domino, Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 31: 4, 23; S. 595. 19. Ðoncunge, 5, 19; S. 641, 2. Ic ðæs þoncunge dó Gréca herige, Nar. 2, 30. Þæs þancunga þíne scealcas ealle hæfdan all thy servants gave thanks for this, Ps. Th. 101, 12. Wyrþe ðú eart, ðæt ðú onfó wuldor and dǽda þancunga, Blickl. Homl. 75, 2. Ðé ic sylle þancunga tibi reddo gratias, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 95, 15. Ðæt is tó wundrianne, ðæt hí swá lytle þoncunge wiston Iósepe ðæs ðe hé hí æt hungre áhredde it is wonderful that they felt so little gratitude to Joseph for saving them from famine; hunc Ioseph, quem constituit Deus Aegyptiis conservatae salutis auctorem, quis credat ita in brevi eorum excidisse memoriae, Ors. 1, 5; Swt. 34, 32. v. þanc, IV.

þanc-weorþ, -wurþ, -wirþe; adj. Thankworthy, deserving thanks, acceptable :-- Þurh ðære þancweorþan Cristes gyfe through the help of Christ's grace, which is deserving of all thanks, Lchdm. iii. 432, 23. Þancwurðre gratuita (Christi gratia fretus), Hpt. Gl. 420, 76. Úrum godum geoffrian ðancwurðe oatsægednysse to offer to our gods an acceptable sacrifice, Homl. Th. i. 592, 34. Bútan ðú him þoncwyrþe lác onsecge, Exon. Th. 254, 17; Jul. 198. Ic eów secgan mæg þoncwyrþe þing, ðæt gé ne ðyrfen leng murnan on móde, Judth. Thw. 23, 33; Jud. 153. Þancwurðe gifa grata (accepta) libamina, Hpt. Gl. 415, 7. Gecwéme (ɫ) þancwurde gife grata munuscula, 510, 71. Þancwurde gratos, acceptos, caros, 416, 51. Ða ðe ic ðám bigengum ðancwyrþe gelýfde quae incolis grata credideram, Bd. pref.; S. 472, 38. Smylte weder biþ ðý þancwyrþre (gratius) gif hit hwéne ǽr biþ stearce stormas ... And þancwyrþre biþ ðæs dæges leóht for ðære egeslícan þióstro ðære nihte, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 26-29. Þancwurðra gratuita, Hpt. Gl. 442, 26. Hé gearcode him gebeótscipe on his húse, ac hé gearcode him micele þancwurðran gereord on his heortan, Homl. Th. ii. 468, 30. Þancwur[ðe]ste gratissimum, acceptissimum, amantissimum, Hpt. Gl. 441, 66. v. un-þancweorþ.

þancweorþlíce; adv. Gladly, willingly, in a way that shews acceptance :-- Hí ðancweorþlíce (gratanter) wǽron fram him onfangene, Bd. 5, 10; S. 624, 2. Hé ðære gife ðancwurþlíce (gratanter) onféng, 4, 30; S. 609, 9. Gif hé ǽr ne geæfstgode ðætte his bróður lác wǽron ðancweorðlícor onfongne ðonne his nisi Cain invidisset acceptam fratris hostiam, Past. 34; Swt. 235, 3. In Jn. Skt. 6, 11 þancwurðlíce dón translates gratias agere.

þanc-word, es; n. A word of thanks :-- Swá scríþende hweorfaþ gleómen, þearfe secgaþ, þoncword sprecaþ, simle sumne gemétaþ geofum unhneáwne, Exon. Th. 326, 32; Víd. 137.

þanécan þe whenever, as soon as ever :-- Ðonécan þe heó útan behwerfed sié (cf. þonne hió ǽrest sié útan behwerfed, Met. 13, 77), Bt. 25; Fox 88, 34. Þeáh hí nú eall hiora líf áwriten hæfdon, hú ne forealldodon ða gewritu þeáh and losodon ðonécan þe hit wǽre swá some swá ða wríteras dydon and eác ða þe hí ymbe writon though they indeed had written all their life, yet would not the writings have become antiquated and have perished, as soon as ever it was done, in the same way as the writers did, and those too about whom they wrote; quamquam quid ipsa scripta proficiant, quae cum suis auctoribus premit longior atque obscura vetustas? 18, 3; Fox 64, 28. Ac þonécan (þan-, Bod. MS.) þe hé ðone anweald forlǽt, oððe se anweald hine, ðonne ne biþ hé ðam dysegan weorþ, 27, 1; Fox, 94, 20. v. (?) éce.

þánian; p. ode To be or to become moist :-- Þǽnie madeo, Wrt. Voc. ii. 58, 44. Ðániaþ madescunt, 57, 39. v. þán.

þanne, þænne, þonne; adv. conj. Then, when. Generally if the subject follows the verb the word is to be rendered by then, if the subject precedes the verb, by when. [þanne and þá differ in force; the former is used where the time of an action is indefinite, and is found with the future, the indefinite present and the indefinite past; the latter is used where a definite action has taken place. Cf. Þonne faraþ hig on éce susle, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 46, with: Ðá férde se ðe ða fíf pund underféng, 25, 16. Þonne ðú fæste, smyra ðín heáfod, 6, 17, with: Þá þá hé fæste feówertig daga, 4, 2. Symle ic gehýrde, þonne heofones gim west onhylde, Exon. Th. 174, 30; Gú. 1185, with: Þá hí ðis gehýrdon, hí fahnodon, Mk. Skt.14, 11.] A.-demonstrative, then. I. of time, then, at that time :-- Fóron hié bí swá hwaþerre efes swá hit þonne (at the time of their going, whenever it was) fierdleás wæs, Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 13. Ðæt geweorþeþ on dómes dæge ... Þonne forhtiaþ ealle gesceafta, Blickl. Homl. 11, 3: 95, 29: Exon. Th. 372, 21; Seel. 96. Þonne hí clypiaþ tó mé, and ic hí ne gehýre, Homl. Th. ii. 378, 2. Se deófol ðe beswác ðone þeóf nele náht on his ende geðafian, ðæt hé þonne gecyrre tó ðam Hǽlende, Hontl. Skt. i. 19, 191. II. marking order or sequence, then, after that, (1) of time :-- Swá hwylc swá morþorslege þafaþ, and hine man þonne fremmeþ quicunque ad homicidium consenserit, et id postea factum fuerit, L. Ecg. C. 22; Th. ii. 148, 14. Gang ǽr and gesybsuma wið ðínne bróðer, and þonne cum ðú syððan and bring ðíne lác, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 24. Búton hé gebinde ǽrest ðone strangan, and þonne hys hús bereáfige, 12, 29. Nú wé faraþ tó Gerusalem, and þonne beóþ gefylde ealle ða hálgan gewreotu, Blickl. Homl. 15, 8. Se ðe gód onginneþ, and þonne áblinneþ, 21, 34. Ðam ðe for his synnum onsǽgd weorþeþ, and þonne á tó ealdre orleg dreógeþ, Exon. Th. 446, 28; Dóm. 29. Ealle ða hwíle sceal beón gedrync, óð ðone dæg ðe hí hine forbærnaþ. Þonne ðý ylcan dæge ðe hí hine tó ðæm áde beran wyllaþ, þonne tódǽlaþ hí his feoh ... Ðonne sceolon beón gesamnode ... menn ... þonne æmaþ hý ealle...; ðonne cymeþ ... se ðæt swiftoste hors hafaþ tó ðæm ǽrestan dǽle, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 25-36. Álecgaþ hí ðone mǽstan dǽl, þonne óðerne, ðonne ðæne þriddan, Swt. 20, 31. Gé cweðaþ: 'Drihten, átýn ús.' Þonne cwyð hé: 'Ne can ic eów.' Ðonne ongynne gé cweþan.... Þonne segþ hé..., Lk. Skt. 13, 25-27. Gif gé þonne git (after that still) nellaþ eów wendan tó mé, Homl. Skt. i. 13, 169: Lk. Skt. 14, 32. Monige men syndon ðe cweþaþ ðæt hié on God gelýfon, and þonne hweþere (and yet after saying so) nellaþ áblinnan from heora unrihtum gestreónum, Blickl. Homl. 25, 5: 55, 21. (2) of place or position :-- Æt ðám feówer tóðum fyrestum ... se tóð se þanne bí standeþ ... se ðe þonne bí ðam standeþ ... and þonne siþþan gehwilc, L. Ethb. 51; Th. i. 16, 3-4. Is se ðridda Martinianus, þonne se feórða Dionisius ... þonne ðæs sixtan Seraphun nama is, Honil. Skt. i. 23, 5-6. II a. marking addition, yet, besides :-- Hwæt máre dést ðú? Gewyslíce þænne máre ic dó certe adhuc plus facio, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 35. III. marking the succession of subjects treated of in narrative, then, again :-- Næs ðæt þonne mǽtost mægenfultuma, ðæt him láh þyle Hróðgáres and then (the helmet and byrnie having been already spoken of) that was not meanest of aids that Hunferth lent him, Beo. Th. 2914; B. 1455. Ðænne (cf. And, 21; Men. 11; 38; Men. 19), Menol. Fox 46; Men. 23. IV. in a clause that is a qualification or contrast to a preceding clause, then, yet, but :-- Feówertig daga, gif hit hysecild wǽre; gif hit þonne mǽdencild wǽre,... hundeahtatig daga, Homl. Th. i. 134, 18. Ða ðe mihton ðurhteón sceoldon bringan lamb and culfran. Gif þonne hwylc wíf tó ðam unspédig wǽre, ðæt heó ðás ðing begytan ne mihte..., 140, 2; 13: Homl. Skt. i. 13, 163. Lífes ic ðé geann, gif ðú gelýfst ... Gif ðú þonne elles dést, ðú scealt deáþe sweltan, ii. 27, 73. Syndon ealle hǽþene godu hildedeóful; heofenas þænne (autem) worhte Drihten, Ps. Th. 95, 5. Ðæt hálige gewrit ðæt cýþeþ ... Ðonne is ðeáw ðæs apostolícan setles sacra scriptura testatur ... Mos autem sedis apostolicae est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 5. Eác is swíðe micel þearf ðæt gé cýðon hú ungefóhlícu scyld ðæt (perjury) is ... Þonne habbaþ wé geáhsod ðæt hit sume men dóþ tó lytelre scylde; þonne nis hit ná swá, ac is án ðæra mǽstena scylda, L. E. I. 26; Th. ii. 422, 19-24: Blickl. Homl. 175, 34. Twégen beámas stódon ... óðer wæs swá wynlíc ... Þonne wæs se óðer sweart, Cod. Th. 30, 34; Gen. 477. Þeáh wé þillíco wíto witan, þonne hwæðere ne sceolon wé nǽfre geortrýwan be Godes mildheortnesse, L. E. I. proem,; Th. ii. 398, 42. Wé leorniaþ ðæt seó tíd sió dégol ... wé witon þonne hweþre ðæt hit nis nó feor tó ðon, Blickl. Homl. 117, 29. IV a. in an interrogative clause :-- Wæs Cristes tócyme ǽgðer ge hryre ge ǽrist. Hú ðonne? Homl. Th. i, 144, 27: Exon. Th. 446, 30; Dóm. 30. V. marking a conclusion, inference or result based on a previous statement, then, therefore, consequently :-- Ðæt ðonne (from the statements already made) biþ ðæs recceres ryht, ðæt hé ðurh ða stemne his láriówdómes ætiéwe ðæt wuldor ðæs uplícan éðles, Past. 21; Swt. 159, 22: Blickl. Homl. 39, 23. Drihten cwæþ: 'Bringaþ gé eówerne teóðan sceat.' ... Þonne sægþ on ðissum bócum, ðæt Drihten sylf cwǽde, ðæt ðis mennissce cyn ne sceolde ágímeleásian, ðæt hié sealdon heora wæstma fruman for Gode, 41, 3. On ðone dæg hé sende ðone Hálgan Gást. Þonne forþon (it may be inferred that on that account) is hit swýðe micel cyn, ðæt gehwylc cristen man ðone dæg weorðige, L. E. I. 24; Th. ii. 420, 30: Blickl. Homl. 63, 7. Hé má cégde ... ðæt is þonne (we may infer) ðæt wé sceolan beón gelǽrede mid ðysse bysene..., 19, 13: 23, 9. Gifeón wé þonne (for reasons contained in the preceding statement) on þone gemánan Godes and manna, 11, 4: 13, 24. Hæbbe ic geáhsod, ðæt hé wǽpna ne recceþ; ic ðæt þonne (consequently) forhicge, ðæt ic sweord bere tó gúþe, Beo. Th. 874; B. 435: 3346; B. 1671. Ðú ús wel dohtest. Gif ic þonne mæg ðínre módlufan máran tilian, ic beó gearo sóna, 3648; B. 1822. Hwylc beren mǽnde hé þonne elles búton heofona ríce what other barn can it be inferred that he meant, but heaven? Blickl. Homl. 39, 27, 29. VI. marking a consequence dependent upon a hypothesis, then, in that case, (a) where the hypothesis is expressed in a clause introduced by gif :-- Gif man frigne man gefó, þanne wealde se cyning..., L. Wih. 26; Th. i. 42, 15. Gif wé willaþ on Drihten gelýfan, þonne beó wé sjttende be ðæm wege, Blickl. Homl. 23, 8: 13, 10: Mt. Kmbl. 24, 50: Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 25. Gif wé deóplícor ymbe ðis sprecaþ, þonne wéne wé ðæt hit wile ðincan ðám ungelǽredum tó menigfeald, Homl. Th. ii. 582, 24. Gif hwá cwyð ðæt hé lufige God, and his beboda ne hylt, hé biþ leás ðonne, 314, 31. Gif ðú wilt ðæt ðis feoh becume tó ðínre sáwle ðearfe, tódǽl hit ðonne ðearfum, 484, 32. Gyf þonne Frysna hwylc ðæs morþorhetes myndgiend wǽre, þonne hit sweordes ecg sweðrian scolde, Beo. Th. 2216; B. 1106. Ðonne wéne ic tó ðé wyrsan geþingea, gif ðú Grendles dearst bídan, 1054; B. 525. (b) where the hypothesis is otherwise expressed :-- Se ðe wille anwald ágon ( = if any one desires to have power), þonne sceal hé ǽrest tilian ðæt hé his selfes áge anwald, Met. 16, 1. Se ðe feohtan ne dear mid Godes gewǽpnunge ongeán ðone, feónd, hé biþ þonne mid ðám deófellícum bendum gewyld, Homl. Th. ii. 402, 18. (c) where the hypothesis is implied :-- Wé sceolon ðone geleáfan mid gódum dǽdum gefyllan, þonne (if we do so, then) beó wé úrum Hǽlende fylgende, Blickl. Homl. 23, 10. Ic ðé lǽre, ðæt ðú hospcwide ne fremme; ðonne ðú geearnast ðæt ðé biþ éce líf seald, Elen. Kmbl. 1049; El. 526. Weorþiaþ gé eówerne God...; þonne gefylleþ Drihten eówer beren, Blickl. Homl. 41, 10. Lufian wé hine...; þonne ne lǽteþ he ús nó costian, 13, 8, 26. Hwæt mǽnde hé elles, búton ðæt wé gefyllon ðæs þearfan wambe? Þonne (if we do fill, etc., then) ne hingreþ ús nǽfre, 39, 30. 'Hwæt déstú gif ic tó mergen middeges gebíde?' Hé cwæð: 'Sylf ic swelte þonne,' Homl. Skt. i. 3, 591. Ðes man is sóþfæst, ac þonne hwæþere git sindon bigswicon this man is true, but yet (if that be so) then ye are deceivers, Blickl. Homl. 187, 30. VI a. in questions, and referring to a condition contained in another sentence, then, in that case :-- Wilt ðú syllan þingc ðín hér ealswá ðú hí gebohtest þǽr? Ic nelle. Hwæt þænne mé fremode gedeorf mín? Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 17. Hig beóþ tódǽlede. Hú mæg þonne hys ríce standan? Mt. Kmbl. 12, 26: Salm. Kmbl. 715; Sal. 357. B.-relative, when. I. of time. (1) of the time of a single action in the future :-- Hwylc tácen biþ, þænne ealle ðás ðing onginnaþ beón geendud, Mk. Skt. 13, 4. Ðænne mannes sunu cymþ, gemét hé geleáfan? Lk. Skt. 18, 8: 13, 28. Ðonne ic cume tó ðe tǽc mé quando veniam ad te, doce me, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 224, 7. Ðonne se hírédes ealdor ingǽð, gé standaþ þǽr úte, Lk. Skt. 13, 25. Ðonne ðú for unc ondwyrdan scealt, Exon. Th. 372, 5; Seel. 88. Hwænne wylle gé singan ǽfen oþþe nihtsangc? Þonne hyt tíma byþ, Coll. Monast. Th. 34, 5. Geþence mé, þonne ðé ðín wíse lície, Gen. 40, 14. Ic náme þænne ic cóme veniens ego recepissem, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 27. (2) referring to the times of an action which may occur an indefinite number of times, when, at such times as :-- Þænne se yrþlingc unscenþ ða oxan, ic lǽde hig tó lǽse, Coll. Monast. Th. 20, 25. Bútan ðænne bises geboden weorþe, Menol. Fox 64; Men. 32. Eádige synt gé, þonne hí wyriaþ eów, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 11. Þonne ðú ðíne ælmessan sylle, ne bláwe man býman beforan ðé, 6, 2, 3, 5, 6. Symle hé sceal singan, ðonne hé his sweord geteó, Salm. Kmbl. 334; Sal. 166: Beo. Th. 46; B. 23: Andr. Kmbl. 503; An. 252: Exon. Th. 42, 18; Cri. 674. Saga ðú ðæt ðú sió sweostor mín, þonne ðé leódweras fricgen (whenever you are asked), Cd. Th. 110, 5; Gen. 1833. Ðæt wǽron men fyrdhwate, þonne rond and hand helm ealgodon, Andr. Kmbl. 18; An. 9. Symle ic gehýrde, þonne heofones gim west onhylde, Exon. Th. 174, 30; Gú. 1185: 122, 11; Gú. 304: Cd. Th. 33, 21; Gen. 523. Ic ðonne (dum) mé hefie wérun, is gegerede mec mid héran, Ps. Surt. 34, 13. (3) where the order in time of two circumstances is to be marked, when, after :-- Eallum geleáffullum mannum englas þegniaþ, þonne hí habbaþ deófol oferswíþed, Blickl. Homl. 35, 3. Ðín ágen bearn frætwa healdeþ, þonne ðín flǽsc ligeþ, Cd. Th. 132, 5; Gen. 2188. Hwæt dó wé, þonne hé unc hafaþ geedbyrded óþre síþe, Exon. Th. 372, 29; Seel. l00. II. denoting a cause, when, since, seeing that :-- Sindon monige tó ðreág enne, ðonne hié selfe nellaþ ongietan hiera scylda, Past. 21; Swt. 159, 7. Ealle clǽne þingc ic ete. Swíþe waxgeorn eart ðú, þonne (cum) ðú ealle þingc etst, Coll. Monast. Th. 34, 31. Hí beóþ slítende wulfas, þonne hié for feós lufan earmne fordémaþ búton scylde, Blickl. Homl. 63, 10: Homl. Th. ii. 226, 31. Wén is ðæt hé wille bewitan his menn ge on lífe ge on deáðe, þonne se lytla fugel ne befylþ on grin bútan Godes willan, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 188, 197. II a. in questions denoting the cause or reason for that not being done about which the question asks :-- Hú lange wilt ðú bewépan Saules síð, þonne ic hine áwearp, ðæt hé leng ne ríxige how long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning? (A. V. 1 Sam. 16, 1) Homl. Th. ii. 64, 5. Hwá sceal tó his ríce fón, þonne hé bróðer næfþ, ne hé bearn ne belǽfþ? 146, 19: i. 48, 12, 25. Hú mæg ic yrnan mid eów, þonne ic ne árás of ðysum bedde nú for nigon geárum? Homl. Skt. i. 21, 344. Hwæt wille wé furðor secgan hú se cásere his fyrdinge geendode, þonne hé forférde on ende, ii. 28, 118. III. although :-- Ðú gelýfdest on mé, þonne ðú mé ne gesáwe credidisti in me, cum ipse me non uideris, Homl. Skt. ii. 24, 114. IV. denoting condition, case, when, the case in which :-- Iactantia, ðæt is ýdel gylp; ðæt is ðonne se man biþ lofgeorn and mid lícetunge fǽrþ, Homl. Skt. i. 16, 302. Óðer deófolgild is.... ðonne se man forsihþ his Scyppendes beboda, 17, 50. Míne eágan synt ealra gelícast þonne esne biþ þonnne his hláforde hereþ my eyes are most like the case of the servant obeying his lord, Ps. Th. 122, 2. Ealle wé syndon ungelíce, þonne þe wé in heofonum hæfdon ǽrror wlite we are all unlike what we were when in heaven we formerly had beauty, Cd. Th. 274, 8; Sat. 151. Ðonne se móna wexeþ (in its crescent condition), hé biþ gelíc ðæm gódum men, Blickl. Homl. 17, 22. C. correlative, þanne ... þanne then ... when, when ... then :-- Ðonne ðú ealle gedǽlde hæfst, þonne bist ðú ðé self wædla, Bt. 13; Fox 38, 34. Ðonne eów mislíciaþ ða mettrumnessa ðe gé on óðrum monnum geseóþ, ðonne geðence gé hwæt gé sién, Past. 21; Swt. 159, 13-14, 19-21: Blickl. Homl. 17, 2-3. Þonne se móöna wanaþ, þonne tácnaþ hé úre deáþlícnesse, 17, 24: 19, 14-15, 28-29. Þonne Godes gecorenan becumaþ tó deáðe, ðonne gemétaþ hí yrfwyrdnysse, Homl. Th. ii. 526, 29-30: Exon. Th. 83, 7-10; Cri. 1352. Ðætte ðonne, ðonne hié ða untruman lácnian willaþ, dætte hié ǽr gesceáwien, Past. 48; Swt. 370, 9. D. after comparatives, than. I. where the comparison is between different objects, (1) where the objects are expressed by single words or phrases :-- Hé wæs ǽr þonne ic, Jn. Skt. 1, 15. Gé synt sélran þonne manega spearuan, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 31. Ðé wæs leófra his sibb and hyldo þonne ðín sylfes bearn, Cd. Th. 176, 34; Gen. 2921: Andr. Kmbl. 2856; An. 1430. Leófre ys ús beón beswungen for láre þænne hit ne cunnan, Coll. Monast. Th. 18, 20: 24, 23. (1 a) where there is a negative with the comparative :-- Næfþ nán mann máran lufe þonne ðeós ys, Jn. Skt. 15, 13. (2) where one or each object is expressed by a clause :-- Sélre biþ ǽghwæm, ðæt hé his freónd wrece, þonne hé fela murne, Beo. Th. 2775; B. 1385. Ðé wǽre sélle, ðǽr ðú wurde fugel, þonne ðú ǽfre mon gewurde, Exon. Th. 372, 1; Seel. 85. (2 a) where there is a negative with the comparative :-- Nis nǽnig máre mægen, þonne hé ðone áwyrgdan gást oferswíþe, Blickl. Homl. 31, 31. Nyston beteran rǽd þonne hié ða behlidenan him tó lífnere gefeormedon, Andr. Kmbl. 2179; An. 1091. (2 b) in questions :-- On hwam mæg se innga rǽdran rǽd gemittan, þonne hé ðíne wísan word gehealde? Ps. Th. 118, 9. Hwæs wǽre mé máre þearf, þonne ic mid cilde wǽre? Gen. 25, 22. II. where the comparison is between the same object under different conditions :-- Ácumendlícre byþ Sodoma lands on dómes dæg þonne þære ceastre, Mt. Knbl. 10, 15. Ic wylle cýpan hér luflícor þonne ic gebicge ðǽr (the price is higher in one case than in the other), Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 19. Sceolan wé beón geornran ðæt wé Godes bebodu healdan, þonne wé úrne teónan gewrecan our zeal to keep God's commands must be greater than our zeal to avenge our wrong, Blickl. Homl. 33, 24. Nǽfre hlísan áh Meotud þan máran, þonne hé wið monna bearn wyrcep weldǽdum the glory is never greater than when working benevolently, Exon. Th. 191, 11; Az. 86. Hé biþ on ðæt wynstre weorud wyrs gesceáden, þonne hé on ða swíþran hond swícan móte, 449, 24; Dóm. 76. III. where the comparative with þanne may be rendered by the positive preceded by too and followed by for with an infinitive or by an infinitive :-- Seó is brádre þonne ǽnig man ofer seón mæge it is too broad for anybody to be able to see across, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 19, 19. Ðæt his mód wite, ðæt migtigra wíte wealdeþ, þonne hé him wið mæge (one too mighty for him to prevail against), Cd. Th. 249, 1; Dan. 523. Him wæs Godes egsa mára in gemyndum, þonne hé menniscum þrymme þegan wolde (too much fear of God for him to wish for human glory), Exon. Th. 112, 6; Gú. 139. Deóplícor mid ús ðú smeágst, þonne yld úre anfón mæge (too deeply for our age to be able to take it in), Coll. Monast. 33, 11. Se wæs mid his dǽdum snelra þonne hé mægenes hæfde he was too quick in his actions to have enough strength for them; celeritate magis quam virtute fretus, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 78, 27. IV. where the adjective is in the positive, and the comparative required by þanne must be inferred :-- Gód ys on Dryhten tó þenceanne, þonne on mannan wese mód tó treówianne bonum est confidere in Domino, quam confidere in homine, Ps. Th. 117, 8, 9. [O. H. Ger. danne.] v. þan; þá.

þanon, þanone, þár, þára, þarf, þáriht, þár-riht, -rihte, þás, þasser, þassum. v. þanan, þanane, þǽr, þearf, þǽr-rihte, -riht, -rihte, þes.

þawenian. v. ge-þawenian.

þáwian (þawian?); p. ode To thaw (trans.) :-- Se þridda heáfodwind hátte zephirus ... se wind tówyrpþ and ðáwaþ ǽlcne winter, Lchdm. iii. 274, 22. [Thowes degelat (Deus), Wrt. Voc. i. 201, col. 2 (15th cent.). Thowyn or meltyn, as snowe resolvo, thowyn, as yce degelat, resolvit, thowe, of snowe or yce resolucio, liquefaccio, Prompt. Parv. 492. Her names ... were almost ofthowed so, that of the lettres oon or two were molte away, Chauc. H. of Fame, iii. 53. Cf. O. H. Ger. douwen, dewen, digerere, consumere: Icel. þeyja to thaw (intrans.).]

þe; indecl. particle. I. as relative pronoun of any number, gender, or case, (1) where the antecedent clause does not contain a demonstrative :-- Ic hit eom, þe wið ðé sprece, Jn. Skt. 4, 26. Ðæt ðú ne sý gesewen fram mannum fæstende, ac ðínum Fæder þe ys on díglum: and ðín Fæder þe gesyhþ on dýglum hit ágylt ðé, Mt. Kmbl. 6,18: Beo. Th. 5264; B. 2635. Idesa scénost þe on woruld cóme, Cd. Th. 39, 18; Gen. 627. Swýðe manega synt þe þurh ðone weg faraþ,... Swýðe feáwa synt þe ðone weg findon, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 13, 14. Gé þe yfle synt cunnun góde sylena syllan, 7, 11. Wið gehwylce yfelu þe on ðam innoðe dereþ, Lchdm. i. 280, 18. (2) where the antecedent clause contains a demonstrative :-- Hé fór tó ðæm iglande þe monn ðæt folc Mandras hǽtt (the people of which are called Mandras), Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 134, 5. Habbe hé ðone ilcan dóm þe (the same sentence as) se þe ðæt fals worhte L. C. S. 8; Th. i. 380, 22. For other instances v. se. (3) used in combination with the personal pronouns :-- Saga hwæt ic hátte, þe ic lond reáfige, Exon. Th. 394, 6; Rä. 13, 14. Wé ðás word sprecaþ ... þe wé in carcerne sittaþ, 2, 27; Cri. 25. Wé, þe ús befæst is seó gýming Godes folces ... we, to whom is committed the care of God's people..., L. E. I. 1; Th. ii. 402, 9. Fæder úre ðú þe eart on heofenum Pater noster, qui es in coelis, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 9. Ðú þe reccest, ðú nú beheald qui regis, intende, Ps. Th. 79, 1. Ðonne se scrift ongit ðæs costunga ðe hé him ondetteþ when the confessor hears the temptations of the man who confesses to him, Past. 16; Swt. 105, 20. Ðære fǽmnan tíd þe hire (whose) noma wæs Sca Anatolia, Shrn. 102, 34. Sceáweras þe hira naman hér sint áwritene viros, quorum ista sunt nomina, Num. 13, 5: Lev. 11, 3. Ða men þe mon hiora mǽgas ǽr slóg, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 80, 19. For other instances see hé. (4) where relative and antecedent are included in one form :-- Eart ðú ðe tó cumenne eart? Lk. Skt. 7, 20. Wén ne brúceþ ðe can weána lyt, Runic pm. Kmbl. 340, 30; Rún. 8. Tó middes eów stód þe gé ne cunnon, Jn. Skt. 1, 26. Hér syndon þe ðíne deórlingas beón sceoldon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 147. II. as adverb. (1) a relative adverb :-- Ðonon ðe hí útan bióþ áhæfene, ðanon hié bióþ innan áfeallene, Past. 50; Swt. 391, 12. Ðæt úre ende geendige on God, þanon þe ús þæt angin com, Homl. Skt. i. 16, 8. On ðæs sǽs waroþe ðanon ðe hí sciphere on becom, Bd. 2, 12; S. 481, 11. Þider ðe Stephanus forestóp, ðider folgode Paulus, Homl. Th. i. 52, 5. (a) before comparatives, (α) any. v. þan :-- Ne ðearft ðú nó be ðǽm gesceaftum tweógan þe (þon, Cott. MS.) má þe be ðǽm óþrum you need not doubt about those creatures any more than about the others, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 148, 18: 34, 1; Fox 134, 15: L. Pen. 7; Th. ii. 280, 5: Homl. Skt. i. 7, 20. Nys mé ðýnes weales hǽmed nǽfre þe leófre þe mé nǽdre töólýte. Shrn. 154, 22. Nis þeós woruld ðe geliccre ðære écan worulde þe is sum cweartern leóhtum dæge this world is no more like the eternal world than a prison is like bright day, Homl. Th. i. 154, 18. Nǽre hit þe geliccre ðære écean myrhðe, þonne biþ ðam menn þe sitt on cwearterne wið ðam menn þe færþ frig geond land, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 107. Gif hwylc gód man from góde gewíte, ðonne ne biþ hé þe (þon, Cott. MS.) má fullíce god (cf. Goth. ni magt thana mais fauragaggja wisan, Lk. 16, 2), Bt. 37, 3; Fox 190, 29. (β) = þý, the :-- Swá biþ micle þe winsumre sió sóþe gesǽlð tó habbenne æfter ðám eormþum ðisses lífes, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 30. Hé hæfde giet ðe má unþeáwa þonne his eám hæfde avunculi sui ergo omnia vitia ac scelera sectator, immo transgressor, Ors. 6, 5; Swt. 260, 28. Swá þincþ ánra gehwæm sió sóðe gesǽlð þe betere and þý wynsumre, þe hé wíta má hér ádreógeþ, Met. 12, 20. Symle bið þý heardra, þe hit sǽstreámas swýðor beátaþ, Cd. Th. 80, 8; Gen. 1325. Þe læs lest, Ex. 19, 21, 24: Mk. Skt. 4, 12: 13, 36. III. as conjunction. (1) introducing noun or adverb clauses, that, cf. þæt. (α) noun clauses :-- Eác wæs ðæt ðe beforan ðæm temple stód ǽren ceác, Past. 16; Swt. 105, 1. Heó ða fǽhðe wræc, þe ðú Grendel cwealdest, Beo. Th. 2672; B. 1334. Áras sceoldon wilspella mǽst gesecgan, ðe ðæt sigor beácen méted wǽre, Elen. Kmbl. 1967; El. 985. Ðæt dysig is anlíccost þe sum cild sié full hál geboren ... such folly is most like, that (just as if) a child were born quite healthy..., Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 21. Hit is ðæm gelícost þe ic sitte on ánre heáre dúne, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 142, 13. (β) adverb clauses :-- Hwæt is se manna þe ðú him cýþan woldest quid est homo, quod innotuisti ei? Ps. Th. 143, 4. Hé wolde ðæt ða folc him ðý swíþor tó buge, þe hé hæfde hiera ealdhláfordes sunu on his gewealde, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 148, 32. Hé wæs sundes þe sǽnra, þe hyne swylt fornam, Beo. Th. 2877; B. 1436: Exon. Th. 432, 15; Rä. 48, 6. Hié ðæt gewinn ðæslícost angunnan, þe hí hit ǽr ne angunnen, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 150, 31. (γ) in combination with other particles, where the combination may be rendered by a conjunction :-- Ðeáh þe ... swá ðeáh, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 106. Óþ þe (until) hyt eall áléd biþ, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 31: Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 24. See þeáh, óþ, and se, V. (2) than :-- Hé hæfde twǽm læs þe twéntig wintra, Blickl. Homl. 215, 34: Chr. 901; Erl. 96, 24. Ne hí hié selfe ðý beteran ne taligen, ðe ða óðre, Past. 44; Swt. 329, 18. See II. 2 α above, and þan. (3) or, (α) alone :-- Ys hyt álýfed, þe ná? Mt. Kmbl. 22, 17: Lk. Skt. 7, 20. God ána wát hú his gecynde biþ, wífhádes þe weres, Exon. Th. 223, 9; Ph, 357. Hwæðer wǽre twégra strengra, wyrd ðe warnung, Salm. Kmbl. 855; Sal. 427. (β) þe ... þe whether ... or :-- Hwyder hé gelǽded sý, þe tó wíte, þe tó wuldre, Blickl. Homl. 97, 22. Gé nyton hwænne ðæs húses hláford cymþ; þe on ǽfen, þe on midre nihte, þe on hancréde, þe on mergen, Mk. Skt. 13, 35. (β 1) hwæðer (pronoun) ... þe ... þe :-- Ðæt ic wite hwæðer hit sig, þe sóð þe leás, ðæt gé secgaþ, Gen. 42, 16. Hwæþer ðincþ ðé ðonne, ðæt ða ðing sién, þe ðara sóþena gesǽlþa limu, ðe sió gesǽlþ self? Bt. 34, 6; Fox 142, 10. Hwæðer is ðé leófre, þe ðú nú onfó ða costnunga, þe neár ðínum ende? Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 131. (γ) hwæðer, þeáh ... þe whether ... or :-- Hwæþer hé wacode ðe slépte, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 39, Hwæðer ðæs landes folc cristen wǽre ðe hǽðen, Homl. Th. ii. 120, 23. Ongitan hwæþer hit hysecild þe mǽdencild beón wille, Lchdm. ii. 172, 17: Exon. Th. 80, 16; Cri. 1307: Blickl. Homl. 117, 19. Ic nát þeáh ðú mid ligenum fare, þe ðú Drihtnes eart bola, Cd. Th. 34, 4; Gen. 532. [O. Sax. the.]

þe = se, in Northern Gospels :-- Ðe ɫ h-e ipse, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 15, 24. Ðe ilca ipse, 3, 4. Ðe ðe qui, 3, 2. Ðe Hǽlend, Jn. Skt. Rush. 4, 2, 6.

þeá, þeaca, þeaclíce, þeád, þeáf. v. þeów, þaca, þearllíce, II, þeód, þeóf.

þeáh, þáh, þǽh, þéh; adv.conj. I. yet, still, however, nevertheless :-- Ðeáh (ðéh, MS. A.) ic secge inc verumtamen dico vobis, Mt. Kmbl. 11, 22. Hé ðafode ða scylda, and ðeáh hé him gecýðde, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 23: Blickl. Homl. 55, 26. Hié hæfdon áþas geseald, and þéh ofer ða treówa fóron hié, Chr. 194; Erl. 90, 4. Dydon swá hwæþer swá hý dydon, ne dohte him náwþer; ðeáh hí sceoldon ðæt feorh álǽtan let them do which they would, neither did them any good; they had nevertheless to lose their lives, Bt. 29, 2; Fox 106, 2. Wǽron manige eác him þéh ic ða geðungnestan nemde there were many besides them; however, I have named the chief, Chr. 897; Erl. 95, 6. Ágife hé ðone teóþan sceat Gode, and dǽle þeáh his ælmessan forþ of ðon nigeoþan dǽlon let him pay the tithe to God, and still go on distributing alms from the other nine parts, Blickl. Homl. 53, 21. Ne magon ðis þeáh ealle men dón all men, however, cannot do this, 37, 34: Cd. Th. 44, 12; Gen. 708. Hwæt is ðe deórast þince hwæþer þe gold, þe hwæt? Ic wát þeáh gold, Bt. 13; Fox 38, 11. Gif ðú þeáh mínum wilt wordum hýran, Cd. Th. 35, 24; Gen. 559. Hé ne wisse word ne angin swefnes sínes, hét him secgan þeáh, 223, 28; Dan. 126. I acombined with other particles, hwæðere, swá,se ... þeáh :-- Ðú ealle gesceafta ǽrest gesceópe swíðe gelíce, sumes hwǽþre þeáh ungelíce, nemdest swá þeáh mid áne noman ealle tógædere, Met. 20, 52-56. Hwæþer (hwæþre?) ic ðé secge þeáh, ðæt..., Bt. 13; Fox 38, 7. Ac swá ðeáh wíse láreówas tódǽldon ðone praeteritum tempus, Ælfc. Gr. 20; Zup. 124, 1: 38; Zup. 226, 1. And ábád swá þeáh (nihilominus) seofon dagas, Gen. 8, 12. Ic déme swá þeáh ða þeóde verumtamen gentem ego judicabo, 15, 24. Ðæt ðæs Hálgan Gástes þénung wǽre on ðære gyfe ðæs fullwihtes swá þeáh (nihilominus), nalles ðæs mannes, L. Ecg. C. 7; Th. ii. 140, 3: H. R. 1010, 8. Sceolde hwæðre swá þeáh æþeling uuwrecen ealdres linnan, Beo. Th. 4876; B. 2442. [Goth. swé þauh.] See þeáh-hwæðere, and se, weald. II. though, although, (1) in clauses which express no uncertainty :-- Þeáh (ðæch, Lind.: ðéh ðe, Rush.) se Hǽlend ne fullode quamquam Jesus non baptizaret, Jn. Skt. 4, 2. Wǽron Rómware sóna gegearwod, ðeáh hié werod læsse hæfdon tó hilde, Elen. Kmbl. 96; El. 48. Þeáh hié ǽr ðæs écan lífes orwéne wǽron, hié synt nú swíþe blíþe, Blickl. Homl. 85, 27. (1 a) combined with þe :-- Hí wǽron ðæs Hǽlendes gewitan, ðeáh ðe hí hine ðágyt ne cúðon, Hornl. Th. i. 84, 4: 82, 33. Þeáh ðe hé geong sý, Beo. Th. 3667; B. 1831. Ne beóþ gé tó forhte, þéh þe synnnigra cynn swylt þrowode, Andr. Kmbl. 3217; An. 1611. (2) in hypothetical clauses, though, if, even if :-- Ic ðé sylle swá hwæt swá ðú mé bitst, þeáh (licet) ðú wylle healf mín ríce, Mk. Skt. 6, 23: Bt. 18, 3; Fox 66, 10. Hwæt fremaþ ǽnegum menn, þeáh (ðáh, Lind.: ðeáh þe, Rush.) hé ealne middaneard gestrýne si mundum universum lucretur, Mt. Kmbl. 16, 26. On hwan mæg se mann módigan, þeáh hé wille on what can man pride himself, even if he wishes? Hom. Skt. i. 16, 371. Hwæt hæfst ðú æt ðám gifum, ðeáh hí nú éce wǽron? Bt. 13; Fox 38, 5. Nát þeáh ðú mid ligenum fare, Cd. Th. 34, 2; Gen. 531. Þǽh, 281, 2; Sat. 265. Ðéh ðú þersce si contuderis, Kent. Gl. 1034. Þeáh man ásette twégen fætels full ealað oððe wæteres, hý gedóþ ðæt ǽgþer biþ oferfroren, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 21, 15. (2 a) in combination with þe :-- Þeáh (ðéh, Lind.: þǽh, Rush.) þe ic scyle sweltan mid ðé, ne wiðsace ic ðé etiamsi opportuerit me mori tecum, non te negabo, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 35. Ðeáh þe etsi, 26, 33. Þeáh ðe (ðǽh, Lind.: ðéh, Rush.), Mk. Skt. 14, 29. Þeáh ðe ðé man bere mete tóforan, hwónlíce ðé fremaþ ðæt ðú hine geseó, búton ðú his onbyrige, swá eác ðé ne fremaþ, þeáh ðe ðú ða hálgan láre gehýre, bútan ðú hí tó gódum weorcum áwende, Homl. Th. ii. 402, 2-5. III. in correlative clauses :-- Þeáh (ðáh, Lind. etsi) ic God ne ondrǽde, þeáh (tamen) ic wrece hig, Lk. Skt. 18, 4-5: Bt. 13; Fox 38, 11. Ac þeáh ðú nú fier sié ðonne ðú wǽre, ne eart ðú þeáh ealles of ðam earde ádrifen, 5, 1; Fox 8, 35: 7, 4; Fox 22, 26. Ðeáh ðe hé wið ða scyldgiendan swugode, hé hit him ðeáh suígende gesǽde, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 23. Þeáh þe man wafige wundorlíce mid handa, ne biþ hit þeáh bletsung..., Homl. Skt. ii. 27, 151. Þeáh lǽwedum mannum wíf sí álýfed, swá ðeáh hí ágan micele þearf, ðæt..., Wulfst. 305, 17. Ðeáh hé nǽre fullíce gefulwad, hweðre hé ðæt gerýne ðære hálgan fulwihte mid gódum dǽdum heóld, Blickl. Homl. 213, 13. Hwæþre hé getrymede heora geleáfan, þeáh hié ðæt word ne ongeáton, 17, 8. Ðaeh ðe ... hweðre quanquam ... tamen, Ps. Surt. 38, 7. Ðeáh hwæðere, þeáh heó synderlíce Ióhannes gýmenne betǽht wǽre, hwæðere heó drohtnode gemǽnelíce mid ðam apostolícum werode, Homl. Th. i. 438, 31. [Goth. þauh: O. Sax. thóh: O. Frs. thách: O. H. Ger. doh: Icel. þó.]

þeáh-hwæðere; adv. conj. Yet, but, nevertheless, however :-- Ðeáh-hwæðere (verumtamen) ic secge eów, Mt. Kmbl. 11, 24: Lk. Skt. 10, 20. Ðeáhhwæðere (autem) gang tó ðære sǽ, Mt. Kmbl. 17, 27. Þeáhhwæþere, Blickl. Homl. 97, 25. Monige sint ðe mon sceal wærlíce lícettan, and ðeáhhwæðre eft cýðan, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 13. And hwæðre him mæg wíssefa wyrda gehwylce gemetigian,... ðeáhhwædre godcundes gástes brúcan and yet can the wise-minded man moderate every fate for himself,... yet can he enjoy the divine spirit, Salm. Kmbl. 883; Sal. 441. And þeáhhwæþere et tamen, Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 27. Þeáhhweðere, Blickl. Homl. 31, 18. Þeáhhweþre, 93, 17. Ac þeáhhwæþere sed tamen, Coll. Monast. Th. 18, 32: Chr. 1009; Erl. 142, 26. Gyt þeáhhwæþere adhuc tamen, Coll. Monast. Th. 33. 9. Nyste þeáhhweðre hwæt hé him dón sceolde, Blickl. Homl. 215, 2. Gif hé ne áríst forðam ðe hé his freónd ys, þeáhhwæþere for hys onhrópe he áríst, Lk. Skt. 11, 8. ¶ combined with swá :-- And swá þeáhhwæþere óþ ðone deáþ hé hine tintregaþ, Blickl. Homl. 59, 30. Ac swá ðeáhhwæðere seó menniscnys wæs ǽfre forestiht, Homl. Th. ii. 364, 25. Nolde ic cwic ǽfre swá þeáhhwæðere ðíne gewitnesse forlǽtan, Ps. Th. 118, 157.

þeaht, e; f. Counsel :-- Sum bisceop tó him férde, efne swá swá hé wǽre mid heofonlícre þeahte gelǽred, ðæt hé tó ðære sprǽce férde ðæs Godes mannes, Guthl. 17; Gdwin. 70, 8. Hí rǽddon ðæt man hine gebunde, and óð deáð swunge. Nero, ðá ðá hé ðæs folces ðeaht geácsode, wearð tó feore áfyrht, Homl. Th. i. 384, 7. On módes þeaht, Elen. Kmbl. 2482; El. 1242. v. ge-þeaht.

-þeahta, -þeahtend, -þeahtendlíc, -þeahtendlíce. v. ge-þeahta, -þeahtend,-þeahtendlíc, un-geþeahtendlíce.

þeahtere, es; m. A counsellor :-- On v. nihte mónan gang tó ðinum þeahtere, Lchdm. iii. 170, 3. Ðæs cyninges þeahteras regis consiliarii, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 25. Gé yfelan þehteras! ic nǽfre mé ne gebidde on eówer god, Nar. 42, 6. v. ge-, rǽd-þeahtere.

þeahtian; p. ode To take counsel, to consult :-- Hié smeágeaþ and ðeahtigaþ on hiera módes rinde monig gód weorc tó wyrcanne, Past. 9; Swt. 55, 22, Hé mid his ealdormannum ðeahtode and sóhte hwæt be ðyssum ðingum tó dónne wǽre cum suis primatibus curavit conferre, quid de his agendum arbitrarentur, Bd. 2, 9; S. 512, 11. Ðá þeahtode þeóden úre módgeþonce, hú hé ða mǽran gesceaft eft gesette, Cd. Th. 6, 21; Gen. 92. Hý þeahtodon hú hí mihton geniman míne sáwle ut acciperent animam meam consiliati sunt, Ps. Th. 30, 16. Weras þeahtedon, Elen. Kmbl. 1091; El. 547. Hí þeahtedon ongén hine, hú hí hine fordón mihton consilium faciebant aduersus eum, quomodo eum perderent, Mk. Skt. 3, 6. Hí ðeahtodon embe ðæra apostola forwyrd, Homl. Th. i. 572, 30. Hé ða monnðwǽrnesse ðe hé ǽr ðurhtogen hæfde eft ðeahtigende on yfel gewend mansuetudinem, quam tolerances habuerunt, retractantes in malitiam vertunt, Past. 83; Swt. 225, 22. Ðá wǽron ða hǽþenan betwih him ðeahtiende and sprecende, Bd. 5, 10; S. 624, 35. v. ge-, ymbe-þeahtian; rǽd-þeahtende.

þeahtung, e; f. Counsel, consultation :-- Tó ðæhtunge consilio, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 27, 7. Ðætung consilium, 28, 12. Ðæhtung, p. 16, 14: Mk. Skt. Lind. 3, 6: 15, 1: Lk. Skt. Lind. 7, 30. Ðæhtunge, Mk. Skt. Rush. 3, 6. v. for-, ge-, rǽd-þeahtung.

þeána (combined with swá, se); adv. conj. Yet :-- Pápa on Róme swá þeána gesette papa Romanus tamen statuit, L. Ecg. C. 7; Th. ii. 138, 36. Lífe ne gielpeþ hláfordes gifum, hýreþ swá þeána þeódne sínum, Exon. Th. 440, 6; Rä. 59, 13: 108, 32; Gú. 81. Nó God wolde ðæt seó sáwl sár þrowade, lýfde se þeána ðæt hý him mid hondum hrínan mósten, 127, 3; Gú. 380.

þearf, e; f. I. need :-- Wé sceolan beón genyndige Godes beboda, and úre sáwle þearfe, Blickl. Homl. 25, 27. Gemyndige úre sáula þearfe, 101, 16. God, ðe ǽlces monnes ðearfe wát, Bt. 39, 10; Fox 226, 25. Hé ealle can úre þearfe, Ps. Th. 102, 13. Seleþegn ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe, Beo. Th. 3598; B. 1797. Gleómen þearfe secgaþ, Exon. Th. 326, 31; Víd. 137. Ðæt hé ne ágǽle gǽstes þearfe, 51, 17; Cri. 817: 298, 17; Crä. 86. Miltsa ðú ús, and gemyne ðú úre þearfa, Blickl. Homl. 225, 21. II. need for or of something, which is expressed (1) by a genitive (α) of a noun, or of a pronoun referring to a noun :-- Hwylc ðearf is ðé húsles quid opus est eucharistia? Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 37: Cd. Th. 54, 19; Gen. 879. Him wæs manna þearf, Beo. Th. 405; B. 201. Nǽnges þinges máre þearf nǽre, Blickl. Homl. 175, 9. Nalas þý þe úre Drihten ðæs wolcnes fultomes þearfe hæfde, 121, 13. Náhte ic ðínre miltse þon máran þearfe, Judth. Thw. 22, 35; Jud. 92. Drihten ðæs (the ass) áh þearfe, Blickl. Homl. 71, 1. (β) of a pronoun that represents a clause :-- 'Ic bidde ðé, ðæt ðú nyme ðé ládmenn.' Ðá cwæð hé: 'Nys mé ðæs nán þearf' (non est necesse), Gen. 33, 15. Hí bǽdon ðæt hí móston on óðerne weg faran, and sǽdon ðæt him ðæs neód wǽre and eác þearf, Guthl. 14; Gdwin. 62, 6. Hwæs wǽre mé máre þearf, þonne ic mid cilde wǽre quid necesse fuit concipere? Gen. 25, 22. Ðæs ánes ic áh þearfe, ðæt ðú mín freónd sig and ic ðíne miltse hæbbe hoc uno tantum indigeo, ut inveniam gratiam in conspectu tuo, Gen. 33, 15. Wé ðæs náne þearfe nágon, ðæt wé him ǽfre fram ábúgan, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 454. (γ) of a pronoun that refers to a gerundial infinitive; cf. (3) :-- Forþon nis mé ðæs þearf, cwæð Orosius, tó secgenne, Ors. 1, 11; Swt. 50, 15. (2) by a clause :-- Him næs nán þearf (ðarf, Lind, opus), ðæt ǽnig man sǽde gewitnesse be men, Jn. Skt. 2, 25: 16, 30. Ús is eallum þearf, ðæt úre ǽghwylc óþerne bylde, Byrht.Th. 138, 41; By. 233. Is ðam weorce þearf, ðæt..., Exon. Th. 1, 21; Cri. 11. Ús is mycel ðearf, ðæt wé teolian, Blickl. Homl. 125, 11. Him wæs þearf micel, ðæt..., Cd. Th. 123, 32; Gen. 2054. Ic wéne ðæt hit sié nú ǽrest þearf, ðæt ic ðé gerecce hwǽr ðæt héhste gód is nunc demonstrandum reor, quonam haec felicitatis perfectio constituta sit, Bt. 34, 1; Fox 134, 3. Gé habbaþ micle ðearfe, ðæt gé simle wel dón, 42; Fox 258, 26. Ic áh mǽste þearfe, ðæt ðú mínum gáste gódes geunne, Byrht. Th. 136, 61; By. 175. (3) by the gerundial infinitive :-- Momge menn angiennaþ smeágean suíðor ðonne him ðearf sié tó begonganne nonnulli se in quibusdam inquisitionibus plus quam necesse est exercentes, Past. 11; Swt. 67, 4. Ús is mycel þearf tó witenne, Blickl. Homl. 63, 5. Hwæt is ðæt ðæm men sý máre þearf tó þencenne? 97, 19. Nis mé wihtæ þearf hearran tó habbanne, Cd. Th. 18, 25; Gen. 278. (4) where that for which there is need is not expressed :-- Gé ðone hlísan habban tiliaþ ofer þióda má, þonne eów þearf sié, Met. 10, 22. Hit is eów uttcúðre, ðonne gé þearfe áhton you have less knowledge on the point than you have need of, Wulfst. 292, 8. Ic ádrǽde, ðæt gé willan heora læs gýman, ðonne gé þearfa áhton, 297, 20. III. needful things, what is needful :-- Ðá hét hé him heora ðearfe forgyfan eis necessaria ministrari jussit, Bd. 1, 25; S. 486, 29. Wé willaþ eów andlyfne syllan and eówre þearfe forgifan quae victui sunt vestro necessaria ministrare curamus, S. 487, 55. Ǽghwylc moil wile ðæt him Drihten selle ealle his þearfe, Blickl. Homl. 51, 15. Mé Dryhten sendeþ þurh monnes bond míne þearfe, Exon. Th. 121, 24; Gú. 293. IV. what is required of a person, duty :-- Gif munuc wiðersaca wurðe mid ealle, hé sí ámánsumod ǽfre, búton hé gebúge tó his þearfe, L. Eth. ix. 41; Th. i. 348, 33. Áfæstnie man symle georne on heortan godcunde þearfe (duty towards God), Wulfst. 75, 5. God sceáwaþ sylf, mid hwylcum geþance man tó cyrican fare, and hwæt ðǽr man dreóge wordes oððe weorces. And se ðe ðǽr ðæt déþ, ðæt his þearfa beóþ, se gegladaþ God, 279, 1. Men forgýmdon Godes laga swýðor, ðonne heora þearfa wǽron, 292, 13. V. use, service, behoof, good, advantage, profit [v. þearf-líc, II, and cf. Icel. þarfr useful: Dan. tarv. behoof, good, benefit: O. H. Ger. bi-darbi utilis] :-- Nyttung vel þearf vel gewuna usus, Wrt. Voc. i. 54, 68. His wylla is, ðæt wé aa æfter úre ágenre þearfe geornlíce winnan his will is that we ever strive diligently after our own profit, Wulfst. l09, 8. For eówre þearfe mé sende God pro salute vestra misit me Deus, Gen. 45, 5. On ða gerád ðæt ðú ða eorþan sécan wille for gódra manna þearfe, Bt. 7, 3; Fox 22, 8. Bisceopas áscádaþ út of cyrican for heora ágenan þearfe ða, ðe heálíce hý sylfe forgyltan, Wulfst. 104, 11. Hé earfeþu geþolade fore þearfe þeódbúendra, láðlícne deáð leódum tó helpe, Exon. Th. 72, 15; Cri. 1173. Ðæs múðes tunge sceal faran on ðara eárena ðearfe ad usum suum auribus oris lingua concurrat, Past. 34; Swt. 233, 8: Andr. Kmbl. 3302; An. 1654: Beo. Th. 2916; B. 1456. Þonne wé biddaþ ongeán úre ágenre þearfe þonne forwyrnþ God ús ðæs ðe wé ungesceádwíslíce biddaþ when we ask for what is opposed to our own good, God refuses us that which we ask indiscreetly, Homl. Th. ii. 528, 8. Ðæt hí sýn gewordene bysen tó forwyrde swýðor þonne tó þearfe that they have become an example to perdition rather than to profit, L. I. P. 23; Th. ii. 334, 14. Úre ǽlc scute .iiii. pæng. tó úre gemǽn[r]e þearfe each of us should contribute four pence to our common use, L. Ath. v. 2; Th. i. 230, 16. Tó ðæs heres þearfe to the service of the Danes, Chr. 874; Erl. 76, 32. Eallum þeódscipe tó þearfe for the good of the whole nation, 1006; Erl. 141, 7. Mann wísdóm sprecþ manegum tó þearfe and tó rihtinge, Ælfc. T. Grn. 21, 27: Wulfst. 32, 9. Úre Drihten ðe eallum manncynne com tó ðearfe (helpe, MS. E.), 14, 17. Godes hús séce hé gelóme him sylfum tó þearfe, 73, 16. Hit wearð mancynne tó mycelre þearfe, 23, 5: 119, 16. Tó þearfe usefully, profitably, 49, 2: Byrht. Th. 138, 38; By. 232: Menol. Fox 426; Men. 214. Se ðe ðæt déþ, hé déþ him sylfum mycle ðearfe, Wulfst. 113, 13: 119, 11: 303, 7. Fremmaþ gé leóda þearfe, Beo. Th. 5594; B. 2801. Ic wát ðæt ðú sécst míne ðearfe I know that you seek my good, Shrn. 182, 32. Gif eall geférrǽden ðone rǽd missrǽdaþ, and þeáh feáwa witena on ðam geférscipe beón, ðæt ða þearfe wíslícor tócnáwan cunnon þonne sume, stande ðæra rǽd ðe ða ðearfe geceósaþ, R. Ben. 116, 20. V a. a useful thing, profitable employment :-- Ðæs hádes men ðe hwýlum wǽron nyttoste and geswincfulleste on godcundan þeówdóme and on bóccræfte, ða syndon nú unnyttaste, and ne swincaþ á swíðe ymbe ǽnige þearfe for Gode ne for worulde, L. I. P. 14; Th. ii. 322, 22. VI. need, distress, straits, difficulty :-- Gif him þyslícu þearf gelumpe, Beo. Th. 5268; B. 2637: 2504; B. 1250. Mec þearf monaþ, micel módes sorg, Exon. Th. 285, 21; Jul. 717. Gefultumend æt ǽlcere ðearfe adjutor in opportunitatibus, in tribulatione, Ps. Th. 9, 10. Swá ðæt se man ábrýð æt ǽlcere þearfe (cf. ábreóðe on ǽlcere neóde, 59, 12), Wulfst. 53, 13. Gif ic æt þearfe ðíne scolde aldre linnan, Beo. Th. 2958; B. 1477. On hyra mandryhtnes miclan þearfe, 5691; B. 2849. Seó ecg geswác þeódne æt þearfe, 3054; B. 1525. Swylc sceolde secg wesan æt þearfe, 5411; B. 2709: Byrht. Th. 140, 52; By. 307. Þonne weorðe ic mid eów ǽfre æt ðearfe, and eów ne forlǽte ǽfre æt neóde, Wulfst. 50, 5: Ps. Th. 62, 7: 70, 6. Ða ðe hine seóslige sóhtun on ðearfe, Exon. Th. 157, 30; Gú. 899. Wást ðú hú ic gewand ymbe Creosos þearfe, ðá ðá hine Cirus gefangen hæfde? Bt. 7, 3; Fox 22, 10. Hwæt miht ðú on ða tíd þearfe gewépan? Dóm. L. 176. Ðec nú for þearfum ðín ágen geweorc bídeþ, Exon. Th. 8, 3; Cri. 112. Wé ðec for þearfum and for þreánýdum árena biddaþ, 186, 3; Az. 14. Ðonne hwá tó his scrifte cymeþ, on ða gerád ðæt hé wille his þearfa tó him sprecan and his synna andettan, L. E. I. 31; Th. ii. 428, 9. [Gif hwa is swa sunful þet nulle his scrift halden, þenne segge ic eou, þet nis hit nan þerf (it is no use), þet me her on þisse liue for his saule bidde O. E. Homl. i. 9, 31. Alle þatt haffdenn ned and þarrfe to þin hellpe, Orm. 12247. Goth. þarba need, want: O. Frs. therve: O. L. Ger. therva opus: O. H. Ger. darba privatio: Icel. þörf.] v. feorh-, firen-, heáh-, nearu-, níd-, ofer-, sáwel-, un-, weá-, weoruld-þearf;. þurfan.

þearf. v. þurfan.

þearfa; adj. I. destitute of, needing (with gen.) :-- Hrægles þearfa ic wreó mé wǽda leásne, Cd. Th. 53, 25; Gen. 866. [Goth. þarba (with gen.).] II. the word is generally used substantively, a needy, poor person :-- Ðearfa pauper, wædla egenus, Wrt. Voc. i. 74, 21. Ðá sæt ðǽr sum þearfa æt ðæm burggeate, Blickl. Homl. 213, 32. Ðá sæt ðǽr sum blind þearfa, 15, 16. Ná ðæt án ðæt hé wolde mann beón, ac eác swylce hé wolde beón þearfa for ús, Homl. Th. i. 140, 10. Fela sind ðearfan þurh hafenleáste ... Sind óðre ðearfan on gáste ... on ðás wísan wæs Abraham ðearfa, and Dauid, se ðe hine sylfne geswutelode þearfan on gáste, þus cweðende: 'Ic eom wædla and þearfa.' Ða módigan rícan ne beóþ þearfan ne þurh hafenleáste ne on gáste, 550, 2-11. Nafa ðú nánes þearfan wedd mid ðé nihtlangne fyrst, Deut. 24, 12. Gefyllan ðæs þearfan wambe, Blickl. Homl. 39, 29. Mec mon biþeahte mid þearfan wǽdum (with the garments of a pauper), Exon. Th. 87, 10; Cri. 1423. Se biscop nǽre miltsiende nánum Godes þearfan, Blickl. Homl. 45, 2. Ða gástlícan þearfan (ðaerfe, Lind.) pauperes spiritu, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 3. Eádige sind gé þearfan on gáste, Lk. Skt. 6, 20. Gener ðearfena refugium pauperi, Ps. Spl. 9, 9. Ðearfena and earmra manna inopum, Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 17. Ic sylle ðearfum (pauperibus) healfe míne ǽhta, Lk. Skt. 19, 8. Syllan þearfon (egenis), Jn. Skt. 12, 5. Him gebyrode tó ðám þearfon (ðorfum, Lind.: ðarfum, Rush.), 12, 6. Ðæt hé dǽlde þearfum and wædlum, Homl. Skt. ii. 26, 59. Þearfum matriculariis (matricularius a poor person supported by a church), Wrt. Voc. ii. 86, 50: 57, 1. Þearfum pauperculis, miseris, Hpt. Gl. 458, 13. Hé démeþ fyrhte þearfan swylce hé þearfena bearn hǽleþ judicabit pauperes, et salvos faciet filios pauperum, Ps. Th. 71, 4. Þearfan ic lǽrde, ðæt hié heora wædle gefeán hæfdon, Blickl. Homl. 185, 17. Ic lǽre ge ða welegan ge þa þearfan, 107, 12. ¶ Besides enjoining almsgiving the church directly assisted the poor by assigning a certain proportion of the tithes to those whom it called Godes þearfan. Thus in general terms it is said :-- Wé willaþ myngian freónda gehwylcne, ðæt hí Godes þearfan fréfrian and fédan, L. Eth. vi. 46; Th. i. 326, 24; and in reference to tithe :-- Þridda dǽl ðare teóðunge, ðe tó circan gebyrige, gá Godes þearfum and earmum þeówetlingum, ix. 6; Th. i. 342, 9: in return the poor were exhorted to intercede for the people whose alms they received :-- Wé lǽraþ, ðæt preóstas, þonne hí ða ælmessan ðǽlan, ða þearfan georne biddan, ðæt hig for ðæt folc þingian, L. Edg. C. 56; Th. ii. 256, 11. From other sources the poor derived benefit; certain fines were devoted to their use :-- Gebéte hé .xxx. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., and sié ðæt feoh gedǽled ðǽm þearfum, ðe on ða[m] tún[e] synd, L. Ath. prm.; Th. i. 198, 12. Gif feohbót áríseþ, ðæt gebyreþ rihtlíce ... tó þearfena hyððe, L. Eth. vi. 51; Th. i. 328, 6. [Ego egenus et pauper sum, þet is: Ic em þarna and wrecche, O. E. Homl. i. 115, 8. Goth. þarba a poor person.] v. ofer-, weoruld-þearfa; þorfa.

þearfan; p. de; pp. ed To need, suffer need :-- Nú ðú ðæt swá openlíce ongiten hæfst, ne þearfe ic nú náuht swíþe ymbe ðæt swincan, Bt. 35, 3; Fox 158, 8. Úre ceaster is þearfende ... wé þoliaþ ðone heardestan hungor, Ap. Th. 9, 7. Ðú, þíne þearfende thou, needing food (? v. þigen, II), Cd. Th. 149, 25; Gen. 2480. Ðæt ðú miltsige mé þearfendum, Exon. Th. 269, 13; Jul. 449. Ic ðé biddan wille miltse ðínre mé þearfendre, Judth. Thw. 22, 29; Jud. 85. Wé ðearfende þearle syndon pauperes facti sumus nimis, Ps. Th. 78, 8. Ða ðe hira hláf sellaþ ðǽm synfullum ðe ðearfende beóþ, nalles for ðæm ðe hié synfulle beóþ ac for ðæm ðe hié menn beóþ and ðearfende beóþ qui indigenti etiam peccatori panem suum, non quia peccator, sed quia homo est, tribuit, Past. 44; Swt. 327, 8. ¶ The present participle, as adjective or as substantive, often occurs, (1) as adjective, indigent, needy, poor :-- Hé sǽde ðæt hé folclíc man wǽre and ðearfende rusticum se et pauperem fuisse respondit, Bd. 4, 22; S. 591, 6. Widua ðiós ðærfen[de] (ðorfende, Rush.) uidua haec pauper, Mk. Skt. Lind. 12, 43. On ðearfendum lífe and on earmlícum in humili et paupere vita, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 23: 1, 15; S. 484, 7. Of ðearfendum folce de paupere vulgo, 4, 22; S. 591, 34. Ða ðearfendan láfe Brytta pauperculae Brittonum reliquiae, 1, 13; S. 481, 41. &AElig-acute;nig gemynd þearfendra manna, Blickl. Howl. 69, 10. Brec ðínne hláf þearfendum mannum, 37, 20: 75, 23: 109, 14. Ðæt hé sealde sum þping þearfendum mannum (egenis), Jn. Skt. 13, 29. (2) as substantive, (a) a poor person; mostly in plural, the poor :-- Ðone þearfendan áreccan erigens pauperem, Ps. Th. 112, 6. Eádge biðon ða ðærfendo (ðorfendo, Lk. Skt. Lind. 6, 20) beati pauperes, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 5, 3. Þearf endra béne orationes pauperum, Ps. Th. l01, 15: 108, 30. Hleó ðarfendra refugium pauperum, Rtl. 40, 25. Hé þearfendra éhte persecutus est hominem pauperem, Ps. Th. 108, 16. Se ðe his ǽhta þearfendum (pauperibus) gedǽleþ, 111, 8. Ðearfendum, Past. 44; Swt. 327, 20. Ðarfendum egenis, Lk. Skt. Rush. 12, 5. Þearfendum and ælþeódigum peregrinis et egentibus, Cod. Dip. B. i. 155, 5. Hé fédde þearfende, Homl. Skt. ii. 31, 53. Ða þearfendan Drihten gehýreþ, Ps. Th. 68, 34.(b) a miserable person :-- Biþ ðæt þridde þearfendum (the wicked) sorg, Exon. Th. 79, 4; Cri. 1285. [Goth. ga-þarban maté &alpha-tonos;π&epsilon-tonos;χεσθαι βρωμ&alpha-tonos;των, 1 Tim. 4, 3: O. H. Ger. darbén carere.] v. be-, mete-, weoruld-, wine-þearfende; þearfedness, þearfend-líc; þearfian.

þearfedness, e; f. Poverty :-- On wilsumlícre ðearfednesse voluntaria paupertate, Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 3: Anglia x. 145, 163. Mid ðearfednesse ge mid heora ungelǽrednesse paupertate ac rusticitate sua, Bd. 4, 27; S. 604, 28. In ðearfednisse in paupertate, Ps. Surt. 30, 11.

þearfende. v. þearfan.

þearfend-líc; adj. Poor, (a) of persons, indigent, destitute :-- Monnes bearn (Guthlac in his hermitage) swá þearfendlíc, Exon. Th. 128, 11; Gú. 402. (b) of things, scanty, insufficient :-- Ðæt ðú ne forgite míne þearfendlícan gegirlan (cf. se fiscere tóslát his wǽfels on twá and sealde Apollonige ðone healfan dǽl, 11, 27), Ap. Th. 12, 8.

þearfian; p. ode To be in need :-- Hé þearfigendra sáwla gehǽleþ animas pauperum salvos faciet, Ps. Th. 71, 13. [Icel. þarfa; p. parfaði.] v. be-þearfaþ, ge-þearfian; þearfan.

þearf-leás; adj. Without having need or reason to do something. v. þearf, II, þurfan, II. 4 :-- Þearflǽs hé syrwde ymbe Crist he plotted against Christ, but he had no need to do it, Homl. Th. i. 82, 20. Ic ðearfleás (þearfleáse, Job. Thw. 166, 22) hine geswencte without having cause I afflicted him, ii. 452, 16. [Icel. þarf-lauss needless.]

þearfleáse; adv. Needlessly, without cause. v. preceding word.

þearf-líc; adj. I. necessary :-- Lá hú þearflíc hit is quanto magis, Hpt. Gl. 454, 6. Néd ɫ ðarflíc is necesse esse, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 18, 7. Ðarflíc ɫ néd is necessarium est, p. 13, 1. II. useful, profitable, v. þearf, V :-- Behóflíc ɫ ðarflíc utile, Mt. Kmbl. p. 13, 6. Hér is hálwendlíc lár and ðearflíc lǽwedum mannum, Wulfst. 134, 9. Ðæt is þearflíc gewuna, 104; 17: 108, 19: L. Ath. v. 8, 9; Th. i. 238, 18. On gódum lǽce biþ gelang þearflíc broces bót, L. Pen. 9; Th. ii. 280, 13. Ðæt him ðearflíc nǽre, ðæt hé ðǽs hálgan hǽse forhule his hláforde that it would not be well for him to conceal the saint's bidding from his lord, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 80. On gódan þeáwan and on þearflícan dǽdan, Wulfst. 121, 2. Sélre ús is and ðearflícre, ðæt wé úre gyltas andetton, 136, 1. Ðarflícro (ðaroflícra, Rush.) is utilius est, Lk. Skt. Lind. 17, 2. Swá swá him þincæ ðæt mǽ þearfliicustþ sí, Chart. Th. 554, 36. [Icel. þarf-ligr useful.] v. beþearf-líc, nídþearf-líc.

þearflíce; adv. Usefully, profitably, with profit, to good purpose :-- Wé mihton ðás hálgan rǽdinge menigfealdlícor trahtnian, ac ús twýnaþ hwæðer gé magon máran deópnysse ðǽron þearflíce tócnáwan whether you can with profit know the profounder parts of the subject, Homl. Th. i. 556, 15. Angan listum ymbe þencean þearflíce hú hé þider meahte Crécas oncerran, Met. 1, 60. [Icel. þarfliga usefully.]

þearflícness, e; f. Poverty, neediness :-- Þærflícnys paupertas, Hpt. Gl. 438, 60. Þerflícnes mendicitas, Kent. Gl. 950. On þearflícnysse in paupertate, Ps. Spl. 30, 13: Scint. 127, 18: 148, 2. Þearflícnysse hé ondrét paupertatem ueretur, 179, 8. Þearflícnysse lufian paupertatem diligere, Cod. Dip. B. i. 155, 7.

þearl; adj. (1) of persons, severe, strict :-- Se ðearla and se ryhtwísa Déma districtus judex, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 22. (2) of things, (a) pain, punishment, effort, and the like, severe :-- Hé ðý wyrs meahte þolian ða þráge, ðá hió swá þearl becom, Met. 1, 77. Þreánýd þearl, Elen. Kmbl. 1404; El. 704. Wæs seó ádl þearl, Exon. Th. 160, 30; Gú. 951. And suá ðý ðearlan dóme hé forleás his mennisce ut districto justoque judicio homo esse perderet, Past. 4; Swt. 39, 23. Heó þrowedon þearl æfterleán, Cd. Th. 5, 24; Gen. 76. Þreá wǽron þearfe, Exon. Th. 135, 4; Gú. 519: Ps. Th. 104, 12: 149, 7. Wéndon hié wera cwealmes, þearlra geþinga, Andr. Kmbl. 3194; An. 1600. Ðirst and hungor and ðearle gewin, Salm. Kmbl. 946; Sal. 472. (b) utter, excessive :-- þýstru ðú gesettest on þearle niht (night utterly dark) posuisti tenebras, et facta est nox, Ps. Th. 103, 19.

þearle; adv. Severely, sorely, strictly, hard. This word, as does swíþe (q. v.), tends to become an adverb of degree rather than one of manner or quality; where it qualifies words denoting pain, effort, or the like, it may be considered as keeping much of its old force, but even there it is used to translate Latin words marking degree; while in the case of words which do not convey such an idea, it becomes equivalent to very, very much, exceedingly, and the like. I. where there is the idea of pain, trouble, etc. (α) where the idea of manner is more prominent :-- Þearle ys mé nú ðá, heorte ys onhǽted matters go hardly with me now, my heart burns within me, Judth. Thw. 22, 30; Jud. 86. Se ðe his þeóden ǽr þearfe gerǽhte (severely wounded), Byrht. Th. 136, 29; By. 158. Hí fuhton ðearle they fought hard, Judth. Thw. 25, 16; Jud. 262: Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 23. Hí hungre wǽron þearle geþreátod, Andr. Kmbl. 2231; An. 1117: Beo. Th. 1124; B. 560: Rood Kmbl. 103; Kr. 52. Ðis is ðeóstræ hám ðearle gebunden fæstum fýrclommum, Cd. Th. 267, 15; Sat. 38. Þearle hé démde tantopere taxaverat, Hpt. Gl. 454, 2. Ús stalu and cwalu ... derede swýðe þearle injured us very severely, Wulfst. 159, 11. Ðæt hé him ðonne ðearlur (districtius) déman scyle, Past. 53; Swt. 419, 5. (β) where the idea of degree is more prominent, very, very much, exceedingly, excessively :-- Sáwl mín gedréfed is ðearle anima mea turbata est valde, Ps. Spl. 6, 3. Geeádmét ic eom ðearle (nimis), 37, 8: Ps. Th. 78, 8. Þearle ic deorfe nimium laboro, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 13. Forþóht þearle (cf. swíþe unrót, Bt. 1; Fox 4, 4), Met. 1, 82. Ðæt folc wearð þearle geswenct mid ðam síðfate taedere coepit populum itineris ac laboris, Num. 21, 4: Ps. Th. 103, 8: Homl. i. 80, 14. II. where there is no idea of pain, trouble, etc., very, to a great degree, very much, to a great extent, exceedingly :-- Geðancas þearle deópe nimis profundae cogitationes, Ps. Th. 91, 4. Þearle mildheort multum misericors, 144, 8: Judth. Thw. 22, 23; Jud. 74. Swíðe gelýfed mann and ðearle eáwfæst, Homl. Th. ii. 306, 4. Ðú eall geworhtest þing þearle gód (cf. swíþe góde, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 22), Met. 20, 45. Behéfe þearle utilis valde, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 27: 29, 31. Þearle deóplíce valde profunde, 32, 9. Þearle swíþe tó herienne, Lchdm. iii. 436, 18: 438, 27. Hé geíhte folc his ðearle (vehementer), Ps. Spl. 104, 22. Þearle fremaþ cræft mín eów multum prodest ars mea vobis, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 7: Judth. Thw. 26, 3; Jud. 307. Ic ðé gemenigfilde swíþe þearle (vehementer nimis), Gen. 17, 2. Dríg swýþe þearle dry very thoroughly, Lchdm. i. 70, 10. Ðis godspel belimpþ swíðe þearle tó ðære mǽran freólstíde this gospel belongs very specially to the great festival, Homl. Th. ii. 360, 10. Hig þearle etaþ nimium comedunt, Coll. Monast. Th. 26, 11. Gehwylc mé drincan sealde þearle each gave me abundance to drink, Exon. Th. 485, 1; Rä. 71, 7. Drinc swýþe þearle drink very largely, Lchdm. i. 78, 10. Hit on wolcnum oft þearle þunraþ, Met. 28, 25. v. for-þearle.

þearl-líc; adj. Severe, hard to bear :-- Ðá ðæt Andrea earmlíc þúhte, þeódbealo þearlíc tó geþolianne, ðæt hé swá unscyldig ealdre sceolde lungre linnan, Andr. Kmbl. 2273; An. 1138. Sceal se dæg weorþan, ðæt wé forð beraþ firena gehwylce; ðæt biþ þearlíc gemót (a meeting that will be a severe ordeal for all), Exon. Th. 447, 9; Dóm. 36. Deáþes cwealm, þearlíc wíte, 240, 25; Ph. 644. Þurh þearlíc þreá, 283, 20; Jul. 678.

þearllíce; adv. I. severely :-- Ðonne sint eác ðǽm ilcan monnum suíðe ðearllíce (ðearlíce, Cott. MSS.) tó recceanne ða godcundan cwidas districte itaque contra illos divinae, sententiae proferendae sunt, Past. 37; Swt. 265, 22. Forðon is néd, ðætte sume mid woningum, sume þearlícor (ðearflícor, Bd. S. 490, 11), sume líðelecor, synd gerehte unde necesse est ut quidam damnis, quidam districtius, quidam levius, corrigantur, Bd. 1, 27; M. 68, 5. II. strictly, exactly, thoroughly :-- Dríg swýþe þearle (þeaclíce (þearlíce?), MS. O.), Lchdm. i. 70, 10. III. violently :-- Swá biþ be ðám heáclifum and torrum, ðonne hí hlifiaþ feor up ofer ða óðre eorðan, hý ðonne feallan onginnaþ and full þeaclíce hreósan tó eorðan (come with a great crash to the ground). Wulfst. 262, 12. v, for-þearlíce.

þearl-mód; adj. Of severe mind, (1) in a bad sense, stern, cruel :-- Hæfde his ende gebidenne unswǽslícne, swylcne hé ǽr æfter worhte, þearlmód þeóden gumena (Holofernes), Judth.Thw, 22, 18; Jud. 66. (2) in a good sense, severe in dealing with evil. v. þearl, I :-- Þearlmód þeóden gumena (the Deity), 22, 34; Jud. 99.

þearl-wís; adj. Severe, strict :-- Ierre ðæs ðearlwísan déman districti iram judicis, Past. l0; Swt. 63, 15. Beforan ðæm ðearlwísan déman apud districtim judicem, 16; Swt. 105, 10: Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 36. Þearlwísere gýmene districto regimine, Hpt. Gl. 486, 61. God sylfa ðonne ne gýmeþ nǽnges mannes hreówe, ac biþ ðonne réþra and þearlwísra ðonne ǽnig wilde deór, Blickl. Homl. 95, 30.

þearlwís-líc; adj. Severe, hard :-- Drihten hyne þreáde myd þearlwýslícere swingle the Lord punished him with a severe flogging, Shrn. 98, 15.

þearlwíslíce; adv. Severely, strictly :-- Ðreáge hé hine selfne ðearlwíslíce on his geðóhte se districta animadversione corrigant, Past. 64; Swt. 461, 20. Hié ða scyldigan þearlwíslíce démaþ, Blickl. Homl. 63, 20. Ðý læs hié wyrðen ðearlwíslecor gedémede ne districtius puniantur, Past. 28; Swt. 191, 15.

þearlwísness, e; f. Severity, strictness :-- Seó ðearlwísnes ðæs heardan lífes districtio vitae arctioris, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 31. Hé hine wæs frignende mid ða apostolícam ðearlwísnesse sciscitabatur apostolica districtione, 2, 6; S. 508, 14.

þearm, es; m. A gut, an intestine [Tharm = guts washed for making hogs' puddings, is given as a Lincolnshire word in Bailey's Dictionary; with the meaning, 'material of which fiddle-strings are made,' it is given in E. D. S. Pub. Cumberland Glossary; and in Jamieson's Dictionary therm, tharme = the intestines; a gut prepared, especially as a string for a musical instrument] :-- Þearm, thearm intestinum, Txts. 69, 1058. Þearm fibra, 63, 870: Wrt. Voc. ii. 148, 55: intestinum, 44, 2. Þearm fibra, þearma fibrarum, þearmas fibre, 35, 39-41. Blind þearm cecum, 16, 59. Lǽcedómas wiþ þearmes útgange, and gif men bilyhte sié ymb ðone þearm, Lchdm. ii. 170, 27. Þearmas fibrae, Wrt. Voc. i. 45, 16: intestina, ii. 49, 50: exta, Ælfc. Gr. 13; Zup. 85, 10. Ðearmas, Wrt. Voc. i. 71, 14. Smæle þearmas ilia, 44, 46. Þearma fibrarum, Hpt. Gl. 520, 62. Darmana, Txts. 111, 27. Þearmas fibras, Wrt. Voc. ii. 38, 5: Hpt. Gl. 453, 14. [Þærmes (þarmes, 2nd MS.), Laym. 818. Þermes, 18451. Þine þarmes þralinge, H. M. 35, 26, Thaarme or gutte sumen, viscus, Prompt. Parv. 490. A tharme trutum, Wrt. Voc. i. 247, 5 (15th cent.). O. Frs. thermar; pl.: O. L. Ger. thermí; pl. exta: O. H. Ger. darm fibra; pl. darma intestina, ilia: Ger. darm: Icel. þarmr; pl. þarmar: Dan. Swed. tarm gut.] v. bæc-, smeoru-, snǽdel-þearm, smæl-þearmas, and next word.

þearme (, es; n.? v. smæl-þearme) the entrails :-- Tharme viscera, Txts. 107, 2140.

þearm-gewind, -wind, es; m. The words seem to mean 'that which enwraps the intestines,' cf. plecta wǽfelsa, gewynde, Hpt. Gl. 462, 64, but they are used to gloss jugulam (-um?), so should mean the collar-bone, or the hollow part of the neck above the collar-bone, or the throat :-- Gescyld ðearmgewind (ðearmwind, lxxiv, 24), breóstbán, breóst tege jugulam, pectusculum, mamillas, Lchdm. i. lxxii, 1.

þearm-gyrd a belly-band, girth :-- Þearmgyrd subligar (the word occurs in a list of terms connected with horses), Wrt. Voc. i. 23, 16. [Cf. O. H. Ger. darm-gurtil cingula.] Cf. forþ-gyrd.

þeáter (with declension like winter?) a theatre :-- Æt heora þeátra, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 154, 2.

þeáw, es; m. I. a custom, usage, general practice of a community :-- Swá Iudéa þ[e]áw (ðeáu, Lind.: ðeów, Rush.) ys tó bebyrgenne sicut mos Iudaeis est sepelire, Jn. Skt. 19, 40. Hit wæs Iudisc þeáw, Blickl. Homl. 67, 8. Feówertig daga hit wæs þeáw (mos) ðæt man sceolde wépan ǽlcne deádne mann, Gen. 50, 3. Siþþan wæs hiera (the Amazons) þeáw, ðæt hié ǽlce geáre tósomne férdon, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 8: Beo. Th. 2497; B. 1246: Andr. Kmbl. 50; An. 25. Wæs in ða tíd ðeáu Ongelcynnes folcum, ðæt..., Bd. 4, 27; S. 604, 15. Gyf hit on lande ðeáw sý, L. R. S. 3; Th. i. 432, 24. Hwæt ðeóde ðeáw sý, 4; Th. i. 434, 34: 21; Th. i. 440, 21. Be ðære ðeóde ðeáwe ðe wé ðænne on wuniaþ, 440, 23. Ðara ðeóda þeáwas sint swíþe ungelíca, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 22. Efenfela þeóda and þeáwa, Exon. Th. 334, 18; Gn. Ex. 18. Ðeóda ungelíca ǽgþer ge on sprǽce ge on ðeáwum, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 62, 29. II. mode of conduct, custom, manner, practice, way, usage of a class or kind, (a) referring to human beings :-- Ne bið swylc cwénlíc þeáw, Beo. Th. 3885; B. 1940. Swá bið geóguðe þeáw, Exon. Th. 127, 23; Gú. 390. Hýrena deáwe gé fleóþ ye flee after the manner of hirelings, Past. 15; Swt. 89, 14. Hé for eaxlum gestód Deniga freán, cúþe hé duguðe þeáw, Beo. Th. 724; B. 360. (b) referring to animals :-- Hiora ðeáwe suatim (cf. suatim, suarum more, 77, 43), Wrt. Voc. ii. 88, 14. Ðú (Nebuchadnezzar) ne gewittes wast bútan wildeóra þeáw, Cd. Th. 252, 2; Dan. 572. (c) referring to inanimate things :-- Ðæt mennisce mód hæfþ wætres ðeáw (aquae more), Past. 38; Swt. 277, 6. Ǽlces mannes mód hæfþ scipes ðeáw (more navis), 58; Swt. 445, 10. Nú ðú wást hwelce þeáwas ða woruldsǽlþa habbaþ ... Gif ðé heora þeáwas líciaþ, Bt. 7, 2; Fox 18, 5-7. (d) referring to all created things :-- God gesette unáwendendlícne sido and þeáwas eallum his gesceaftum, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 1: Met. 11, 12. III. a practice of religion, method of belief, way of thinking, legal usage :-- Gecynde riht jus naturale, þeáw vel wíse solempnitas, Wrt. Voc. i. 20, 32. Swylc wæs þeáw hyra such was their religion, Beo. Th. 359; B. 178. Ánmóde þeáwes those who think alike; unius moris (cf. un[i]animes, Ps. Th. Surt.), Ps. Spl. 67, 6. Se forlét his fulluht, and leouode on hǽðenum þeáwe, Chr. 616; Erl. 20, 40. Hé nǽnigne nýdde tó Cristenum ðeáwe (ad Christianismum), Bd. 1, 26; S. 488, 15. Tó reogollícum ðeáwe rihtra Eástrena ad ritum Paschae canonicum, 5, 22; S. 643, 38. Þis folc after ðeáwe tó húsle gange, Blickl. Homl. 207, 5. Heó ðone ðeáw ðæs Cristenan geleáfan (ritum fidei) healdan móste, Bd. 1, 25; S. 486, 34. Hǽþennysse ðeáw forlǽtan gentilitatis ritum relinquere, 1, 26; S. 488, 12. Ðone ealdan ðeáw ... ðý apostolican ðeáwe inveteratam illam traditiortem ... apostolico more, 5, 22; S. 644, 6-8. Hé hæfde beteran ðeáw, leóhtran geleáfan, Cd. Th. 256, 18; Dan. 642. Ða ðe on hǽðnum þeáwum dwelgende wǽron, Blickl. Homl. 201, 20. Geset is on cyrclícum þeáwum, Homl. Th. i. 150, 26. Hé áwrát áne bóc be cyrclícum ðeáwum, ii. 84, 23. Onféngon hí rihtgelýfede ðeáwas on tó lifianne susceperunt ritus vivendi catholicos, Bd. 5, 22; S. 644, 23: Hy. 9, 28. Ðone naman ánne wé hæfdon ðætte wé Cristene wǽron and swíðe feáwe ða ðeáwas we should have the name only of being Christians, and very few of the practices of Christianity, Past. pref; Swt. 4, 8. Þeáwas (Epicuri) sectas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 84, 67: Hpt. GlI. 503, 59. IV. a custom, habit, manner, mode of conduct of an individual; the pl. often may be rendered by conduct, behaviour :-- Ðeáw wæs ðam ylcan biscope, ðæt hé ðæt weorc má ðurh his fóta gange fremede, ðonne on his horsa ráde moris erat eidem antistiti, opus magiis ambulando quam equitando perficere, Bd. 4, 3; S. 566, 31. Ǽlces gódes þeáwas wísdóm gefyllþ ðone, ðe hine lufaþ, Bt. 27, 2; Fox 98, 2. Wá him ðæs þeáwes, gif hí unrǽdes ne geswícaþ, Exon. Th. 393, 11; Rä. 12, 8. Hé wæs swíþe yfel monn ealra þeáwa, búton ðæt hé wæs céne his conduct was very bad in every respect, except that he was brave, Ors. 6, 14; Swt. 268, 27. Weorðe hé worda and dǽda, þeáwa and geþonca, ðæt hé ne forleóse his dreámes blǽd, Exon. Th. 97, 1; Cri. 1584. Ic geseó on eówres fæder þeáwum ðæt hé nys swá wel wið mé geworht, swá hé wæs gyrstandæg I see by your father's behaviour that he is not so well disposed to me as he was yesterday, Gen. 31, 5. Hé ongiet be sumum ðingum oððe ðeáwum útanne ætiéwdum eall ðæt hié innan ðenceaþ, Past. 21; Swt. 155, 10. Wer gecorene on his ðeáwum virum probum moribus, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 9. Wæs hé swíðe geþungen on his ðeáwum he was most excellent in his conduct, Blickl. Homl. 217, 7: Judth. Thw. 23, 19; Jud. 129: Exon. Th. 126, 10; Gú. 369: 297, 14; Crä. 68. Þeáwum geþancul habitually thoughtful, Andr. Kmbl. 923; An. 462: Cd. Th. 102, 25; Gen. 1705. Lifian rihtum þeáwum to live righteously, 160, 4; Gen. 2646. Þeáwum lifian to live virtuously, Exon. Th. 319, 13; Víd. 11: Beo. Th. 4295; B. 2144. Ǽlc ðara ðe healdan wile hálige þeáwas every one who will maintain habits of holiness, Cd. Th. 92, 20; Gen. 1531. [O. E. Homl. þeau, þeu: A. R. þeau: Laym. þeauwes, þewes, þæwes; pl.: Orm. þæw: O. and N. Chauc. þewes; pl.: Prompt. Parv. thewe, maner or condycyon mos: O. Sax. thau: O. H. Ger. dau.] v. freoðo-, fulwiht-, leód-, mann-, mynster-, regol-, un-þeáw; ge-þýwe, un-geþeáwe.

þeáw a slave. v. þeów.

þeáw-fæst; adj. I. of good manners, of well-ordered life, moral, virtuous :-- Loth hine fægre heóld, þeáwfæst and geþyldig, on ðam þeódscipe, Cd. Th. 116, 26; Gen. 1942: (Abraham), 161, 8; Gen. 2662. Wunige hé mid þeáwfæstumm mannum maneat cum bene moratis hominibus, L. Ecg. P. i. 10; Th. ii. 176, 23. II. gentle :-- Sumum hé syleþ monna nlilde heortan, þeáwfæstne geþóht, Exon. Th. 299, 28; Crä. 109. v. un-þeáwfæst.

þeáwfæstness, e; f. Adherence to the rules of right conduct or method, discipline, obedience to rule :-- Þeáwfæstnesse discipline, Hpt. Gl. 432, 34. Be sealmsanges ðeáwfæstnesse de disciplina psallendi, R. Ben. 45, 2. Ða cild mid steóre and þeáwfæstnysse (cum disciplina) heora endebyrdoysse healdon, 116, 9: R. Ben. Interl. 106, 12. On háligre þeáwfæstnesse, Homl. Ass. 40, 406, 404: Homl. Skt. ii. 28, 138. Þeningmen ðe þeáwfæstnysse him gebeódon (cf. þénas ðe his willan gefyllaþ, 65), Homl. Skt. i. pref., 62. Regoles gehýrsumnesse and þeáwfæstnesse regule oboedientiam et disciplinam, R. Ben. Interl. 103, 16. Ðú hatast ðeáwfæstnysse (disciplinam, Ps. 50, 17), Homl. Th. ii. 532, 2.

þeáw-full; adj. Moral, virtuous :-- Oft hig (devils) beswícaþ þeáwfulle weras (ða ðeáwfullan, MS. A.), Wulfst. 250, 4. [Heo Godd thonkeden mid þeufulle (witfolle, 2nd MS.), worden, Laym. 1797. Mid þeaufule talen schurteð ou, A. R. 422, 19. Ne beo þu nawt tu trusti ane to þi meidenhad wiðuten oðer god and þawfulle mihtes, H. M. 45, 4.] v. unþeáwfull.

þeáwian to serve. v. þeówian.

þeáwian to make (well) mannered. [Wel ðewed, Gen. and Ex. 1914. So boner and þewed, Allit. Pms. 59, 733.] v. ge-þeáwian.

þeáw-leás; adj. Ill-mannered, ill-conditioned :-- Swýn ðe cyrþ tó meoxe æfter his ðweále, þeáwleás nýten, Homl. Th. ii. 380, 11. [For lust hath leve, the lond is theweles, P. S. 255, 19.]

þeáw-líc; adj. I. usual, customary :-- Sum wít mid sealfe his fét smyrode, swá swá hit þeáwílc wæs on ðære þeóde, Homl. Ass. 41, 439. II. moral, figurative :-- Þeáwlíc[r]e spǽce tropologiae, figurati sermonis, Hpt. Gl. 432, 13. Þeáwlícre spǽce tropologiam misticum, moralem, 410, 43. Wé willaþ secgan hú ðás lác tó ús belimpaþ æfter ðeáwlícum andgite, Homl. Th. i. 116, 33: ii. 110, 26: 210, 27: Wulfst. 234, 10. [O. H. Ger. dau-líh moralis.]

þeáwlíce; adv. In accordance with good manners, properly :-- Gáþ þeáwlíce ... and standaþ þeáwlíce incedite morigerate ... et state disciplinabiliter, Coll. Monast. Th. 36, 1-5. Ðá hé ðæt hæfde ðeáwlíce (rite) gesett, Bd. 3, 19; S. 549, 37.

þec. v. þú.

þeccan; p. þeahte, þehte; pp. þeaht To cover, (1) to cover an object with something :-- Ic wreó mé, leáfum þecce, Cd. Th. 53, 29; Gen. 868. Ðú ðín sylf þecest líc mid leáfum, 54, 15; Gen. 877. Se ðe heofen þeceþ wolcnum qui operit coelum nubibus, Ps. Th. 146, 8. Mec (a horn) þeceþ mon golde and sylfore, Exon. Th. 395, 2; Rä. 15, 1. Hé þeahte bearn middangeardes wonnan wǽge, Cd. Th. 83, 10; Gen. 1377. Git eágorstreám earmum þehton, Beo. Th. 1031; B. 513. Saga hwá mec þecce, Exon. Th. 381, 21; Rä. 2, 14. Mec ongon hold gewédum þeccan, 391, 13; Rä. 10, 4. Hine mid hrægle wryón and sceome þeccan, Cd. Th. 95, 3; Gen. 1573: 58, 7; Gen. 942. Wæstmum þeaht, 115, 20; Gen. 1922. Hleówfeðrum þeaht, 165, 31; Gen. 2740. Ýþum þeaht, Exon. Th. 392, 7; Rä. 11, 4. Helmum þeahte, Cd. Th. 120, 3; Gen. 1989. (2) to serve as covering to an object. Earn ðeceþ (tegit) nest his, Ps. Surt. ii. p. 192, 31. Mec hrím þeceþ, Exon. Th. 490, 11; Rä. 79, 9. Forst and snáw eorþan þeccaþ, 215, 7; Ph. 249. Ic gealgan þehte I was stretched upon the cross, Andr. Kmbl. 1932; An. 968: Apstls. Kmbl. 44; Ap. 22. Ealne middangeard mereflód þeahte, Exon. Th. 200, 18; Ph. 42: Cd. Th. 8, 1; Gen. 117. Líca gehwilc ðara ðe lífes gást þeahte every body that had within it a living spirit, 77, 28; Gen. 1282. On hwelcum hí (Weland's bones) hlǽwa hrúsan þeccen, Met. 10, 43. Sió filmen biþ þeccende and wreóde ða wambe, Lchdm. ii. 242, 17. ¶ In the following passages Grein suggests that the form is quite a different word = comburere, and Cosijn (P. B. 8, 574) takes it to be connected with þicgan (but see, þecgan); but, perhaps, the verb may be the same here as in the previous instances, and used with much the same force as wrap in such a phrase as wrapt in flames :-- Byrneþ þurh fýres feng fugel (the phenix) mid neste ... þonne brond þeceþ heoredreórges hús, Exon. Th. 212, 27; Ph. 216. Hine ád þeceþ, 223, 26; Ph. 365. Seó hyre bearn gesihþ brondas þeccan, 330, 7; Vy. 47. Beágas sceal brond fretan, ǽled þeccean, Beo. Th. 6022; B. 3015. [To dyche and to thecche, Piers P. 19, 232. O. L. Ger. thekkan: O. Frs. thekka: O. H. Ger. decchen tegere, operire, velare: Icel. þekja to cover.] v. be-, (bi-), ge-, ofer-, un-þeccan; þeccend; þacian.

þecc-bryce, es; m. A tile :-- Þeccbrycum imbricibus, Hpt. Gl. 459, 42. Cf. þæc-tigele.

þeccend, es; m. One who covers or protects, a protector :-- Ðú eart þeccend (protector) mín, Ps. Th. 70, 5, 2.

þecel[1]e. v. þæcele.

þecen, e; f. A roof :-- Þecen vel róf tectum, Wrt. Voc. i. 26, 34. Þæcen, 81, 9. Of daliscre þecene dedalei tecti, ii. 139, 68: Exon. Th. 493, 21; Rä. 81, 34. Swá swá spearwa on ðecene (on efese ɫ on þecene, Ps. Lamb.) sicut passer in tecto, Ps. Spl. l01, 8. Under míne þecene, Mt. Kmbl. 8, 8: Lk. Skt. 7, 6: Homl. Th. i. 126, 30: Mk. Skt. 13, 15: Exon. Th. 431, 18; Rä. 46, 2. Híg þecena (getimbrena ɫ þæcena, Ps. Lamb.) foenum tectorum, Ps. Spl. 128, 5. [O. L. Ger. thecina.]

þecgan; p. þegde; pp. þeged To take, consume :-- Hine þegeþ þurst he is consumed by thirst, Lchdin. ii. 60, 7: 74, 22. v. á-, ge-, of-þecgan; þicgan.

þecge (?), an; f. A receptacle(?) :-- On hærfeste man sceal ðacian, ðecgan and fald weoxian, scipena behweorfan, Anglia ix. 261, 17. Cf. þicgan.

þéde, þédum, þéfel, þéfan-, þéfe-þorn. v. þeówan, þýfel, þífe-þorn.

þefian to pant, to be agitated :-- Þefiendra anhelantium, Hpt. Gl. 406, 8. Þefian aestuare in animo, Dial. 1, 9 (Lye). [Cf.(?) Icel. þefja to smell.]

þeften. v. þyften.

þegan (this seems the regular strong form for the verb which usually has weak forms in the present, þicgan, q. v.) to take, accept :-- Him wæs Godes egsa mára in gemyndum ðonne hé menniscum þrymme þegan wolde there was too great fear of God in his thoughts for him to wish to get human glory, Exon. Th. 112, 8; Gú. 140.

þegen, þegn, þeng, þén, es; m. I. a servant, one who does service for another :-- Þén minister, Wrt. Voc. i. 82, 24. Swá hwylc swá wyle betweox eów beón yldra. sý hé eówer þén (minister), Mt. Kmbl. 20, 26: 23, 11. Ðá bæd hé his ðeng (ministrum), ðæt hé him stówe gegearwode. Ðá wundrade se ðeng, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 29. Geleáffull ðegn (esne, Rush.: þeów, W. S.) fidelis servus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 45, 46. Ðá þénas ðe ðæt wæter hlódon, Jn. Skt. 2, 9. II. where the service is of a public or official character, an officer, minister :-- Þegn lictor, Wrt. Voc. ii. 93, 10: 52, 59. Ðe læs se ðéma ðé sylle ðam þéne (ðegne, Lind.: dægne, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 5, 25. Ða weorcgeréfan and ða þénas (praefecti operum et exactores) cwǽdon tó ðam folce: 'Pharao být, ðæt eów mann ne sylle leng nán cef,' Ex. 5, 10. Ða þeówas and ða þegnas serui et ministei, Jn. Skt. 18, 18. Þegna lictorum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 84, 24: 52, 41. Ábeád þeódcyning þegnum sínum, ombihtscealcum, Cd. Th. 112, 12; Gen. 1869. Ða ealdras sendon hyra þénas, ðæt hig woldon hine gefón, Jn. Skt. 7, 32. Sangeras and ntæssepreóstas and manigfealdlíce ciricean þegnas, Blickl. Homl. 207, 32. II a. figurative :-- Deófolgieldum, ðám wyrrestum wítes þegnum, Exon. Th. 251, 29; Jul. 152. III. where the service is military, a soldier :-- Án Ueriatuses þegn unus ex iis (one of the victorious Lusitanians), Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 216, 21. Þa þénas (ðegnas, Lind. Rush.) milites, Jn. Skt. 19, 2. Ðá hét hé his ðegnas (milites) hine sécan ... 'Ðone forhycgend úra goda ðú mé helan woldest swýþor ðonne mínum ðegnum (militibus) secgean,' Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 7-20. Hí sealdon ðám þegenum (militibus) micyl feoh, Mt. Kmbl. 28, 13. Ic hæbbe þegnas (ðeignas, Lind.) under mé habens sub me milites, 8, 9. IV. a follower of a great man, a retainer :-- Þegn, gesíþa cliens, i. socius, Wrt. Voc. ií. 131, 70. Thegn, degn, þegn adsaeculam, Txts. 42, 101. Þegn, Wrt. Voc. ii. 4, 43. Ðæs ðegenes lof is ðæs hláfordes wurðmynt, Homl. Th. ii. 562, 6. Ðá wæs ðǽrinne Dauid mid his monnum. Ðá cleopedon his ðegnas him tó and hine lǽrdon ðæt hé hine ofslóge illic cum viris suis Dauid inerat, cum eum viri sui ad feriendum Saul accenderent, Past. 28; Swt. 197, 17. Arás se ríca (Beowulf), ymb hine rinc manig, þegna heáp, Beo. Th. 805; B. 400. Þéna, cnihta, forspillendra þéna parasitorum, incniht parasitus, Hpt. Gl. 504, 18-21. Þénum parasitis, incnihttum clientibus, 514, 52-54. Ðegnum pedisequis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 84, 75. IV a. figurative :-- Ðú wást hwelce þeáwas ða woruldsǽlþa habbaþ ... Gif ðú heora þegen beón wilt, Bt. 7, 2; Fox 18, 6. V. a follower of a teacher, a disciple :-- Ióhannes, se deóra þegn, Blickl. Homl. 67, 22. His þegnas lǽddon him tó ðone eosol, 71, 5: 15, 13. On Sancte Petres naman, Cristes ðegnes, 205, 14. Ðeignas his (his discipuli Ō his þegnas, Rush.) discipuli ejus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind, 5, 1. Cuédon tó ðeignum his, 9, 11. Ðegnum, 10: Jn. Skt. Lind. Rush. 18, 19. V a. in poetry, borrowing the terms of war :-- Sint geþreáde þegnas míne (St. Andrew's disciples), geonge gúðrincas, Andr. Kmbl. 782; An. 391. VI. one engaged in a king's or queen's service, whether in the household or in the country, a thane. The word in this case seems gradually to acquire a technical meaning, and to become a term denoting a class (v. þegen-riht, -wer), containing, however, several degrees. To illustrate the wider sense in which the word could be used, when the þegen is spoken of in relation to the king, the following passages may be cited. In the Chronicle an. 897 'manige ðara sélestena cynges þéna' includes two bishops and three aldermen, as well as a cynges þegn and a cynges horsþegn. In a charter Cnut greets 'ealle míne þegnas, twelfhynde and twihynde' (the twihynde man is a ceorl: cf. too, 'ealne his leódscype, twelfhynde and twybhnde,' Chart. Erl. 229, 19), Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 9, 30. The word seems general, too, in the passage, 'Weorðscipes wyrþe ǽlc be his mǽðe, eorl and ceorl, þegen and þeóden,' L. R. 1; Th. i. 190, 13. The more limited sense seems to belong to the word in the following :-- Gif þegen geþeáh ðæt hé wearð tó eorle, L. R. 5; Th. i. 192, 7. Cf. §§ 2, 6; and see L. In. 45, L. C. S. 72, L. M. L. given below. In some cases, too, it will be seen that the term implies military service, as when de militia regis juvenis is translated sum geong ðæs cyninges ðegin (see also other passages below from Bd. 4, 3, and 5, 13); in others, the service is that of the household, v. Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 21, and búr-, disc-, hrægl-þegen; in others it is official work in the country. For the development of the class of thanes in England, see Stubbs' Const. Hist. s. v. thegn; Kemble's Saxons in England, I. c. 7, II, c. 3; Schmid, A. S. Gesetz. s. v. þegen. (1) where the word is used of other than Teutonic peoples :-- Wæs his (St. Martin's) fæder ǽrest cyninges þegn, and geðeáh ðæt hé wæs cininges þegna aldorman, Blickl. Homl. 211, 21. (Cf. His (St. Martin's) fæder wæs æðelboren, ǽrest cempa, and siððan cempena ealdor, Homl. Th. ii. 498, 25. St. Martin's father was a military tribune.) Þegn satrapa, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 17. Xersis þegn wæs háten Marðonius, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 82, 28. Wé sǽdon, ðæt hé wǽre ryhtwísra ðá ðá hé ðeng wæs ðonne hé wǽre siððan hé kyning wæs. Ðá ðá hé ðegn wæs hé his feónd ne dorste ofsleán David rectior fuit in servitio, quam cum pervenit ad regnum. Servus adversarium ferire timuit, Past. 50; Swt. 393, 2-6. Tarcuinius óðerne ðegn ongeán sende, Ors. 2, 3; Swt. 63, 17. Pharaones þegnas servi Pharaonis, Ex. 10, 7. His (Ulysses') þegnas him ne mihton leng mid gewunian, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 27. Mænegum cyninges (king of Egypt) þegnum, Cd. Th. 111, 5; Gen. 1851. (1 a) where the Deity is the king served :-- Metodes ðegn, Abraham, Cd. Th. 176, 6; Gen. 2907. Dryhtnes þegn (Guthlac), Exon. Th. 143, 22; Gú. 665. Ðú cyninges eart þegen geþungen, Andr. Kmbl. 1055; An. 528. Wuldres þegn, engel Drihtnes, Cd. Th. 136, 31; Gen. 2266. Ðæt is micel wundor, ðæt wolde þeóden þolian, ðæt wurde þegn swá monig forlǽdd, 37, 30; Gen. 597, (1 b) figurative :-- Fuglas þringaþ ymbe æþelne (the phenix), ǽghwylc wille wesan þegn and þeów þeódne mǽrum, Exon. Th. 209, 3; Ph. 165. (2) where the word applies to Englishmen or to other Teutonic peoples :-- Hér Hengest and Æsc gefuhton uuiþ Walas and hiera þegn án wearþ ofslægen, Chr. 465; Erl. 12, 23. Gest hine clǽnsie sylfes áðe, swylce cyninges þeng, L. Wih. 20; Th. i. 40, 20. Lilla se cyninges ðegn him se holdesta minister regi amicissimus, Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 22. Suns geong ðæs cyninges ðegin de militia ejus juvenis, 4, 22; S. 590, 33. Ðá ondrǽdde hé andettan ðæt hé cyninges ðegen wǽre, ac sǽde, ðæt hé folclíc man wǽre, and ðaet hé forðon in ða fyrd cóme, ðæt hé sceolde cyninges ðegnum heora mete lǽdan timuit se militem fuisse confiteri; rusticum se fuisse respondit, et propter victum militibus adferendum in expeditionem se venisse testatus est, S. 591, 5-9. Hé sægde ðæt hé wǽre cyninges ðeng ministrum se regis fuisse manifestans, 591, 38. Hé ðære ylcan cwéne ðeng (minister) wæs, 592, 13. Sum wer wæs on lǽwedum háde ðæs cyninges ðegn vir in laico habitu atque officio militari positus, 5, 13; S. 632, 8. Þegn, se ðe on handa bær ealowǽge, Beo. Th. 993; B. 494. Þegn Hróðgáres, égweard, 475; B. 235. Eádwold cynges ðegen, Chr. 905; Erl. 98, 28. Gif mon cyninges þegn beteó, gif hé hine ládian dyrre, dó hé ðæt mid .xii. cininges þegnum. Gif man ðone man betýhþ ðe biþ læssa maga (mága?) ðonne se cyninges þegn, ládige hé hine mid .xi. his gelícena and mid ánum cyninges þægne, L. A. G. 3; Th. i. 154, 5-9. Gif cyninges þegn ætsace ... gilde .x. healfmearc (cf. the next two sections), L. N. P. L. 51; Th. ii. 298, 7: 58; Th. ii. 300, 3: 60; Th. ii. 300, 9. Burgbryce mon sceal bétan ealdormonnes .lxxx. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., cyninges þegnes .lx. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., gesíðcundes monnes landhæbbendes .xxxv. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., L. In. 45; Th. i. 130, 9. Eorles heregeata syndon ... And syþþan cyninges þegenes (þegnas, MS. G.) ðe him nýhste syndon ... And medemra þegna ... And cyninges þegnes heregeata inne mid Denum ðe his sócne hæbbe feówer pund. And gif hé tó ðam cyninge furðor cýððe hæbbe..., L. C. S. 72; Th. i. 414, 4-20. Ðegenes lagu is, ðæt hé sý his bócrihtes wyrðe, and ðæt hé ðreó ðinc of his lande dó, fyrdfæreld and burhbóte and brycgeweorc. Eác of manegum landum máre landrilit áríst tó cyniges gebanne, L. R. S. 1; Th. i. 432, 4-7. Ðegnes wergild is syx swá micel (swá ceorles). Ðonne biþ cynges ánfeald wergild .vi. þegna wer be Myrcna lage, L. M. L.; Th. i. 190, 2-5. Hié (the Danes) sealdon (Ceólwulfe) ánum unwísum cyninges þegne Miercna ríce tó haldanne, Chr. 874; Erl. 76, 27. Nán man náge náne sócne ofer cynges þegen búton cyng sylf, L. Eth. iii. 11; Th. i. 296, 23. Ðæs cyninges þegnas (cf. ða men ðe mid ðam cyninge wǽrun, Erl. 48, 31), Chr. 755; Erl. 50, 3, 9. Hé wæs hyre (the queen's) ðéna hire húses and hire geférscipes oferealdormonn erat primus ministrorum et princeps domus ejus, Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 21. Se cyning gestód æt ðam fýre mid his ðegnum (ministris), 3, 14; S. 540, 34. Wé willaþ ðæt man namige on ǽlcon wǽpengetæce .ii. trýwe þegnas and ǽnne mæssepreóst, L. N. P. L. 57; Th. ii. 298, 31. In the two following passages, though translations, the ideas are probably English :-- Cyningas ne magan nǽnne weorþscipe forþ bringan búton heora þegna (servientium) fultume. Hwæt wille wé secgan be ðám ðegnum (familiaribus; cf. folgerum, l. 10), Bt. 29, 1-2; Fox 104, 12-15. Mid miclon geférscipe hiora þegna, and ða bióþ mid fetlum and mid gyldenum hyltsweordum and mid manigfealdum heregeatwum gehyrste, 37, 1; Fox 184, 4. VI a. a thane who served a bishop :-- Wulfhere bisceopes ðegn, Chr. 1001; Erl. 136, 8. Ic Leófinc bisceop gebócige sumne dǽl landes mínan holdan and getreówan þegene, ðam is Ægelríc nama, for his eádmódre gehérsumnysse, Chart. Erl. 242, 11. Ic (Cnut) cýðe, ðæt ic hæbbe geunnen him (archbishop Æthelnoth), ðæt hé beó his saca and sócne wyrðe ofer his ágene menn and ofer swá feala þegna swá ic him tólǽtan hæbbe, 233, 6. VI b. one engaged in the service of a republic :-- Scipia, se betsta Rómána þegn (se besta and se sélesta Rómána witena and þegena, MS. C.), Ors. 5, 4; Swt. 224, 24. VII. a person of rank, one of a class higher than the ordinary freeman (ceorl). v. þegen-boren :-- Þegn primas, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 14. Ðegn optimas, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 25; Zup. 50, 3. Ðeáh þrǽla hwylc hláforde æthleápe, and hit æfter ðam geweorðe, ðæt wǽpngewrixl weorðe gemǽne þegene and þrǽle, gyf þrǽl ðæne þegen áfylle, licge ǽgylde; and gyf se þegen ðæne þrǽl, ðe hé ǽr áhte, áfylle, gylde þegengylde. Wulfst. 162, 5-l0. &AElig-acute;lc dohtig man on Kænt and on Súð-Sexan, on þegenan and on ceorlan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 11, 7. VIII. a brave man, noble man, good warrior; vir fortis. v. þegen-líc, -líce, -scipe, III :-- Gif gé swelce þegnas synt, swelce gé wénaþ ðæt gé sién, ðonne sceoldon gé lustlíce eówre ágnu brocu áræfnan, Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 120, 7. Ðæt wæs swíðe sweotol, ðæt hié ðá wǽron beteran þegnas ðonne hié nú sién, ðæt hié ðæs gewinnes geswícan noldon, 4, 9; Swt. 192, 32. VIII a. in poetry the word is used, like eorl, as a corrplimerrtary term for man, warrior :-- Swylc sceolde secg wesan, þegn æt þearfe, Beo. Th. 5411; B. 2709. Se þegn (St. John) wæs on wynne, Exon. Th. 462, 21; Hö. 55. Þances gleáw þegn. (St. Andrew), Andr. Kmbl. 1114; An. 557. Ðám þegne (Adam) ongan his hige hweorfan, Cd. Th. 44, 7; Gen. 705. Scyle áscian deóphýdig mon ... ne sceal ðæs áþreótan þegn módigne, Exon. Th. 348, 1; Sch. 21. Ðæt micle morð menn ne þorfton, þegnas þolian, Cd. Th. 40, 18; Gen. 641. Wlance þegenas, unearge men, Byrht. Th. 137, 53; By. 205. Ne sceolon mé on ðære þeóde þegenas ætwítan (cf. stedefæste hæleð, 139, 5; By. 249), 138, 15; By. 220. ¶ The word is applied to Christ :-- Þegen mid þreáte, þeóden engla, Cd. Th. 288, 27; Sat. 388. [O. Sax. þegan: O. H. Ger. degan masculus, herus, miles, defensor: Icel. þegn.] v. ærn-, ambeht-, bed-, búr-, burh-, cyric-, disc-, duru-, ealdor-, forþ-, gum-, hand-, heáh-, heal-, helle-, hrægl-, mægen-, mæsse-, magu-, mete-, scír-, scóh-, sele-, tintreg-, weofod-, weoruld-, wic-, wíf-þegen (-þegn).

þegen-boren; adj. Of gentle birth. v. þegen, VII :-- Sý hé þegen-boren, sý hé ceorlboren, L. O. D. 5; Th. i. 354, 20.

þegen-gilde, es; n. The wergild for a thane :-- Gyf þrǽl þegen fullíce áfylle, licge ǽgylde; and gyf se þegen þæne þrǽl, ðe hé ǽr áhte, fullíce áfylle, gylde þegengylde, Wulfst. 162, 10. [Icel. þegn-gildi the wergild for a þegn.]

þegen-hyse; pl. -hyssas; m. A follower, attendant :-- Ðegnhyssas clientes (the passage in Aldhelm is: Ejusdem nefandae militiae tam calones et clientes ... quam satrapae et proceres), Wrt. Voc. ii. 76, 73: 17, 74.

þegen-lagu, e; f. Thane-law, the legal rights and privileges which attached to the rank of thane :-- Se (the priest) ðe ðæs (concubinage) geswícan wille and clǽnnesse healdan, hæbbe hé Godes miltse, and tó woruldwurðscipe sí hé þegenlage wyrðe as regards worldly dignity let him rank as a thane, L. C. E. 6; Th. i. 364, 16: Wulfst. 270, 32. v. þegen-riht.

þegen-líc; adj. Manly, brave, manful. v. þegen, VIII :-- Andreas is gereht ðegenlíc, Homl. Th. i. 586, 11. Máran lufe nimþ se heretoga on gefeohte tó ðam cempan, ðe æfter fleáme his wiðerwinnan ðegenlíce oferwinþ, ðonne. tó ðam ðe mid fleáme ne ætwand, ne ðeáh on nánum gecampe náht ðegenlíces ne gefremode, 342, 5.

þegenlíce; adv. Bravely, manfully, like a brave man, gallantly :-- Beó ðú gehyrt and hicg þegenlíce to confortare et viriliter age, Jos. 1, 18: Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 248. Heó tó ðám þegnon cwæð: 'Dóð þegnlíce and wel; ábeódaþ míne ǽrende tó ðam gemóte,' Chart. Th. 337, 36. Gif hé ðegenlíce earfoðnysse forberþ, Homl. Th. i. 586, 19: Homl. Skt. i. 11, 3. Ealle þeóda sprǽcon hú ðegenlíce hí fuhton, ii. 25, 324. Hé læg ðegenlíce ðeódne gehende he lay like a warrior close to his lord, Byrht. Th. 140, 26; By. 294. [O. L. Ger. thegenlícho viriliter: O. H. Ger. thegan-, degan-l-icho.] v. preceding word.

þegen-rǽden[n], e; f. The condition of being a þegen, service :-- Þegarǽdenne oååe híwrǽdenne clientele, Wrt. Voc. ii. 24, 44. Híréd-lícre þénrǽdene familiaris clientelae, Hpt. Gl. 504, 46. Manige men of cyninges þegenrǽdene tó Cristes þeówdóme gecyrdon, Blickl. Homl. 173, 17. Cf. þegen-scipe.

þegen-riht, es; n. Thane-right, the legal rights and privileges which attached to the rank of thane (e. g. Mæssepreóstes áð and woruldþegenes is on Engla lage efendýre ... Twelfhyndes mannes (a thane's) áð forstent .vi. ceorla áð, L. O. 12, 13; Th. i. 182, 14-19) :-- Se mæssepreóst biþ þegenrihtes wyrðe, L. O. 12; Th. i. 182, 17: L. Eth. v. 21; Th. i. 306, 21: vi. 5; Th. i. 316, 14. Gif ceorl geþeáh ðæt hé hæfde fullíce fíf hída ágenes landes ... and sundernote on cynges healle, ðonne wæs hé ðononforð þegenrihtes weorðe, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 18. Gif massere geþeáh ðæt hé férde þrige ofer wídsǽ, se wæs þegenrihtes weorðe, 6; Th. i. 192, 10. v. þegen-lagu, -wer.

þegen-scipe, es; m. I. thaneship, the status of thane :-- Se déma ðe óðrum wóh déme ... þolige hé his þegenscipes, L. Edg. ii. 3; Th. 266, 18: L. C. S. 15; Th. i. 384, 13. II. a body of thanes :-- Sce Adrianes wæs ðæs cáseres ðegnscipes ealdorman, ðe Maximianus wæs nemned, Shrn. 59, 24. III. bravery, manfulness, gallantry. v. þegen, VIII, þegenlíc :-- Beóþ nú gehyrte, and healdaþ mid ðegenscipe ða hálgan Godes ǽ, Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 258. Hé him eft his ríce tó forlét for his þegnscipe (ob testimonium virtutis), Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 132, 24. Alexander his ǽrestan ðegnscipe on ðon gecýþde, ðá hé ealle Crécas mid his snyttro on his geweald geniédde, ealle ða ðe wið hiene gewin up áhófon Alexander primam experientiam animi et virtutis suae, compressis celeriter Graecorum motibus, dedit, Swt. 122, 32. IV. in that part of the Genesis which is thought to show Old Saxon influence, the word occurs with the meaning of service to a lord, like the Old Saxon thegan-skepi :-- Nis mé on worulde mód ǽniges þegnscipes,Cd. Th. 51, 33; Gen. 836. On þegnscipe þeówian, 46, 15; Gen. 744. Hié þegnscipe Godes forgýmdon, 21, 19; Gen. 326. [Icel. þegn-skapr honour (as in on one's honour); liberality; allegiance of a þegn.]

þegen-scolu, e; f. A band of thanes, a following :-- Þegenscole clientele, Wrt. Voc. ii. 18, 1.

þegen-sorh; -sorge; f. Sorrow for the loss of thanes :-- Grendel on reste genam þrítig þegna ... Mǽre þeóden þegnsorge dreáh, Beo. Th. 263; B. 131.

þegen-weorod, es; n. A host of thanes :-- Ðæt wé tó ðam hýhstan hróf gestígan, dǽr is geþungen þegnweorud, Exon. Th. 47, 6; Cri. 751.

þegen-wer, es; m. The wer-gild of a thane :-- Hé sý þegenweres and þegenrihtes wyrðe, L. Eth. v. 9; Th. i. 306, 21: vi. 5; Th. i. 316, 14. Gif weofodþén be bóca tǽcinge his ágen líf rihtlíce fadige, ðonne sí hé fulles þegnweres and weorðscipes wurðe, ix. 28; Th. i. 346, 18. Cf. Mǽsseþegnes and woruldþegnes wergyld is .ii. þúsend þrymsa, L. Wg. 5; Th. i. 186, l0. v. þegen-riht.

þégh, þegin, þegn, þegnen. v. þeóh, þegen, þignen.

þegnest (? related to þegnian as O. Sax. thionost, O. L. Ger. thianust, thienest, O. H. Ger. dionóst, Icel. þjónusta are to verbs thionón, dionón, þjóna respectively; or(?) þénest, þeónest the English form corresponding to the nouns given above. The passage in which the word occurs separately refers to Germany, so perhaps the German form has been borrowed(?): where it occurs as the first part of a compound the form is þeónest; in the same passage, which is late, eó is written where é is the more regular form, as heót for hét; perhaps, however, the Scandinavian form has influenced the English) Service :-- Þæs ilcan géres fór Aldréd biscop tó Colne ofer sǽ, and wearð ðær underfangen mid mycclan weorðscipe, and him geaf ǽgðer þéneste ge se biscop on Colone and se cásere, Chr. 1054; Erl. 189, 25. (This passage occurs in only one MS.) v. next word, and þegnisc.

þegnest-mann (?), es; m. A thane :-- Þás (a number of bishops, aldermen and others, who are named) and feola óþre kyninges þeónestmen (but cf. Icel. þjónustu-maðr a liegeman), Chr. 656; Erl. 33, 9. v. preceding word.

þegnestre, þénestre, an; f. A female servant :-- Þénestran cultricem, ministram, Hpt. Gl. 438, 33. v. next word.

þegnian; p. ode; pp. od. I. to serve a person (dat.), do a person (dat.) service, minister to, attend upon :-- Hwæðer ys yldra ðe se ðe ðénaþ ðe se ðe sitt quis major est,qui recumbit? an qui ministrat? Lk. Skt. 22, 27. On heáhsetle siteþ self cyning (God), and ðiós síde gesceaft þénaþ and þiówaþ, Met. 29, 77. Gif him árlíce esne þénaþ, Exon. Th. 430, 9; Rä. 44, 5: 403, 28; Rä. 22, 14. Þénaþ prosequitur, Hpt. Gl. 451, 57. Hé (a king) bioþ swíþe anlíc ðara his þegna sumum ðe him þéniaþ, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 12. Gif hé nǽre sóþ God, ná him englas ne þegnodon. On ðisse bysene is gecýþed, ðæt eallum geleáffullum mannum englas þegniaþ, ðonne hí habbaþ deófol oferswíþed, Blickl. Homl. 35, 1-4. Ic geornlíce Gode þegnode þurh holdne hyge, Cd. Th. 37, 7; Gen. 585. Hé mé holdlíce ðegnade mihi ministrabat, Ps. Th. 100, 6. Ne com ic tó ðon on eorðan ðæt mé mon ðénóde, ac tó ðon ðæt ic wolde ðegnian filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare (Mt. 20, 28), Past. 41; Swt. 301, 2. Iósep hæfde mycele gife æt his hláforde and þénode (ministrabat) him, Gen. 39, 4: 40, 4. Englas him þegnedan, Blickl. Homl. 27, 22. Þegnedon, 33, 34. Þéna me ministra mihi, Lk. Skt. 17, 8. Ǽlc wénþ ðæt hé þenige Gode omnis arbitretur obsequium se praestare Deo, Jn. Skt. 16, 2. Se biscop and se mæssepreóst, gif hí mid rihte willaþ Gode þeówian, ðonne sceolan hí þegnian dæghwamlíce Godes folce the bishop and the priest, if they desire to serve God aright, must minister daily to God's people, Blickl. Homl. 45, 30. Ne þúhte hit mé náuht rihtlíc, gif him sceoldan þeówe men þénigan (þénian, Cott. MS.), Bt. 41, 2; Fox 244, 27. On ðam húse hyra ðeáw wæs, ðæt hí ða untruman in lǽdan sceoldan, and him ætsomne ðénigean, Bd. 4, 24; S. 538, 29. I a. where the instrument with which service is performed is given :-- Mec láðgeteónan þreátedon; ic him þénode deóran sweorde swá hit gedéfe wæs I served my foes with my good sword, as was fitting, Beo. Th. 1125; B. 560. Ðás bóc Leófríc gef Sco Petro and eallum his æftergengum intó Exancestre Gode mid tó þénienne, Chart. Erl. 253, 12. II. to serve food, to supply wants, minister to necessities, provide. v. þegnung, V :-- Ðæt ylce wæter eallum ðyder cumendum his heofonlícre gife genihtsumnesse ðegnaþ aqua sufficientem cunctis illo advenientibus gratiae suae coelestis copiam ministrat, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 32. Seó mýse is seó bóclíce lár, seó ðe ús ðénaþ lífes hláf, Homl. Th. ii. 114, 26. Martha gearwode ðam Hǽlende ǽfengereordu ... Martha wæs geornful ðæt heó ðon Hǽlende tó gecwémnesse þegnode (þénode, Lk. Skt. 10, 40): heó him tó cwæþ: 'Hwý nelt ðú géman ðæt mín sweostor mé lǽt áne þegnian (þénian, Lk. Skt.)?, Blickl. Homl. 67, 25-31. Malchus, ða þénunga ðe hé ðider bróhte, heom geornlíce þénode, ðæt hí be dǽle hí gereordodon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 240. Se him ða gerýno ðénode (ministrare solebat) ðæs hálgan geleáfan, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 17. Hwænne gesáwe wé ðé hingrigendne oððe þyrstendne ... and wé ne þénedon ðé?, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 44. Eallum Godes ðearfum man sceall weldǽda þénian, Homl. Th. i. 514, 5. Hé him bigleofan ðénian wolde, ii. 128, 29. Hé hét hire þénian of his éstmetum, Homl. Ass. 110, 268. III. to serve an office, administer, perform the duties of an office :-- Ðá hé ðá monig geár biscophád ðegnade qui cum annis multis episcopatum administraret, Bd. 3, 23; S. 555, 7. Ðénade, 4, 3; S. 566, 28, 40. Ðegnode Willferþ ða bisceopðénunge fíf geár Vilfrid annos quinque officium episcopatus exercebat, 4, 13; S. 583, 14. Medomlíce ðénian ða ðénunga officium ministrare digne, Past. 1; Swt. 27, 10. [Þe king him gon to þeinen, þæ quene bar to drinken, Laym. 30786. A þusen cnihtes þeineden þan kinge ... þas beorn þa sunde from kuchene to þan kinge, 24595.] v. ge-, under-þegnian.

þegnisc (? cf. -ska nouns in Icelandic(?); or see þegnest(?)) service :-- Þat sáwulgesceot sceulon ða canonicas habban, and swilce þénisce dón for hig swilce hig ágon tó dóne, Chart. Th. 609, 16.

-þegnsum. v. ge-þénsum.

þegnung, e; f. Service, ministration. I. service, good office done by one to another :-- Englas beóð tó ðegnunge gǽstum fram Gode hider on world sended, Blickl. Homl. 209, 23. Ne mihte se mánfulla éhtere mid nánre ðénunge ðám lytlingum swá micclum fremian, Homl. Th. i. 84, 10. Þénunge patrocinium (ut puellulas ad patrocinium vitae impendant, Ald. 69), Hpt. Gl. 519, 2. Ða Ebréiscan wíf cunnon þénunga obstetricandi habent scientiam, Ex. 1, 19. v. þignen. Hé brǽd hine on feala bleóna þurh deófles þegnunga he changed himself into many forms by the devil's good offices, Blickl. Homl. 175, 5. I a. service rendered by things, use :-- Hé wæs lama and eallra his lima ðénunge benumen deficiente omni membrorum officio, Bd. 5, 5; S. 617, 38. In ðegnunge in use; in procinctu, Wrt. Voc. ii. 111, 16. Hé him beád his recedes hleów and þegnunge he offered them the shelter and use of his house, Cd. Th. 147, 19; Gen. 2442. I b. use made of things :-- Nǽnig hí (the cups) hrínan dorste, ne ne wolde, bútan tó his neódþearflícre ðénunge (ad usum necessarium), Bd. 2, 16; S. 520, 8. II. service to a lord or master :-- Á tó his (king Oswine) folgoþe and tó his ðénunge ða æþelestan men cóman ad ejus ministerium viri nobilissimi concurrerent, Bd. 3, 14; S. 540, 12. Wuldres áras ðú tó þegnunge ðínre gesettest, Elen. Kmbl. 1474; El. 739. Óþþæt ðú gefylle ðíne þegnunge, tó ðære ðe ðú sended eart, Blickl. Homl. 233, 28. Pharao geþencþ ðíne þénunga recordabitur Pharao ministerii tui, Gen. 40, 13. Ðénunga obsequia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 62, 44. Gif him mon oftíhþ ðara þénunga, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 10, 14. Þegnunga, Met. 25, 24, 32. Ðara gumena ðé him mid þegnungum þringaþ ymbe útan, 25, 28. For ðý ða óþra gesceafta þeówe sint, hí healdaþ hiora þénunga, Bt. 41, 3; Fox 248, 18. Þegnunga, Met. 11, 46. II a. service, obedience, suit and service :-- Ðæt selfe wæter þegnunge gearwode beforan his fótum the very water showed itself to be at his command by retreating before his feet (cf. him gearu sóna þurh streámræce strǽt wæs gerýmed, symble wæs drýge folde fram flóde, swá his fót gestóp, Andr. Kmbl. 3157-; An. 1581-), Blickl. Homl. 247, 10. III. service of an official, office, official employment, ministry :-- Ðæs láreówdómes ðénung praedicationis officium, Past. 7; Swt. 47, 20. Hé wilnode ðære ðegnunga ðæs láriówdómes, Swt. 49, 15. Ðære clǽnan ðegnenga ðæs sacerdhádes, Swt. 51, 2. Gefyldum dagum his (St. Augustine) ðénunge completis diebus officii sui, Bd. 2, 3; S. 505, 3. Gif ðú wást ðæt ic unrihtlíce bisceopháde onfénge, ic lustlíce fram ðære ðéninge (officio) gewíte, 4, 2; S. 566, 6. Ic wæs gesett tó mínre þénunge (officio; office of cupbearer), Gen. 41, 13. Nǽnig sý beládod fram ðære kycenan þénunge nullus excusetur a coquine officio, R. Ben. 58, 14. Hé ðæs godspelleres þegnunga gefylde he filled the office of evangelist, Blickl. Homl. 167, 9. Ða eorðlícan hláfordas sint tó ðæm gesette ðæt hié ða endebyrdnesse and ða ðegnunga hiora hiórédum gebrytnige terrenae domus dominus famulorunt ordines ministeriaque dispertiens, Past. 44; Swt. 319, 20. IV. the act of serving in an official capacity :-- Ðæt Leuies mǽgð stóde beforan him on þénunge, Deut. 10, 8. IV a. a service, an official performance, a service of religion, an office of the church, a ceremonial or ritual service :-- Þénung offcium, onsægung immolatio, Wrt. Voc. i. 28, 48-49. Þénunge sacrificio, Hpt. Gl. 521, 70. Ðis godspel belimpþ tó ðysses dæges ðénunge, Homl. Th. i. 104, 4. Byrgincge þénuncge sepulturae officio, Anglia xiii. 444, 1124. Nǽnigum heora álýfed sí ǽnige sacerdlíce ðénunge dón nulli eorum liceat ullum officium sacerdotale agere, Bd. 4, 5; S. 573, 4. Ðæt gé ða ðénunge fulwihte (ministerium baptizandi) æfter ðeáwe ðære hálgan Rómániscan cyricean gefyllan, 2, 2; S. 503, 21. Ða clǽnan þénunga lauta (supernarum) munia (rerum, Ald. 144), Wrt. Voc. ii. 90, 9: 52, 51. Ðegnange munia, 91, 32. Þénunge, 57, 8. Ðá his þénunga dagas (dies officii eius) gefyllede wǽron, Lk. Skt. 1, 23. Þénungum culturis, ministeriis, Hpt. Gl. 495, 27. Mænigfealdum þénungun exequiis pluribus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 144, 79. IV b. a service, the formulas used in a service :-- Swíðe feáwa wǽron behionan Humbre ðe hiora ðéninga cúðen understondan, Past. pref.; Swt. 3, 14. V. service of food, a meal, food served, food, provision. v. þegnian, II, and cf. gémung for similar specialization of a general term :-- Ðá Drihtnes þénung wæs gemacod cena facta, Jn. Skt. 13, 2. Hé árás fram his þénunge surgit a cena, 4. Gearwa úre þénunga ðæt hig magon etan mid mé instrue convivium, quoniam mecum sunt comesturi, Gen. 43, 16: Mt. Kmbl. 26, 17. Ic wolde ðíne ðénunge sylf nú gearcian, gif ic mé mid féðunge ferian mihte, Homl. Th. ii. 134, 31. Malchus hæfde mid him eáþelícan fódan, and com tó his geféran ... and ða eáðelícan þénunga ðe hé ðider bróhte heom þénode, ðæt hí be dǽle hí gereordodon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 233-240. Ðonne man fæste, ðonne dǽle man ða þénunga ðe man brúcan sceolde ealle Godes þearfan when a man fasts, then let all the food that would have been used be distributed to the poor, L. P. M. 3; Th. ii. 286, 28. Hé hét hire þénian of his ágenum þénungum and his éstmetum, ac heó nolde his sanda brúcan, Homl. Ass. 110, 269. VI. in a personal sense, a following, retinue, train, cf. folgaþ :-- Seó hell and se ðeáð and heora árleásan þénunga wǽron áforhtode, Nic. 28; Thw. 16, 10. [Fer (werpð) manifeald þeninge fire does service of many kinds, O. E. Homl. i. 233, 26.] v. ǽfen-, bisceop-, cyric-, fulluht-, geár-, heáh-, líc-, mynster-, tíd-, tó-, úht-, weofod-, wic-þegnung (-þénung), and following words.

þegnung-bóc, e; f. A service-book, a book giving the religious services that were to be performed :-- Leviticus on Grécisc and ministerialis on Lýden, ðæt ys þénungbóc on Englisc, for ðam ðara sacerda þénunga sind ðár áwritene, Lev. pref. Some úre ðéningbéc onginnaþ on Aduentum Domini, Homl. Th. i. 98, 26.

þegnung-fæt, es; n. A vessel used in the service of the kitchen :-- Ðære kycenan wicþénas ... heora þéningfata clǽne and hále ðam hordere betǽcen; se hordere eft ðære tóweardan wucan wicþénum ða ylcan þéningfata betǽce, R. Ben. 59, 6-12.

þegnung-gást, es; m. A ministering spirit :-- Englas beóþ tó ðéninggástum fram Gode hider on worulde ásende, ðæt hí beón on fultume his gecorenum (nonne angeli sunt administratorii spiritus, in ministerium missi propter eos, qui haereditatem capient salutis? Heb. 1, 14), Homl. Th. i. 510, 15.

þegnung-hús, es; n. A house in which an employment is carried on a workshop :-- Þéninghúsum officinis, Germ. 394, 267.

þegnung-mann (þéning-, þénig-), es; m. I. in a general sense, a serving-man, attendant :-- Wæs amang ðám Malchus heora ðénigmann, and ða eáðelícan þénunga ðe hé ðider bróhte heom geornlíce þénode, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 239. Árás Malchus heora þeningmann, and dyde eall swá his gewuna wæs, nam mid him sumne dǽl feós ... ðæt feoh bær tó porte, 472-486: 447. Se Hǽlend hét ða ðénigmen áfyllan six stǽnene fatu, Homl. Th. i. 58, 12. II. a servant of a lord or king, a thane, minister, (a) in a general sense :-- Sint tó manienne ða ðe mildheortlíce sellaþ ðæt hié habbaþ, ðæt hié angieten ðæt hié sint gesette ðæm hefencundan Gode tó ðéningmannum tó dǽlanne ðás lǽnan gód (ut a coelesti Domino dispensatores se positos subditorum temporalium agnoscant), Past. 44; Swt. 321, 7. Án woruldcynincg hæfþ fela þegna; hé ne mæg beón wurðful cynincg búton hé hæbbe swylce þéningmen ðe þeáwfæstnysse him gebeódon, Homl. Skt. i. pref., 62. (b) as a technical English term :-- Míne (Alfred's) ealdormenn and míne þénigmenn, Chart. Th. 490, 22. On cinges þéningmanna gemóte, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 80, 20. See Kemble's Saxons in England, ii. 47; Stubbs' Const. Hist. i. 186.

þegnung-weorod, es; n. A body of attendants or serving-men :-- Manege of ðæs ealdormannes þénungwerode, Shrn. 154, 26.

þegu, e; f. A taking, accepting. v. beáh-, beór-, fód(d)or-, hring-, sinc-, wil-, wín-þegu; þicgan.

þeh = þec, þéh. v. þú, þeáh.

þel (þell), es; n. A thin piece of wood or metal, a plank, plate :-- Gylden þel áslægen bratea, Wrt. Voc. ii. 12, 42. Weel planca (þell? þele? the line is: Corpus virgineum natat ceu plana carina, Ald. 199), 95, 79. Þeáh man gesette án brád ísen þell ofer ðæs fýres hróf ... and þeáh man mid ðám hameron beóte on ðæt ísene þell, Wulfst. 147, 2-7. Ða wágas wǽron gyldne mid gyldnum þelum ánæglede fingres þicce auratos parietes laminarum digitalium grossitudine, Nar. 4, 25. Wǽpenu mid gyldenum þelum bewyrcean arma aureis includere laminis, 7, 12. [Cf. Icel. þili; n. a plank.] v. benc-, ceól-, wǽg-þel; þel-brycg, -fæsten; þelu; þiling, þille.

þel-brycg, e; f. A bridge of planks :-- On herepaþ óþ ðelbrycge, Cod. Dip. B. iii. 682, 18. Of ðam brócæ in þælbricge; of þælbricge in héhstræte, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 60, 21. Cf. stán-brycg.

þele. v. þyle.

þel-fæsten(n), es; n. A fortress of planks (Noah's ark) :-- Nolde seó culufre under salwed bord syððan ætýwan on þellfæstenne, Cd. Th. 89, 17; Gen. 1482.

þelma, an; m. A trap :-- Þelman tendiculum, Hpt. Gl. 429, 17. Cf. (?) þel

þelma (?), an; m. Heat :-- Se þelma and sió hǽto, Lchdm. ii. 82, 10. [Cockayne compares the word with for-þylman; but perhaps welma or welm should be read. The form welm, referring to the inflammation which 'þelma' denotes, occurs three times in the section.]

þelu. v. buruh-þelu; þel.

þén. v. þegen.

þencan; p. þóhte (pohte?) To think. I. absolute, to meditate, cogitate, consider :-- Sceal scearp scyldwíga gescád witan worda and worca, se ðe wel þenceþ, Beo. Th. 584; B. 289. Ða leásan men treówa gehátaþ fægerum wordum, fácenlíce þencaþ, Fragm. Kmbl. 49; Leás. 26. Ðara sacerda ealdras þóhton ðæt hig woldon Lazarum ofsleán cogitaverunt principes sacerdotum, ut Lazarum interficerent, Jn. Skt. 12, 10: Blickl. Homl. 69, 26: 77, 8. Weras þeahtedon and þóhton, Elen. Kmbl. 1094; El. 549. Ðá águnnon þencan ða bócerns coeperunt cogitare scribæ, Lk. Skt. 5, 21. Ne mæg se flǽschoma, ðone him ðæt feorg losaþ, mid hyge þencan, Exon. Th. 311, 23; Seef. 96. Hé eode út on ðæt land þencende egressus fuerat ad meditandum in agro, Gen. 24, 63. II. where the thought is the object of the verb, to think, have in the mind :-- Secge hé hwæt ic þence let him say what my thoughts are, Blickl. Homl. 181, 7. Deáh hwá mæge ongitan hwæt óþer dó, hé ne mæg witan hwæt hé ðencþ, Bt. 39, 9; Fox 226, 7. Gedó ðæt hý nægen dón ðæt yfel ðæt hý þencaþ and sprecaþ decidant a cogitationibus suis, Ps. Th. 5, 11. Weras ðe ðæt on geþóhtum þenceaþ: Wutun..., 138, 17. Ealle ða geþóhtas ðe hí þóhtan omnes cogitationes eorum, 145, 3. II a. where the thought is expressed :-- Ðæt mæg beón, ðæt sume men þencan, 'hú mæg ic sécan ðæt gástlíce leóht?' Blickl. Homl. 21, 18. III. to think, suppose, hold as an opinion or belief :-- Hé þenceþ ðæt his wíse wel hwam þince eal unforcúþ, Exon. Th. 315, 12; Mód. 30. Nǽnig heora þóhte, ðæt hé ðanon scolde gesécean folc, Beo. Th. 1386; B. 691. IV. to think of, consider, employ the mind on a subject, (1) where the subject of thought is in the accusative :-- Ic ðíne sóðfæstnysse þence meditabor in justificationibus tuis, Ps. Th. 118, 117. Ðá þóhton hig ðis word, Lk. Skt. 9, 45. Him ðás þing þencendum haec eo cogitante, Mt. Kmbl. 1, 20. (2) where the subject of thought is in genitive :-- Hé ðencþ ðæs tíman hwonne hé hit wyrs geleánian mæge deteriora, si occasio praebeatur, quaerat, Past. 33; Swt. 227, 23. Ðenc ðara worda mínra gebeda intende voci orationis meae, Ps. Th. 5, 1. Gif ðú ðone mon lácnian wille, þænc his gebǽra consider his gestures, Lchdm. ii. 348, 13. Hié nyllaþ ðæs ðencean, hú hié mægen nyttweorðuste beón hiera niéhstum, Past. 5; Swt. 45, 18. Wé móton ðæs þencan ðe egeslíc on ðissum bócum is gewriten, L. Ath. i. prm.; Th. i. 196, 23. (3) where the subject of thought is governed by a preposition, to think about, of, on a subject :-- Ic ymb síþ spræce and on lagu þence, Exon. Th. 458, 9; Hy. 4, 97. Myccle swíðor wé sceolan þencan be ðǽm gástlícum þingum ðonne bé ðǽm líchomlícum, Blickl. Homl. 57, 13. Be ðan morgendæge þencean de crastino cogitare, 213, 23. Onginnaþ ymb ða fyrde þencean, Cd. Th. 26, 18; Gen. 408. Hwæt is ðæt ðæm men sý máre þearf tó þencenne ðonne embe his sáuwle þearfe, Blickl. Homl. 97, 19. Gód ys on Dryhten tó þenceanne bonum est confidere in Domino, Ps. Th. 117, 8. (4) where the subject of thought is given in a clause introduced by an indirect interrogative :-- Hé þencþ hú hé hine éþelícost beswícan mæge, Blickl. Homl. 55, 21. Hé þóhte hú hé him stól geworhte, Cd. Th. 18, 13; Gen. 272, Maria swígende ðóhte hwæt seó hálettung wǽre, Blickl. Homl. 7, 16. Hié þóhton hú hié hine ácwellan meahton, 241, 18: Ps. Th. 72, 6. Is wén ðæt feala manna þence hwylcum edleáne hé onfó æt Drihtne, Blickl. Homl. 41, 14. Smeágean wé and þencan hwæt ðæt tácnode, 19, 4. Smeágan and þencan hwylce ðæs gódan marines weorc and his dǽda wǽron, 55, 12. (5) where the construction is uncertain :-- Ðenð excogitat (de domo impii, Prov. 21, 12), Kent. Gl. 775. V. to direct the thoughts to an object, (a) to look to with attention, turn the thoughts to: -Þenc nú swíðe geornlíce tó ðam ðe ic ǽr sáde turn your thoughts very carefully to what I said before, Shrn. 177, 35. Ðǽm welwillendum is tó secganne, ðonne hié gesióð hiera geférena gód weorc, ðæt hié eác ðencen tó hint selfum dicendum est benevolis, ut, cum proximorum facta conspiciunt, ad suum cor redeant, Past. 34; Swt. 231, 11. Riht is ðæt munecas dæges and nihtes inweardre heortan á tó Gode þencan and geornlíce clypian it is right that monks day and night ever earnestly direct their thoughts to God and diligently cry to him, L. I. P. 14; Th. ii. 322, 3. (b) to look to with trust, expectation, expect of. Cf. Ger. zu-denken :-- Næs heó swicol nánum ðæra ðe hyre tó ðóhte, Lchdm. iii. 430, 1. Ðá seonde hé ðæt man sceolde ða scipu tóheáwan; ac hí ábruðon ða ðe hé tó þóhte, Chr. 1004; Erl. 139, 26. Ne þurfon wé ná tó úrum mǽgum ne nán man tó his wífe ðencean tó ðam swýþe, ðæt him man æfter his forðsýpe tó ðam micel fore gedǽle, ðæt hí hine franc wítan álýsan, gif hé hér hine sylfne forgýmde we need not expect so much of our kinsmen, and no man need expect so much of his wife, as that enough will be given for him after his death to redeem him from torment, if he neglected himself before, Wulfst. 306, 4. (c) where purpose or intention is implied, to turn the thoughts to action, to be bent upon something, have an intention to do something :-- Hí beóð gewǽpnode on ða wísan, ðe man hors gewǽpnaþ, ðonne man tó wíge þencþ (intends to go to war), Wulfst. 200, 11. Feówer þing synt ealra þinga behéfost ðam árwyrðan men, ðam ðé þencþ tó ðam écan lífe, 247, 12. Hé tó gyrnwræce swíðor þóhte ðonne tó sǽláde his thoughts were turned rather to vengeance than to voyage, Beo. Th. 2282; B. 1139. Hí tó swice þóhton, and þrymcyning þeódenstóles berýfan, Exon. Th. 317, 6; Mód. 61. Gif hwylc mǽdenman mid gehádodum wunaþ, and heó tó ðam ylcan háde þence si puella aliqua cum ordinatis habitet, et se eidem ordini destinet, L. Ecg. P. ii. 17; Th. ii. 188, l0. VI. to think of something, where it is implied that effect will be given to the thought, to determine, devise, mean, purpose, intend, (a) with gen. :-- Ne þence wé nánes yfeles nec ullas molimur insidias, Gen. 42, 31. Geheald mé, ðæt mé tie beswíce synwyrcende, ða ðe unrihtes ǽghwǽr þenceaþ custodi me a scandalis operantium iniquitatem, Ps. Th. 140, 11. Ða ðe mé ðenceaþ yfeles qui cogitant mihi mala, 34, 5. Ealle míne fýnd þóhton mé yfeles, 40, 8. Ðæt ic mín fleó and mid rihtheortum rǽdes þence, 93, 14. Ne mæg ðín ríce leng stondan, búton ðú heora forwyrde ðe geornor þence, Blickl. Homl. 175, 15. Ne þenðú ne moliaris (amico tuo malum, Prov. 3, 39), Kent. Gl. 55. (b) followed by an infin., to think of doing something, intend to do :-- Ic his swíðran hand settan þence ponam manum ejus, Ps. Th. 88, 22: 107, 8: 118, 109. Ic mé be healfe mínum hláforde licgan þence I mean to lie by the side of my lord, Byrht. Th. 141, 9; By. 319. Nó ic eów sweord ongeán óðberan þence ... ac ic mínum Criste cwéman þence, Exon. Th. 120, 18-26; Gú. 274-277. Gif ðú úre bídan þencest, 119, 26; Gú. 260. Se ðe wrecan þencep freán, Byrht. Th. 139, 23; By. 258: Beo. Th. 3075; B. 1535: Cd. Th. 287, 9; Sat. 364. Ðonne wé tó héhselde hnígan þencaþ, 277, 22; Sat. 208. Mid ðý hí wrecan þenceaþ ad faciendum vindictam, Ps. Th. 149, 7, 8. Hí unscyldige scotian þenceaþ ut sagittent immaculatum, 63, 3. Ic hine wríþan þóhte ... ic hine ne mihte ganges getwǽman I meant to bind him ... but I could not stop him, Beo. Th. 1933; B. 964: 1483; B. 739. Hé ðæt gewrecan þóhte he determined to punish that, Cd. Th. 77, 13; Gen. 1274. Hié wyrnan þóhton Moyses mágum leófes síðes, 180, 27; Exod. 51. Hié wǽron wið ðæs fýres weard tó ðon ðæt hié hit ácwencean þóhton ad extinguendum ignem concurrerunt, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 200, 17: 1, 10; Swt. 44, 32. Se ðe gód beginnan þence hé ðæt angin on him sylfum ástelle he who intends to begin reformation, let him make a beginning with himself, Lchdm. iii. 438, 32. (b 1) with the gerundial infin. :-- Hí ðǽr swá longe ðóhton tó beónne, Ors. 1, 14; Swt. 56, 22. Se ðe ða áre þænce tó þeófigenne oððe on óððre wís on tó áwendenne qui quid illinc abstulerit sive in alium usum converterit, Chart. Th. 177, 13. (b 2) with infin. omitted :-- Ða Iudéas sóhton Iósep and ða twelf cnyhtas and Nichodemus ... Ealle hig hig selfe bedýglodon ... búton Nichodemus sylfa ... Com hé tó hym ... Eall swá gelíce Iósep æfter ðam hyne ætýwde, and heom tó com ... Hig cwǽdon tó hym: 'Oncnáw nú ðæt hyt ðé lyt scal fremian ðæt ðú tó þóhtest' (know that it shall benefit you little, that you have determined to come to us), Nicod. 12-13; Thw. 6, 14-38. Ðara ǽlces ðe ðæs wordes wǽre ðæt from Rómebyrg þóhte of each one that should give expression to an intention of leaving Rome, Ors. 4, 9; Swt. 190, 25. (c) followed by a clause :-- Ða ðe swá þenceaþ, ðæt heó gehýden hǽlun míne ipsi calcaneum meum observabunt, Ps. Th. 55, 6. Heó ǽr þóhte ðæt heó Godes brýd wurþan wolde antea statuerat, quo Dei sponsa fieret, L. Ecg. P. ii. 17; Th. ii. 188, 13. 'Uton árísan and ácwellan ða apostolas' ... Ða Iudéas ðá árison, and hié ongunnon mid sweordum ðyder gán; þóhton ðæt hié woldan ofsleán ða apostolas, Blickl. Homl. 151, 1. (d) with an accus. to which a clause stands in apposition :-- His ðegna ðreát ðe ðæt þence nú, ðæt hí his willan wyrcean georne ministri ejus, qui facitis voluntatem ejus, Ps. Th. 102, 20. VII. to think of doing something with hope or expectation, to desire, seek :-- Ðurh ða róde sceal ríce gesécan ǽghwylc sáwl, seó ðe mid Wealdende wunian þenceþ, Rood Kmbl. 240; Kr. 121. Hwæþer ðú ðonne ongite ðæt ǽlc ðara wuhta ðe him beón þencþ ðæt hit þencþ ætgædere beón gehál undǽled quod autem subsistere ac permanere appetit id unum esse desiderat, Bt. 34, 12; Fox 152, 26. Ðara gesǽlða wilniaþ ealle deáþlíce men tó begitanne, ðeáh hé ðurh mistlíce wegas ðencan tó cumanne, 24, 2; Fox 80, 31. VIII. to think, call to mind, originate in the mind :-- Hié ðonne forhtiaþ, and feá þencaþ hwæt hié tó Criste cweðan onginnen then will they fear, and few will think what to say to Christ, Rood Kmbl. 228; Kr. 115. [Goth. þag(g)kjan; p. þáhta to think, consider, consult, debate: O. Sax. thenkian; p. þáhta: O. L. Ger. thenkan; tháhta: O. Frs. thanka, thenkia; p. thógte: O. H. Ger. denchen; p. dáhta: Icel. þekkja; p. þátti to perceive, know.] v. á-, be-, bi-, for-, fore-, ge-, geond-, of-, under-, ymbe-þencan.

þencan in the following passage seems an error :-- Sum on bǽle sceal brondas þencan (Thorpe would read þeccan; Grein suggests sumne on bǽle sceal brond áswencan. Cf. ge-swencan), Exon. Th. 329, 33; Vy. 43.

þénda, Lchdm. ii. 182, 16. v. þǽnan.

þende; conj. While :-- Ðendi hé ðæt þóhte engel Drihtnes æteáwde him haec eo cogitante angelus Domini apparuit ei, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 1, 20. Þende hé ðá gespræc adhuc eo loquente, 17, 5. Ðende wæs hé sprecende ɫ ða hwíle hé spræc adhuc ipso loquente, Lind. 26, 47. Ðende ðonne (mid þý þonne þende, Rush.) wæs ðe Hǽlend in Bethania cum autem esset Jesus in Bethania, 26, 6. Þende regente (perhaps here the word is the beginning of a rendering of the absolute construction, as in the previous passages; or it might be(?) a mistake for þeódne), Germ. 403, 35. [Goth. þandé, þandei while, as long as; since: O. H. Ger. danta quia, ideo.] v. next word.

þenden. I. conj. While. (1) where the periods of the actions marked by the verbs in the conjoined clauses are co-extensive, as long as, (all the) while (that) :-- Ic Drihtne singe þenden ic wunige on worulddreámum psallam Deo, quamdiu era, Ps. Th. 103, 31. Byþ his sóþfæstnys mǽre þenden þysse worulde wunaþ ǽnig dǽl justitia ejus menet in seculum seculi, 111, 3: l01, 10: Cd. Th. 93, 9; Gen. 1542: 56, 7; Gen. 908. Ne pearft ðú ðé wiht ondrǽdan, þenden ðú míne láre lǽstest, 130, 33; Gen. 2169: Beo. Th. 574; B. 284. Mon mæg gelácnian, þenden of ðære lifre sió blódsceáwung geondgét ealne ðone líchoman, Lchdm. ii. 222, 9. Heó wǽron leóf Gode, ðenden heó his word healdan woldon, Cd. Th. 16, 18; Gen. 245. Þenden, 73, 5; Gen. 1200: 194, 3; Exod. 255: 216, 17; Dan. 8: Beo. Th. 59; B. 30: 114, B. 57: Exon. Th. 157, 34; Gú. 901. Þendan, 37, 8; Cri. 590: 50, 14; Cri. 800. Þendon, Andr. Kmbl. 3422; An. 1715. Þynden, 2648; An. 1325. Þenden wé on eorðan eard weardigen, Exon. Th. 48, 15; Cri. 772: Ps. Th. 105, 5. (2) where the verbs of the conjoined clauses denote contemporaneous actions. v. II :-- Hý sceolon tæfle ymbsittan þenden him hyra torn tóglíde they shall sit at their play, while their grief slips away, Exon. Th. 345, 3; Gn. Ex. 182. (3) where the period of the action of the verb in the first clause is included within that of the verb in the subjoined clause, while, at some time during the period when :-- Gif ic ǽnegum þegne þeódenmádmas forgeáfe, þenden wé on ðan gódan ríce sǽton, Cd. Th. 26, 22; Gen. 410. Hé frægn ða mænigeo hwæt hine gemǽtte, þenden reordberend reste wunode, 223, 21; Dan. 123. II. adv. Meanwhile :-- Heorot innan wæs freóndum áfylled, nalles fácnstafas Þeód-Scyldingas þenden fremedon, Beo. Th. 2043; B. 1019. Dǽdum mildheort, þenden geðyldig, Ps. Th. 85, 14: 91, 13. v. preceding word.

þenedness, þeneness, þénest, þénestre, þeng. v. tó-þenedness, á-þeneness (ðenenis is given in Ps. Surt. ii. p. 194, 15, but áðenenes in Txts. 411, 48), þegnest, þegnestre, þegen.

þengel, es; m. A prince :-- Segncyning, manna þengel, Cd. Th. 188, 24; Exod. 173. Hringa þengel (Beowulf), Beo. Th. 3018; B. 1507. [Icel. þengill a prince (only in poetry).] Cf. fengel, strengel.

þenian, þénian, þénisc, þéning. v. þennan, þegnian, þegnisc, þegnung.

þennan, þenian; p. þenede. I. to stretch, spread out, extend, bend (a bow) :-- Ic míne handa tó ðé hebbe and ðenige expandi manus meas ad te, Ps. Th. 87, 9. Bogan his ðeneþ arcum swum tetendit, Ps. Surt. 7, 13. Ic míne handa tó ðé þenede expandi manus meas ad te, Ps. Th. 142, 6. Ða synfullan ðenedon (intenderunt) bogan, Ps. Surt. 10, 3. Ðene (praetende) mildheortnisse ðíne weotendum ðec, 35, 11. Ðænne ðone swíðran earm swá hé swíþast mǽge let him stretch out the right arm as hard as he can, Lchdm. iii. 22, 11. Swá hwider swá se cining his ríce mihte þennan whithersoever the king could extend his power, Anglia x. 142, 47. Hé ða fǽmnan hét nacode þennan and mid sweopum swingan he bade stretch the maiden out naked and scourge her with whips, Exon. Th. 253, 29; Jul. 187. Þenian to stretch on the cross, Rood Kmbl. 103; Kr. 52. Ðennende ðú áðenes bogan ðínne tendens extendes arcum tuum, Ps. Surt. ii. p. 190, 5. II. to prostrate, overthrow :-- Ðæt hé þenede hig on wéstene ut prosterneret eos in deserto, Ps. Spl. 105, 25. III. to strain, make an effort, exert one's self, press on (v. Gothic) :-- Ðæt geswinc his sýðfætes ne understandende mid hrædestan ryne þenigende arn (he exerted himself in running), for ðam ðe hé gewilnode hine geðeódan ðam ðe ðǽr fleáh, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 186. [Goth. sik ufþanjan se extendere (Phil. 3, 14): O. Sax. sie netti thenidun, Hél. 1155: O. L. Ger. thenan intendere, extendere: O. H. Ger. dennen extendere, expandere, distendere: Icel. þenja to stretch, extend.] v. á-, be-, ge-þennan, -þenian.

þenning, e; f. Stretching, extension :-- Be Cristes earm[a] þenninge and his honda on róde, Anglia xi. 172, last line.

þénsum, þénung, þeó. v. ge-þénsum, þegnung, se.

þeód, e; f. I. a nation, people :-- Ðeóð winþ ongén þeóde consurget gens in gentem, Mt. Kmbl. 24, 7. Of ðám frumgárum folc áwæcniaþ, þeód unmǽte, Cd. Th. 138, 15; Gen. 2292. Eást-Engla cyning and. seó þeód gesóhte Ecgbryht cyning, Chr. 823; Erl. 62, 24. Eal seó þeód ðe on Eást-Englum beóþ, L. A. G. prm.; Th. i. 152, 3. Myrcena ðeód onféng fulluht, Lchdm. iii. 430, 21. Ðeós þeód (the Jews), Elen. Kmbl. 934; El. 468. Ðá wæs þeód (the citizens of Mermedonia; cf. burhwaru, 2189; An. 1096) gesamnod, Andr. Kmbl. 2198; An. 1100. Cham ys fæder ðære Cananéiscre þeóde, Gen. 9, 18. Ðǽr wæs micel unþuǽrnes ðære þeóde (the Northumbrians) betweox him selfum, Chr. 867; Erl. 72, 8. Mid ðǽm ieldstan witum mínre þeóde, L. In. prm.; Th. i. 102, 6. Þióde aldor, Dauid, Ps. C. 146. In lond ðara ðeáde in regionem Gerasenorum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 28. Hér Édwine kyning wæs gefulwad mid his þeóde, Chr. 627; Erl. 24, 2. Ic déme ða þeóde (gentem, the Egyptians), Gen. 15, 14. Clǽnsie man ða þeóde, L. E. G. ii; Th. i. 174, 2. Ealla óðræ Cristnæ ðióda, Past. pref.; Swt. 7, 5. Of ðám frumgárum twá þeóda (the Moabites and the Ammonites) áwócon, Cd. Th. 158, 11; Gen. 2615. Þeóda gentes, Ps. Th. 65, 7. Þeóde, 78, 1: 113, 10. Manegra þeóda fæder pater multarum gentium, Gen. 17, 4. Ofer þeóda gehwylce, Beo. Th. 3414; B. 1705. Drihten, ðeóda waldend, Cd. Th. 238, 27; Dan. 361. Eardas rúme Meotud árǽrde for moncynne, efenfela þeóda and þeáwa (i.e. each people has its own customs), Exon. Th. 334, 18; Gn. Ex. 18. Ðiéda gentium, Ps. Surt. 17, 44: ii. p. 192, 17. On ðeódum inter gentes, Ps. Th. 107, 3. Ofer ealle þeóde super gentes, 65, 6. Hí þreátiaþ ymbsittenda óþra þeóda, Met. 25, 14. Lǽraþ ealle þeóda docete omnes gentes, Mt. Kmbl. 28, 19. I a. where the general term is used, but only a part of the people is actually concerned :-- Sió þeód geseah in Hierusalem, godwebba cyst ufan eall forbærst, Exon. Th. 70, 6; Cri. 1134. Inne on healle wæs ðeód on sǽlum, Beo. Th. 1291; B. 643. Heó ðæs áð lǽdde on ealre ðeóde gewitnesse tó Æglesforda, Chart. Th. 202, 3. Æþelréd Norþanhymbra cyning wæs ofslægen from his ágenre þeóde, Chr. 794; Erl. 58, 5. I b. in pl. the gentiles :-- Se þeóda láreów Paulus, Homl. Th. i. 96, 35: Shrn. 58, 33. Þara þeóda (ðeóda, Lind.) Galilea, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 4, 15. I c. a race :-- Giganta cyst ... ðæt wæs fremde þeód écean Dryhtne, Beo. Th. 3387; B. 1691. I d. in a general sense, particularly in pl., people, men :-- Gif ðú eáðmódne eorl geméte, þegn on þeóde (among men), Exon. Th. 318, 7; Mod. 79: 176, 4; Gú. 1204. Ðæt wé siþþan forð ða séllan þing móten geþeón on þeóde, 23, 31; Cri. 377: 8, 33; Cri. 127: 208, 23; Ph. 160. Cristes þegnas biddaþ God áre ealre þeóde; ðú him tíðast, swá ðú eádmód eart ealre worlde, Hy. 7, 55. Grécas ... Egiptisce þeóda ... Romani and Englisce þeóda, Anglia viii. 309, 19-21. Þeóda wlítaþ ... hú seó wilgedryht wildne weorþiaþ, Exon. Th. 221, 28; Ph. 341. Hé þeóda gehwam (to every one on earth) hefonríce forgeaf, Cd. Th. 40, 19; Gen. 641; Exon. Th. 429, 4; Rä. 42, 8. Geþola þeóda þreá endure men's oppression, Andr. Kmbl. 213; An. 107. Se ðisne ár hider onsende þeódum tó helpe (to help people), 3209; An. 1607. Is wíde cúð ðeódum, ceorlum and eorlum, Menol. Fox 61; Men. 30. David wæs swíðe geðancol tó ðingienne þiódum sínum wið ðane Sceppend, Ps. C. 7. II. in a local sense, the district occupied by a people, a country :-- Án hearpere wæs on ðære þeóde ðe Thracia hátte, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 166, 28. Se wæs on ðære ðeóde ðe hátte Babilonige, Cd. Th. 226, 16; Dan. 172. Ða beorgas onginnaþ in Narbonense ðære ðeóde, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 22, 20. In ðær ðeáde in Galilaeam, Jn. Skt. Lind. 4, 45. Aulixis hæfde twá ðióda under ðam Kásere. Ða ðióda wǽron hátene Iþaeige and Rétie, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 4. III. a language. v. ge-þeóde :-- Þeáh ðe seofan men sittan on middanearde, and heó mihton sprecan on ǽghwylcere þeóde ðe betwux heofonum and eorðan wǽre, ðara is twá and hundseofontig, Wulfst. 214, 29. [Goth. þiuda a nation, people; pl. the gentiles: O. Sax. thiod, thioda a people; in pl. men: O. L. Ger. thiad gens, natio: O. Frs. thiade people, men: O. H. Ger. diot, diota gens, populus, plebs, natio: Icel. þjóð a nation, people; in a local sense, a land, country.] v. el- (æl-), eást-, gum-, heáh-, neáh-, norþ-, sige-, Sweó-, wer-þeód, irmen-þeóde; in-geþeóde.

þeód-. As the first part of several compounds (see below) þeód has the force of general, great; a similar use is found in O. Sax. and Icel. The form is also found in proper names, e.g. Ðeód-bald, Bd. 1, 34; S. 499, 33. Ðeód-ríc, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 5. Þeód-Scyldingas, Beo. Th. 2042; B. 1019. Cf. regn-.

þeódan, þiédan, þídan, þýdan; p. de To join (trans. or intrans.), attach :-- Be ðám ðe wið ða dǽdbétendan ðeódaþ de is qui junguntur excommunicatis, R. Ben. 50, 9. Ðonne hý sume mid geficum wið ðone ánne þeódaþ and leásettaþ, sume wið ðone óþerne dum adulantur partibus, 125, 2. Ða woruldgesǽlþa hú hié simle tó ðám gódum ne ðeódaþ ne ða yfelan góde ne gedóð ðe hié hié oftost tó geðeódaþ fortuna nec se bonis semper adjungit, et bonos, quibus fuerit adjuncta, non efficit, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 56, 33. Ðá weóxon ða fýr swýþe and hí tógædere þeóddon and samnedon óþ ðæt ðe hí wǽron on ǽnne unmǽtne lég geánede crescentes ignes usque ad invicem sese extenderunt, atque in immensam adunati sunt, flammam, Bd. 3, 19; S. 548, 20. Nán bróðor wið óþerne ne þeóde, ne mid his geþeódrǽdenne ne lette on unþæslícum tíman neque frater ad fratrem jungatur horis incompetentibus, R. Ben. 74, 23. Dæt hé hiene nánwuht ne áhebbe ofer his gelícan ne from hiera geférrǽdenne ne ðiéde quia per elationem se minime a proximorum societate disjungit, Past. 46; Swt. 349, 5. Þæt wé ús georne tó Gode þýdon that we diligently attach ourselves to God, Blickl. Homl. 115, 21. Mid cnottum (wǽre) þeód nexibus nodaretur, Hpt. Gl. 481, 31. Þióð subjugatae, subjunctae, 519, 4. [Cf. Icel. þýða to associate, attach.] v. á-, be-, ge-, óþ-, under-þeódan (-þiédan, -þídan, -þýdan).

þeód-bealu, wes; n. Great ill, grievous ill :-- Þeódbealu on þreó healfa (referring to three elements in the misery of the lost; cf. O. Sax. thiod-arbédi, applied to the expulsion from Eden), Exon. Th. 78, 2; Cri. 1268. Andrea þúhte þeódbealo þearlíc tó geþolianne, ðæt hé swá unscyldig ealdre sceolde linnan (cf. O. Sax. thiod-quálu, applied to the crucifixion, and to the agony in the garden), Andr. Kmbl. 2273; An. 1138. Cf. þeód-þreá.

þeód-búend[e]; pl. Those living in nations, mankind, men :-- Hé (Christ) earfeþu geþolade fore þearfe þeódbúndra, láðlícne deáð leódum tó helpe, Exon. Th. 72, 16; Cri. 1173. Hé geðingade þeódbúendum wið fæder swǽsne fǽhþa mǽste, 39, 3; Cri. 616: 84, 11; Cri. 1372.

þeód-cwén, e; f. A great queen, an empress :-- Þeódcwén the empress (Elene), Elen. Kmbl. 2310; El. 1156. v. next word.

þeód-cyning, es; m. I. the king of a whole nation, a monarch, an independent sovereign. [Ei má þá kalla þjóðkonunga er skattkonungar eru, Edda. Ef hann (Harold Fairhair) vill leggja undir sik allan Noreg ok ráða því ríki jafnfrjálsliga, sem Eiríkr konungr Svíaveldi, eða Gormr konungr Danmörku, þá þykkir mér hann mega heita þjóðkonungr, Haralds Saga, c. 3.] :-- Þeódcyning (the king of Egypt; cf. folcfreá, 111, 7; Gen. 1852), Cd. Th. 112, 11; Gen. 1869. Ðeódcyning (Ongentheow), Beo. Th. 5932; B. 2970. Se ðeódcyning (Hrothgar), 4294; B. 2144. Ðiódcyning (Beowulf), 5151; B. 2579. Æt þearfe þeódcyninges, 5382; B. 2694. Ðæs þeódkyninges (-kyngces, MS. D.) (Edward the Confessor), Chr. 1066; Erl. 198, 15. Fore þrymme ðeódcyninges ǽniges on eorðan, Apstls. Kmbl. 36; Ap. 18. Gewiton hié feówer þeódcyningas (cf. Thadal rex gentium, Gen. 14, 1) þrymme micle, Cd. Th. 118, 14; Gen. 1965. Ðǽr beóþ þearfan and þeódcyningas (paupers and monarchs; pauperque potensque), Dóm. L. 161. Wé Gár-Dena in geárdagum þeódcyninga þrym gefrunon, Beo. Th. 3; B. 2. Ond swá micel wundor and wæfersién wæs mínes weoredes on fægernisse ofer ealle óþre þeódkyningas ðe in middangearde wǽron fuitque inter uarietates spectaculorum in conspiciendo talem exercitum, qui ornatu pariter ac uiribus inter gentes eminebant, Nar. 7, 19. II. the king of all nations, the monarch of the world, the Deity :-- Bútan ǽr þeódcyning (cf. Exon. Th. 367, 25 which has here éce Dryhten), ælmihtig God ende worulde wyrcan wille, weoruda Dryhten, Soul Kmbl. 24; Seel. 12. [O. Sax. thiod-kuning (used of Christ and of Herod): Icel. þjóðkonungr.] Cf. þeóden.

þeóddon served. v. þeówan.

þeód-egesa, an; m. A terror that affects whole nations, a mighty, general terror :-- Ðonne mægna cyning on gemót (at the day of judgement) cymeþ, þeódegsa biþ hlúd gehýred, Exon. Th. 52, 16; Cri. 834.

þeóden, es; m. I. the chief of a þeód [cf. dryhten, dryht for connexion of þeóden, þeód], a prince, king; the word is used almost exclusively in poetry, but occurs once in the Laws in an alliterative phrase :-- Ǽlc be his mǽðe, eorl and ceorl, þegen and þeóden, L. R. 1; Th. i. 190, 14. Eádmund cyning, Engla þeóden, Chr. 942; Erl. 116, 7. Cyning, þeóden Scyldinga, Beo. Th. 3746; B. 1871. Gúðcyning, Wedera þeóden, 4661; B. 2336. Ðeóden gumena (Holofernes), Judth. Thw. 22, 18; Jud. 66. Hér Eádgár wæs, Engla waldend, tó cyninge gehálgod ... on ðam xxx wæs ðeóden gehálgod, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 28. Se mondryhten, se eów máðmas geaf ... hé oft gesealde helm and byrnan, þeóden his þegnum, Beo. Th. 5730; B. 2869: Cd. Th. 158. 34; Gen. 2627. Ríce þeóden, 161, 31; Gen. 2673: 222, 24; Dan. 109. Mǽre þeóden, Beo. Th. 259; B. 129: 3434; B. 1715. Wealhþeów ðeódnes dohtor, 4354; B. 2174: 3678; B. 1837: 2174; B. 1085. Þrý wǽron on ðæs þeódnes byrig, ðæt hié noldon hyra þeódnes dóm þafigan onginnan, Cd. Th. 227, 18; Dan. 188. Þeódnes (Constantine) willan, Elen. Kmbl. 534; El. 267. Ásecgan suna Healfdenes, mǽrum þeódne, mín ǽrende, aldre ðínum, Beo. Th. 695; B. 385: Cd. Th. 221, 25; Dan. 93. Þegnas þeódne sægdon, 228, 20; Dan. 205. Þeóden mǽrne þegn, winedryhten his, wætere gelafede, Beo. Th. 5435; B. 2721: 5570; B. 2788. Leófne þeóden, ríces hyrde, 6151; B. 3079. Mǽrne þeóden, hláford leófne, 6274; B. 3141. II. a great man, a lord, chief :-- Úre þeóden (Byrhtnoth) líð, eorl on eorðan, Byrht. Th. 138, 39; By. 232: 135, 18; By. 120. Þrymfæst þeóden (Noah), Cd. Th. 200, 27; Exod. 363. Þeóden leófesta, Andr. Kmbl. 575; An. 285: (Guthlac), Exon. Th. 163, 1; Gú. 987. Þurh ðæs þeódnes word, 174, 2; Gú. 1171. Eorl Beówulfes wolde freádrihtnes feorh ealgian, mǽres þeódnes, Beo. Th. 1598; B. 797: 3259; B. 1627. Seó ecg geswác þeódne (Beowulf, not yet a king) æt þearfe, 3054; B. 1525. Hé læg ðegenlíce ðeódne (Byrhtnoth) gebende, Byrht. Th. 140, 27; By. 294. Mec ides freán sealde, holdum þeódne, swá hió háten wæs, Exon. Th. 479, 7; Rä. 62, 4. Hæleð, þeódnes þrymfulle, þegnas wlitige, Andr. Kmbl. 725; An. 363. II a. referring to other than men :-- Fuglas þringaþ ymbe æþelne, ǽghwylc wylle wesan þegn and þeów þeodne mǽrum (the Phenix), Exon. Th. 209, 4; Ph. 165. III. referring to the Deity, (1) to God :-- Wæs freá eallum leóf, þeóden his þegnum, Cd. Th. 5, 31; Gen. 80: 37, 29; Gen. 597: 218, 4; Dan. 34. Þeóden, rodera waldend, 73, 10; Gen. 1202. Freá ælmihtig, mǽre þeóden, 52, 34; Gen. 853. Swegles aldor, ríce þeóden, 53, 21; Gen. 864. Engla þeóden, 205, 6; Exod. 431. Swegles ealdor, þearltmód þeóden gumena, Judth. Thw. 22, 34; Jud. 91. Se þióden, Met. 11, 80. Þegnas þrymfæste þeóden heredon, Cd. Th. 2, 7; Gen. 15. (2) to Christ :-- Lífes ceápode þeóden moncynne, Exon. Th. 68, 1; Cri. 1097. Se brego mǽra tó Bethania, þeóden þrymfæst, his þegna gedryht gelaðade, 29, 3; Cri. 457. Crist, cyninga wuldor, mǽre ðeóden, Menol. Fox 4; Men. 2. Se drihten, se ðe deáð for ús geþrowode, þeóden engla, Cd. Th. 306, 19; Sat. 666: Elen. Kmbl. 971; El. 487. [Goth. þiudans βασιλεύs: O. Sax. thiodan (used of God and Christ, as also of earthly rulers): Icel. þjóðann (poet.) a king, ruler; a great man.]

þeódend-líc. v. under-þeódendlíc.

þeóden-gedál, es, n. The separation from a lord by his death :-- Ellen biþ sélast ðam ðe sceal dreógan dryhtenbealu, behycgan þeódengedál ... se wát his sincgiefan holdne biheledne, Exon. Th. 183, 8; Gú. 1324.

þeóden-hold; adj. Faithful to a lord, loyal :-- Þegn þeódenhold, Andr. Kntbl. 767; An. 384. Petrus and Paulus ðeódenholde ðrowedon on Róme, Menol. Fox 243; Men. 123. Wígend unforhte, þeódenholde, Cd. Th. 189, 10; Exod. 182. Hé wígena fand æscberendra .xviii. and .ccc. eác þeódenholdra (þeonden, MS.), 123, 10; Gen. 2042. Hé mid wuldre geweorðode þeódenholde, 183, 5; Exod. 87. Cf. dryhten-hold, Cd. Th. 137, 32; Gen. 2282.

þeóden-leás; adj. Without a lord, deprived of one's prince :-- Hié hira beággyfan banan folgedon þeódenleáse, Beo. Th. 2210; B. 1103. Cf. hláford-leás.

þeóden-máðum, es; m. A treasure given by a prince :-- Gif ic (Satan) ǽnegum þegne þeódenmádmas forgeáfe, Cd. Th. 26, 20; Gen. 409.

þeóden-stól, es; m. The seat of a king, a throne :-- Þrymcyning þeódenstóles berýfan, Exon. Th. 317, 8; Mód. 62. Ymb þeódenstól hý þringaþ, 25, 7; Cri. 397: 319, 16; Víd. 13.

þeód-eorþe, an; f. The whole inhabited earth, the world :-- Hwæt sceoldon ðé (the guilty soul), þeódeorðan fýlnes (cf. Exon. Th. 368, 7); úre ælmessan? Wulfst. 240, 15.

þeód-feónd, es; m. The arch-enemy :-- Se þeódfeónd, Antecrist sylfa, Wulfst. 83, 16. Hé fordéþ ðæne þeódfeónd and on helle grund besenceþ, 86, 20: 85, 19: 54, 20.

þeód-fruma, an; m. A prince of a people, a lord, ruler :-- Ðæt hí þiówien swilcum þiódfruman (hláforde, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234, 29), Met. 29, 94. Cf. land-fruma.

þeód-gestreón, es; n. A great treasure :-- Brúc ðisses beáges, and ðisses hrægles neót, þeódgestreóna, Beo. Th. 2440; B. 1218. Nalæs hí hine læssan lácum teódan, þeódgestreónum, 87; B. 44.

þeód-guma, an; m. A chief man of a people, a great man :-- Ða þeódguman (cf. eorlas æscrófe, 26, 20; Jud. 337), Judth. Thw. 26, 17; Jud. 332: 24, 26; Jud. 208. [O. Sax. thiod-gumo :-- Thiodgumo, mári mahtig Krist, Hél. 2576. The word is also used of John the Baptist, 2748.]

þeód-here; gen. -her(i)ges; m. The army of a nation, the military force of a people :-- Þeódherga wæl the slain of the nations who fought, Cd. Th. 130, 15; Gen. 2160.

þeód-herpaþ (æþ, -oþ), es; m. The highway, public road :-- On ðæne þeódherpað, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 24, 2. Þeódherpoð, v. 157, 14, 16. On ðone þeódherpað west on herpað, Chart. Erl. 330, 5. [Cf. O. H. Ger. diet-uuec via publica, Grff i. 669: Icel. þjóð-braut, -gata, -leið, -vegr a high road.] Cf. þeód-weg.

-þeódig. v. el- (æl-) þeódig. [O. Sax. eli-thiodig: O. H. Ger. eli-diotic.]

þeódisc; adj. Belonging to a people, gentile :-- Þeódisce gentiles, Anglia xiii. 37, 268. [Þa þeodisce men (þe Romanisse, 2nd MS.), Laym. 5838. O. L. Ger. thiudisca liudí germania: O. H. Ger. diutisk teutonicus. Cf. Goth. þiudiskó έθνικωs, gentiliter.] v. el- (æl-) þeódisc, and next word.

þeódisc, es; n. A language :-- Ðeáh hit gebyrige ðæt ða útemestan ðióda eówerne naman up áhebban and on manig þeódisc eów herigen licet remotos fama per populos means diffusa linguas explicet, Bt. 19; Fox 68, 30. Þiódisc, Met. 10, 26.

þeód-land, es; n. I. an inhabited district, a region, country :-- Fromcyme folde weorðeþ, þeódlond monig, ðíne gefylled, Cd. Th. 106, 4; Gen. 1766. Ðá becwom ic on Caspiain ðæt lond; ðá wæs ðǽr seó wæstmberendeste eorþe ðæs þeódlondes, and ic swíðe wundrade ða gesǽlignesse ðære eorðan Caspias portas peruenimus, ubi cum fertilissimarum regionum admirarer felicitatem, Nar. 5, 21. Tó wrítanne be ðæm þeódlonde Indie scribendum de regionibus Indie, 1, 15. Wé neáléhtan ðæm þeódlonde (regioni), 26, 12. Hé forþférde on Middel-Englum on ðam ðeódlande (regione) ðe is nemned on Feppingum, Bd. 3, 21; S. 551, 35. On ðam ðeódlande (regione) ðe is gecýged Élíge, 4, 19; S. 588, 1. Gotan geþrungon þeódlond monig, Met. 1, 3. Sculon ágan eaforan ðíne þeódlanda gehwilc, Cd. Th. 133, 15; Gen. 2211. On Cantwara mǽgþe and eác on ðám ðeódlandum ðe ðǽrtó geþeódde wǽron (in contiguis eidem regionibus), Bd. pref.; S. 471, 26. Ðá férdon wé on óþer þeódlond India in alias Indie profecti regiones, Nar. 22, 2. Wé fram dæge tó óþrum geáxiaþ ungecyndelíco wítu geond þeódland (throughout the world) tó mannum cumene, Blickl. Homl. 107, 26. Hé wearð wíde geond þeódland geweorðad, Chr. 959; Erl. 119, 23: Exon. Th. 19, 26; Cri. 306. II. the continent(?) :-- Fýr cymþ and hit gefealþ ǽrest on Sceotta land ... and hit ðonne færþ on Brytwealas ... and ðonne hit færþ on Angelcyn ... Ðonne hit færþ súð ofer sǽ geond ðæt þeódland (on ða þeódland, 215, 18), and hit ðǽr forbærnþ ðæt mancyn, swá hit hér ǽr dyde, Wulfst. 205, 13. [Icel. þjóð-land a country.]

þeód-líc; adj. Of a people :-- Ðeódlíc nama gentile nomen, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 45; Zup. 65, 6. [O. H. Ger. diete-líh.]

þeód-lícettere, es; m. An arch-hypocrite :-- Se þeódlícetere (Antichrist) hit gehíwaþ swá ðæt læst manna wát, hú hé him wið ðone ðeódfeónd gescyldan sceal, Wulfst. 54, 18.

þeód-loga, an; m. An arch-impostor, a great liar :-- Ða gódan Godes þegnas sǽdan, ðæt hé (Simon the sorcerer) luge, and hý geswutelodon, ðæt hit eal leás wæs, ðæt se þeódloga sǽde, Wulfst. 99, 23. Antecrist lǽrþ unsóðfæstnysse and swicolnesse ... and swá dóð ða þeódlogan, ðe taliaþ ðæt tó wærscype, ðæt man cunne lytelíce swician and mid unsóðe sóð oferswíðan, 55, 15.

þeód-mægen, es; n. A tribal force :-- Þridde þeódmægen (the tribe of Simeon, which came third), Cd. Th. 199, 21; Exod. 342. Cf. folcmægen fór æfter óðrum, 199, 31; Exod. 347.

þeód-mearc, Cd. Th, 187, 33; Exod. 158, read þeód mearc.

þeódness, e; f. A junction, joining :-- Gedafenlíc þeódnys habilis conjunctio, Wrt. Voc. i. 54, 60. Þeódnysse copulam, conjunctionem, Hpt. Gl. 481, 51. v. ge-, under-þeódness.

þeód-sceaþa, an; m. A criminal against the community, a spoiler of the community, a great criminal or spoiler :-- Wác biþ se hyrde, ðe nele ða heorde bewerian, gyf ðǽr hwylc þeódsceaða sceaðian onginneþ. Nis nán swá yfel sceaða swá is deófol sylf. Ðonne móton ða hyrdas beón swíðe wacore, ðe wið ðone þeódsceaðan folce sceolon scyldan, L. C. E. 26; Th. i, 374, 22-28: Wulfst. 191, 6-13. Þeódsceada, fýrdraca, Beo. Th. 5369; B. 2688: 4545; B. 2278. Se þeódsceaða (famine), Andr. Kmbl. 2232; An. 1117. Gyf God ne gescyrte ðæs þeódscaðan (Antichrist) lífdagas, Wulfst. 86, 17. God biddan, ðæt hé ús gescylde wið ðone þeódscaðan (Antichrist), 80, 6. Ðider (to hell) sculon þeófas and deódscaðan, 26, 18: 165, 36: Exon. Th. 98, 20; Cri. 1610. Lácende lég láðwende men þreáð, þeódsceaþan, 97, 25; Cri. 1596. [O. Sax. thiod-skaðo (the devil).] Cf. folc-, leód-sceaþa.

þeód-scipe, es; m. A people :-- Him cierde tó eall se þeódscype on Myrcna lande all the people of Mercia, Chr. 922; Erl. 108, 25. Eal þeódscype hine hæfde for fulne cyng, 1013; Erl. 148, 36. Þes þeódscype the English, Wulfst. 163, 19. Se ðeódscype the Jews, 14, 7. Cyning sceal geþeón and his þeódscipe eác swá, 266, 21. Oratores syndon gebedmen, ðe sceolon for ðæne cyngc and for ealne þeódscipe þingian georne. Laboratores syndon weorcmen, ðe tilian sceolon ðæs, ðe eall þeódscipe big sceal lybban, 267, 10-15; L. 1. P. 2; Th. ii. 304, 15: 4; Th. ii. 306, 33-36. Hí léton ealles ðeódscipes geswincg forwurðan, Chr. 1009; Erl. 142, 12: 1048; Erl. 178, 23. An hé (king Eadred) his sáwla tó anliésnesse, and his ðeódscipe tó þearfe sixtýne hund punda, Cod. Dip. B. iii. 75, 1. On ðam þeódscipe (the people of Sodom), Cd. Th. 116, 27; Gen. 1942. Wið þeódscipe Assiriæ, 15, 11; Gen. 231. Hí nimaþ úre land and úrne þeódscipe (gentem), Jn. Skt. 11, 48: Guthl. 12; Gdwin. 58, 11. Hét se cyng ábannan út ealne þeódscipe, Chr. 1009; Erl. 142, 25. Hú heó rihtlícost heora þeódscipe gehealdan mehton, Chart. Th. 139, 22. Þeódscypas winnaþ heom betweónan, Wulfst. 86, 7. Fela mǽrra manna of manegan þeódscipan, Chr. 1049; Erl. 172, 24. Æfter sumum þeódscipum byþ ðes saltus on .xv. kl. Decembris, Anglia viii. 309, 18. Cf. folc-, leód-scipe.

þeód-scipe, es; m. Connexion, association, fellowship. v. þeód-ness, þeódan :-- Uton witan hwá hine ðæs wurðscipes cúðe ðe hé sceolde gestandan on ðam rímcræfte. Ic wát gere, ðæt hé ys þeódscipes wyrðe it is entitled to be connected with arithmetic, Anglia viii. 308, 23. Ðæt wé gésine ne sýn Godes þeódscipes, metodes miltsa that we lack not fellowship with God, the Maker's mercies, Cd. Th. 211, 19; Exod. 528. Nǽfre ðú geþreátast ðínum beótum, ðæt ic þeódscype ðínne lufie, Exon. Th. 253, 10; Jul. 178.

þeód-scipe, es; m. I. teaching, instruction :-- Ðeódscipe ðín hé mé lǽrde disciplina tua ipsa me docebit, Ps. Surt. 17, 36. I a. instruction, being taught :-- Ðú fiódes ðeódscipe and ðú áwurpe word mín efter ðé odisti disciplinam et projecisti sermones meos post te, Ps. Surt. 40, 17. I b. testimony :-- Forebodan bið ðis godspell in ðeódscip ɫ cýðnise (in testimonium) allum cynnum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 14. II. what is taught or enjoined, a rule, regulation, law, injunction :-- Ðú him ǽrest ne sealdest, æfter ðam apostolícan ðeódscipe, meolc drincan, Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 33. II a. a collection of regulations, law, religion :-- Swá swá bí ðan ealdan ðeódscipe ða úttran weorc wǽron behealden, swá on ðam níwan ðeódscype ... sicut in Testamento (v. I b) veteri exteriora opera observantur, ita in Testamento nova..., 1, 27; S. 494, 30. Ealle ða þing ðe hálige men writon on ealdum oþþe on neówum þeódscipe, Blickl. Homl. 133, 2. .vii. gebróðor geþrowedon deáþ for ðære ealdan ǽ bebode ... Ðá cwæþ se cniht (the seventh brother): 'Ic sylle mínne líchoman for ússa fædera ðeódscipe, swá míne bróþor dydon,' Shrn. 111, 20. Ic geseah manige góde and on Godes þeódscipe wel heora líf lǽddon alios fuisse narrabat verae religions cultores, Guthl. 17; Gdwin. 70, 24. Ðú hine þeódscipe dínne lǽrest de lege tua docueris eum, Ps. Th. 93, 12. III. discipline, a disciplinary regulation :-- On strengo þeódscipes and þreá tó wlæc in disciplinae vigore tepidus, Bd. 1, 27; S. 492, 18. Ǽfæstnia untrymnisse hire mægne ðeátscip[es] muniat infirmitatem suam robore discipline, Rtl. 110, 3. On reogollícne ðeódscipe observatione disciplinae regularis, Bd. 3, 3; S. 526, 9. Hé micele gýminge hæfde mynsterlícra ðeódscipa curam non modicam monasticis exhibebat disciplinis, 3,19; S. 547, 28. Reogollícum ðeódscipum underþeóded regularibus disciplinis subditus, 4, 24; S. 598, 21: 3, 19; S. 547, 20. In cyriclícum ðeódscipum and in mynsterlícum heálíce intimbred ecclesiasticis ac monasterialibus disciplinis summe instructus, 5, 8; S. 621, 34. Þætte ús fæstern giðii ðóhto úsra heofonlícum gilǽr ðeódscipum ut nobis jejunium proficiat, mentes nostras coelestibus instrue disciplinis, Rtl. 14, 28. On mynstrum hé leornade gástlíce ðeódscipas, Shrn. 50, 26. IV. (regular) custom, (proper) mode of conduct :-- Béte ðara ǽghwelc mid ryhte þeódscipe ge mid were ge mid wíte let him make amends for each in the regular way both with wer and with wíte, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 4. Wæs Godes lof hafen þrymme micle óþ ðisne dæg mid þeódscipe (with proper observance? or among the people? v. þeódscipe a people), Exon. Th. 284, 10; Jul. 695. Hé wolde habban ða ðénunga ðeáwas and ðeódscipe tó lǽranne, Past. 17; Swt. 121, 18. Ða men, ðe bearn habban, lǽran hié ðám rihtne þeódscipe, and him tǽcean lífes weg and rihtne gang tó heófonum, Blickl. Homl. 109, 17. Fæderas ic lǽrde, ðæt hié heora bearnum þone þeódscipe lǽrdon Drihtnes egsan (fathers, bring up your children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, Eph. 6, 4), 185, 19. V. learning, knowledge, understanding :-- Nis in him ðiódscipe non est in eis disciplina; neither is there any understanding in them (Deut. 32, 28), Ps. Surt. ii. p. 194, 41. Nis nú fela folca ðætte fyrngewritu healdan wille, ac him hyge brosnaþ, ídlaþ þeódscype (or under IV?), Exon. Th. 304, 13; Fä. 69. Hé wæs on godcundlícan þeódscipe getýd and gelǽred (sacris litteris et monasticis disciplinis erudiebatur) ... Hé wæs twá geár on ðære leornunge, ðá hæfde hé his sealmas geleornode, Guthl. 2; Gdwin. 18, 11, Ðú mé þeódscipe lǽr dínne tilne and wísdómes word bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce me, Ps. Th. 118, 66. Hé forget hine selfne and ða láre and ðone ðiódscipe ðe hé geliornode, Past. 50; Swt. 393, 17. Heó héht gefetigean forðsnotterne, and his láre geceás ðurh þeódscipe (on account of his learning? or with a view to learning? the Latin has: convocans virum disciplinatum), Elen. Kmbl. 2331; El. 1167.

þeód-stefn, es; m. A stock, people :-- Betere is tó geblídanne ánne dæg mid ðé, ðonne óðera on þeódstefnum þúsend mǽla, Ps. Th. 83, 10. Cf, leód-stefn.

þeód-þreá a great calamity :-- Hié wordum bǽdon, ðæt him gástbona geoce gefremede wið þeódþreáum (the injuries inflicted by Grendel), Beo. Th. 358; B. 178. Cf. þeód-bealu.

þeód-weg, es; m. A highway :-- In þiódweg; æftær þiódwege, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 187, 30. On ðeódweg norð ofer ðone weg, 42, 30. [Icel. þjóð-vegr a high road.] Cf. þeód-herpaþ.

þeód-wíga, an; m. A mighty warrior :-- Se þeódwíga (the panther) ... ellenróf, Exon. Th. 357, 33; Pa. 38.

þeód-wita, an; m. I. one of the wise men of a nation, one whose knowledge fits him for a place in the councils of the nation, a senator :-- Senatores, ðæt synd þeódwitan, Jud. p. 161, 32. Ðá wǽron þeódwitan (leód-, MS. H.) weorðscipes wyrðe, L. R. 1; Th. i. 190, 12. Be ðeódwitan. Cyningan and bisceopan, eorlan and heretogan, geréfan and déman, lárwitan and lahwitan gedafenaþ mid rihte ðæt hí ánrǽde weorðan, L. I. P. 5; Th. ii. 308, 12. II. a man of great wisdom or learning, a sage :-- Wá eów ðe taliaþ eów sylfe tó ðeódwitan ve, qui sapientes estis carom oculis vestris, Wulfst. 46, 26. II a. used of a poet :-- Se þeódwita Virgilius, Anglia viii. 320, 30. Oft ða þeódwitan ðus heora meteruers gewurðiaþ, 332, 15. II b. used of a historian or philosopher or man of science :-- Án þeódwita wæs on Britta tídum, Gildas hátte, Wulfst. 166, 17. Manega þing wé mihton of þeódwitena gesetnysse geícean, Anglia viii. 321, 24. [Cf Icel. þjóð-skáld, -smiðr a great poet, craftsman.] Cf. leód-wita.

þeód-wrecan to avenge thoroughly, take great vengeance for :-- Grendles módor gegán wolde sorhfulue síð, sunu þeódwrecan (Ettmüller would read suna deáð wrecan; but perhaps the force of þeód- here and its composition with a verb may be illustrated by the case of full-, which is compounded with verbs, and has the force of per-; see the verbs in the Dictionary. The parallel between full- and þeód- might be further illustrated from compound adjectives in Icelandic, e.g. full-glaðr and þjóð-glaðr, full-góðr and þjóð-góðr), Beo. Th. 2561; B. 1278.

þeód-wundor, es; n. A great wonder, mighty miracle :-- Men geségon þeódwundor micel, ðætte eorðe ágeaf ða hyre on lǽgun, Exon. Th. 71, 14; Cri. 1155.

þeóf, es; m. A thief [the secrecy implied by the word is marked in the following passage from the Laws dealing with injury done to a wood: Fýr biþ þeóf ... sió æsc biþ melda, nalles þeóf, L. In. 43; Th. i. 128, 19-23. Cf. Goth. þiubjó έν κρυπτω] :-- Þeóf fur, scaþa latro, Wrt. Voc. i. 74, 23. Gyf se hírédes ealdor wiste on hwylcere tíde se þeóf (ðeáf, Lind. fur) tówerd wǽre, Mt. Kmbl. 24, 43. Ealle ða ðe cómun wǽron þeófas (ðeáfas, Lind.) and sceaþan (fures et latrones) ... Þeóf (ðeáf, Lind. fur) ne cymþ búton ðæt hé stele and sleá, Jn. Skt. 10, 8-10. Þeóf ðe on þýstre færeþ, on sweartre niht, Exon. Th. 54, 21; Cri. 872: 432, 10; Rä. 48, 4. Ðeóf sceal gangan in ðýstrum wederum, Menol. Fox 543; Gn. C. 42. Ðǽr þeófas (ðeáfas, Lind. fures) hit delfaþ and forstelaþ, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 19. On helle beóþ þeófas and gítseras ðe on mannum heora ǽhta on wóh nimaþ, Blickl. Homl. 61, 21. Hér syndan rýperas and reáferas and woruldstrúderas and ðeófas and þeódscaðan, Wulfst. 165, 36. Þeófum grassatoribus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 40, 35. Ealle niht ic (the ox-herd) stande ofer ða oxan waciende for þeófan (propter fures), Coll. Monast. Th. 20, 29. ¶ The passage last cited suggests a state of society in which property was not very secure, and the suggestion seems borne out by the many passages, dealing with thieves, that are to be found in the Laws. Thieving was so far common, that the law enacted: Gif feorrancumen man oþþe fræmde búton wege gange, and hé ðonne náwðer ne hrýme, ne hé horn ne bláwe, for þeóf hé biþ tó prófianne, L. Wih. 28; Th. i. 42, 23: L. In. 20; Th. i. 114, 15; and on such a scale was it conducted that according to the numbers of the depredators acting together were different terms used of them: Ðeófas wé hátaþ óð .vii. men; from .vii. hlóð óð .xxxv.; siþþan biþ here, L. In. 13; Th. i. 110, 13. The frequency of this particular form of crime may also be inferred from the later enactment: Wé wyllaþ ðæt ǽlc man ofer twelfwintre sylle ðone áð, ðæt hé nelle þeóf beón ne þeófes gewita, L. C. S. 21; Th. i. 388, 6. But far stronger measures than the exacting of such an oath were in force. The law made provision for the pursuit of thieves, L. Edg. H. 2; Th. i. 258, 6, and imposed penalties on those who, being summoned, or hearing the hue and cry, neglected to take part in the pursuit, 3; Th. i. 258, 14: L. C. S. 29; Th. i. 392, 17: while a reward was given to him who seized a thief: Se ðe þeóf geféhþ, hé áh .x. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., L. In. 28; Th. i. 120, 5. To let a thief go, when caught, was a crime, L. In. 36; Th. i. 124, 14; so, also, to allow him, when discovered, to escape without raising hue and cry, L. C. S. 29; Th. i. 392, 14: to harbour a thief, except in those cases where the right of asylum might for three or nine days be extended to him, was to become liable to the fate of a thief, L. Ath. iii. 6; Th. i. 219, 6: iv. 4; Th. i. 224, 4: v. 1, 2; Th. i. 228, 21; to fight for him was equally penal, v. 1, 3; Th. i. 228, 23: v. 8, 3; Th. i. 236, 18. And the laws which affected the thief himself were very severe. Any one above the age of twelve, who was caught stealing property above the value of eight pence, was liable to capital punishment, L. Ath. i. 1; Th. i. 198, 15; according to other regulations, for a theft which, on conviction, rendered the thief liable to be slain, the limit of age was made fifteen years, L. Ath. v. 12, 1; Th. i. 240, 28, and the limit of value was twelve pence, L. Ath. v. 1, 1; Th. i. 228, 12: v. 12, 3; Th. i. 242, 8. The extreme penalty was not in all cases exacted; but in case of repeated conviction there was to be no remission, L. Ath. v. 1, 4; Th. i. 230, 3. Cf. too the passages: Geséce ǽbera þeóf ðæt ðæt hé geséce, oððe se ðe on hláfordsearwe gemét sý, ðæt hí nǽfre feorh ne gesécen, búton se cyningc him feorhgeneres unne, L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 22: L. C. S. 26; Th. i. 390, 27. Sý hé þeóf, and þolige heáfdes and ealles ðæs ðe hé áge, L. Edg. S. 11; Th. i. 276, 13. The kinds of death mentioned in L. Ath. iii. 6; Th. i. 219, are throwing from a rock or drowning in the case of a free woman; in the case of a servus homo, stoning by slaves; in that of a serva ancilla, burning. Further a thief who was taken in the act, or taken in flight, or who resisted, instead of being handed over to justice (on cyninges bende, L. In. 15; Th. i. 112, 4: se cyning áh ðone þeóf, 28; Th. i. 120, 6), might be slain without the intervention of the law, and the death called for no 'wergild,' L. Wih. 25; Th. i. 42, 13: L. In. 12; Th. i. 110, 7: 16; Th. i. 112, 7: 35; Th. i. 124, 6: L. Ath. i. 1; Th. i. 198, 20; and in cases of flight or resistance the fact that the value of the stolen property was less than twelve pence was to be no bar to the slaying, L. Ath. v. 12, 3; Th. i. 242, 10. He who struck down a thief in public was rewarded: Se ðe þeóf fylle beforan óðrum mannum, ðæt hé wǽre of úre ealra feó .xii. pæng ðe betera for ðære dǽda and ðon anginne, L. Ath. v. 7; Th. i. 234, 22. Short of death were the punishments of selling into slavery, of imprisonment, fine, and mutilation: Gif man frigne man æt hæbbendre handa gefó, ðanne wealde se cyning þreora ánes: oþþe hine man cwelle, oþþe ofer sǽ selle, oþþe hine his wergelde álése, L. Wih. 26; Th. i. 42, 15. Gif þeóf sié gefongen, swelte hé deáðe oþþe his líf be his were man áliése, L. In. 12; Th. i. 110, 8. Gif man þeóf on carcerne gebringe, ðæt hé beó .xl. nihta on carcerne, and hine mon ðonne álýse út mid .cxx. sci&l-bar;&l-bar;., L. Ath. i. 1; Th. i. 198, 21. Cutting off the hand or foot of a 'cirlisc þeóf' is mentioned, L. In. 18; Th. i. 114, 5: 37; Th. i. 124, 20. The same punishment is mentioned, L. C. S. 30; Th. i. 394, 10; and in aggravated cases the more severe sentence was passed, that the eyes were to be put out, and the nose, ears, and upper lip to be cut off, ib. An instance of punishment for theft, in which the eyes were put out and the ears cut off after (wrongful) conviction is given, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 265. If the thief managed to escape, he was declared an outlaw: Beó se þeóf útlah wið eall folc, L. C. S. 30; Th. i. 394, 24. v. Grmm. R. A. 635 sqq.; Schmid, A. S. Gesetz. s. v. Diebstahl. [Goth. þiubs: O. Sax. thiof: O. Frs. thiaf: O. H. Ger. diob: Icel. þjófr.] v. beó-, gold-, mann-, mús-, regn-, sǽ-, stód-, wergild-þeóf; infangene-þeóf; þífþ.

þeóf, e; f. Theft :-- Ná dón þeófæ non facere furtum, R. Ben. Interl. 19, 12. [O. H. Ger. diuba furtum.]

þeóf-denn, es; n. A thieves' cave :-- Andlang weges tó ðam þeófdenne, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 15, 28.

þeófend, þeófent, e; f. (the word seems to occur only in the plural) Theft :-- Of hearte útgaas ... ðiófunta de corde exeunt ... furta, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 15, 19. Ðiófunto (-ento, Rush.) furta, Mk. Skt. Lind. 7, 22. Wið þeófentum, Lchdm. iii. 58, 1. Ic heó tó þeófendum and tó gefliturn stihte, Wulfst. 255, 11. Ne leásunga tó sæcganne, ne þeófenda tó begangenne, 253, 8. Ne dóe ðú ðiófonto ɫ stalo non facies furtum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 19, 18: Lk. Skt. Lind. 18, 20. Ðiáf[]nto, Rtl. 103, 3.

þeófe-þorn. v. þífe-þorn.

þeóf-feng, es; m. Seizing of thieves; the Latin rendering of the term in Charters is comprehensio (or captio) furis (-um). I. The word seems to denote the obligation of one who holds land to arrest and bring to justice those who committed theft on that land, and occurs generally in connection with the burdens from which land, when granted, was relieved :-- Ic forgyfe ðisne freóls tó ðære hálgan stówe æt Scíreburnan, ðæt hit sý gefreód alra cynelícra and alra dómlícra þeówdóma, ge þeóffenges ge ǽghwelcre [un]iéðnesse ealles worldlíces broces, nymðe fyrde and bryceweorces, Chart. Th. 125, 11. Ðæt hit (the monastery at Horton) sý gefreód ealra cynelícra and ealdordómlícra þeówdóma, ge þeóffengces ge ǽghwylcere uneáðnesse ealles woroldlíces broces búton fyrdsócne and burhgcweorce and bryggeweorce, 389, 28. Corresponding cases in Latin charters are the following :-- Ego Ecgberhtus ... hanc libertatem donabi aecclesiae ..., ut omnes agros sint libera ab omni regali seruitio (then follows a list of exemptions),... et ab omnibus difficultatibus regalis uel saecularis seruitutis, cum furis comprehensione intus et foris, praeter pontis constructione et expeditione liberata permaneat, Cod. Dip. Knibl. i. 288, 5. Terra predicta liber et securus omnium rerutn permaneat, id est, regalium et principalium tributum, et ui exactorum operum siue poenalium causarum, furisque comprehensione, et omni saeculari grauidine, ii. 28, 22. Ui exactorum operum et penalium rerum, principali dominatione, furisque comprehensione, et cuncta seculari grauidine ... secura et immunis, 65, 14. Omnium regalium debitorum et principalium rerum, caeterarumque causarum, furisque comprehension, et ab omnium saecularium seruitutum molestia secura et inmunis, 95, 33. Furum comprehensione, iii. 277, 4. Captio forum, iv. 2, 26. II. In other passages, however, the word implies advantage, and seems to refer to the right to receive the fines which might be exacted in case of conviction for theft. For such emoluments cf. Gif frigman stelþ ... cyning áge ðæt wíte and ealle ða ǽhtan, L. Ethb. 9; Th. i. 6, 2. Ealle wítu (in cases of theft) sint gelíce, .cxx. sciɫɫ., L. Alf. pol. 9; Th. i. 68, 7: L. Ath. i. 1; Th. i. 198, 23. Gif þeuw stele ... hine man álése .lxx. sciɫɫ., L. Wih. 27; Th. i. 42, 20. Hine man his wergelde álése, 26; Th. i. 42, 17: L. In. 12; Th. i. 110, 8. These emoluments of the crown are made the subject of grant :-- Concedo consuetudines, ut ab omnibus apertius et plenius intelligantur Anglice scriptas, scilicet, mundbryce, feardwítæ, fihtwíte ... þiéfphang, hangwíte, gryðbryce ... toll et teám, aliasque omnes consuetudines quae ad me pertinent, Chart. Th. 384, 24. Terram liueram ab omni seruitute, cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus, cum furis comprehensione, et cum omnibus rebus quae ad aecclesiam Sancti Andreae pertinent, cum campis, etc., Cod. Dip. Kmbl. ii. 109, 21.

þeóf-gild, es; n. Payment made in the way of fine or compensation by one convicted of stealing :-- Swerian hí ðæt him nǽfre áð ne burste, ne hé þeófgyld ne gulde (i.e. that he had never been convicted of stealing), L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 13: iii. 4; Th. i. 294, 13: L. C. S. 30; Th. i. 392, 28. [Cf. Icel. þýfi-gjöld fine for theft.]

þeófian (and þeófan? The Lindisfarne gloss has ðæt ðú ne forstele ɫ ne forðiófe, Mk. 10, 19; the Kentish Glossary, diófende furtivus; but this might imply the form ðiófian, cf. tácnendi and tácnian: cf. also, for both force and form of the participle styrende agitatam, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 11, 7) to thieve, steal :-- Se ðe ða áre þænce tó þeófigenne qui quid illinc abstulerit, Chart. Th. 177, 13. Ðiófende weteru stolen waters; aque furtive, Kent. Gl. 309. [O. H. Ger. thaz sie mit stalu nan nirzuken noh inan thar githiuben, Or. iv. 36, 12.] v. ge-þeófian.

þeóf-mann, es; m. A robber, bandit, brigand :-- Án hirde wæs Ueriatus háten, and wæs micel þeófmon Viriathus homo pastoralis et latro, Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 216, 7.

þeóf-scip, es; n. A pirate-vessel :-- Ðeófscip (théb-) mimopora ( = myoparo), Txts. 79, 1316: Wrt. Voc. ii. 55, 67.

þeóf-scolu, e; f. A gang or band of thieves :-- Gif ðú wǽre wegférende and hæfdest micel gold on ðé, and ðú ðonne becóme on þeófsceole ( þiófscole, Cott. MS.), ðonne ne wéndest ðú ðé ðínes feores, Bt. 14, 3; Fox 46, 26.

þeóf-scyldig; adj. Guilty of theft :-- Stent ðonne þeáfscyldig se ðe hit on handa hæfp, L. Eth. ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 16.

þeóf-slege, es; m. Thief-slaying :-- Be ðeófslege. Se ðe þeóf ofslihþ, L. In. 16; Th. i. 112, 6.

þeóf-sliht, es; m. Thief-slaying :-- Be ðeófslihte. Se ðe þeófslihþ, hé mót áðe gecýðan ðæt hé hine fleóndne for þeóf slóge, L. In. 35; Th. i. 124, 4.

þeóf-stolen; adj. (ptcpl.) Stolen, taken by thieves :-- Swá ic spráce drífe ... swá mé þeófstolen (forstolen, MS. H.) wæs ðæt orf, L. O. 2; Th. i. 178, 14: L. O. D. 8; Th. i. 356, 12. Æt ǽlcon ðeófstolenan orfe, L. Ff.; Th. i. 226, 2. [Icel. þjóf-stolinn. Cf. M. H. Ger. diep-, diup-stále: Ger. dieb-stahl.]

þeófþ, þeóft. v. þífþ.

þeóf-wracu, e; f. Punishment for theft :-- Gif hé eft ofer ðæt stalie ... sleá man hine on ða þeófwrace, L. Ath. v. 1, 4; Th. i. 230, 4.

þeóging, e; f. Profiting, thriving, progress, advancement :-- Þeógincg ðín swutul sý eallum profectus tuus manifestus sit omnibus; that thy profiting may appear to all (A. V. 1 Tim. 4, 15), Scint. 203, 8. Þeóginc (profectus) mannes gyfu Godes ys, 132, 17. Swylcre þeógincge tanti, profectus, Anglia xiii. 372, 94. Þeógincgum profectibus, Scint. 210, 1. [O. H. Ger. díhunga provectus.] v. þeón.

þeóh; gen. þeós; dat. þeó; pl. þeóh; gen. þeóna; dat. þeón; n. A thigh :-- Þeóh, thégh coxa, Txts. 54, 295. Þeóh, Wrt. Voc. ii. 15, 6. Þeóh femur, femoris, ys swá ðeáh eft gecweden femen, feminis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 22; Zup. 49, 10. Inneweard þeóh femen, þeóh coxa, útanweard þeóh femur, Wrt. Voc. i. 44, 60-62. Þeóh femur, þeóh coxa, hype clunis, 71, 46-49. Þeóh femor, innewerd þeóh femina, þeóhscanca coxa, 283, 63-65. Þeóh vel hype femur, ii. 148, 18. Ðæt ðeóh getácnode his cynn, Hontl. Th. ii. 234, 33. Gif þeóh gebrocen weorðeþ, .xii. scillingum gebéte, L. Eth. 65; Th. i. 18, 13. Gif man þeóh þurhstingð, stice gehwilce .vi. scillingas, 67; Th. i. 18, 16. Gif monnes þeóh biþ þyrel, geselle him mon .xxx. sciɫɫ. tó bóte; gif hit forad sié, sió bót eác biþ .xxx. sciɫɫ., L. Alf. pol. 62; Th. i. 96, 13. Ðá æthrán hé his sine on his þeó tetigit nervum femoris ejus, Gen. 32, 25. 'Hæbbe eówer ǽlc his sweord be his ðeó.' Ðonne mon hæfþ his sweord be his ðió, ðonne..., Past. 56; Swt. 433, 11: Exon. Th. 431, 2; Rä. 45, 1. Under mín þeóh subter femur meum, Gen. 24, 2: 47, 29: Ps. Th. 44, 4. Bind on ðæt winstre þeóh up wið ðæt cennende lim, Lchdm. ii. 328, 22. Þeóh bathma, i. femora, Wrt. Voc. ii. 125, 28. Ðeeoh (ðyóh, lxxiv, 3) bathma, Lchdm. i. lxx, 2. Gif men his ðeóh acen, 78, 23: ii. 66, 4. Hyre (the bee's) ða rúwan þeóh wurðaþ swýðe gehefegode, Anglia viii. 324, 13. Bána, þeóna coxarum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 75, 27: Lchdm. i. 208, 3. Ðæra ðeóna sár, 80, 2. On þeón in femoribus, Anglia xi. 117, 25. Smyre ða þeóh, sóna hý beóþ hále, Lchdm. i. 354, 20: ii. 64, 26: Ors. 1, 7; Swt. 38, 3. [O. Frs. thiach: O. L. Ger. thio femur: O. H. Ger. dioh femur, femen, coxa: Icel. þjó.]

þeóh-ece, es; m. Thigh-ache :-- Lǽcedómas wiþ þeóhece. Lchdm. ii. 6, 6: 64, 26.

þeóh-gelǽte, es; n. A thigh-joint, the meeting of the thigh with the part of the body above it :-- Ersendu mid ðám ðeóhgelǽtum (þeóhsconcum, lxxiv, 19) nates cum femoribus, Lchdm. i. lxx, 10. [Cf. O. H. Ger. lidi-giláz artus, compago.] v. ge-lǽte.

þeóh-geweald; pl. n. Genitalia :-- Ða þeóhgeweald mid ðǽm þeóh-hweorfan genitalia cum genuclis, Lchdm. i. lxxiv, 20. v. ge-weald.

þeóh-hweorfa, an; m. A knee-joint; genuculum (cf. cneów-wyrste geniculi, Wrt. Voc. i. 44, 70). v. preceding word.

þeóh-sceanca, an; m. A thigh-shank, the upper part of the leg :-- Earsendu nates, þeóh femur, þeóhscanca coxa, Wrt. Voc. i. 65, 36-38: 283,61-65. Ða hypbán ða earsenda mid ðǽm þeóhsconcum catacrinas, nates cum femoribus, Lchdm. i. lxxiv, 19. [O. Frs. thiach-schonk. Cf. Icel. þjó-leggr the thigh-bone.]

þeóh-seax, es; n. A shore sword that could be worn on the thigh :-- Þeóhsaex semispatium ( = -spathium), Wrt. Voc. ii. 120, 26. Sweord macheram, þeóhseax senspatium, 96, 29. Cf. hup-seax.

þeóh-wærc,-wræc, es; m. Pain in the thighs :-- Wið þeóhwræce ... smyre ða þeóh, sóna hý beóð hále, Lchdm. i. 354, 19.

þeón [from þíhan; and this from an earlier nasal stem, of which traces are preserved in the past forms, where g has replaced h by Verner's law:-Ðunge pollesceret, Wrt. Voc. ii. 66, 40. Fród fæder freóbearn lǽrde wordum wísfæstum, ðæt hé wel þunge, Exon. Th. 300, 9; Fä. 3. See also the passages given under ge-þingan; ofer-þeón; ge-, heáh-, wel-þungen; on-þungan, Exon. Th. 497, 3; Rä. 85, 23 (omitted in its place)]; p. þáh and þeáh, pl. þigon and þugon; p. pr. þíende and þeónde; pp. þigen and þogen To thrive, grow, flourish, prosper :-- Þíhþ cluit, pollet, viget, nobilitat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 131, 75. Þáh pubesceret, 66, 22. Þeó vigeat, Wülck. Gl. 257, 17. I. of persons in respect to either physical or moral growth. (1) absolute :-- Se his yldrum ðáh tó frófre he grew up a comfort to his parents, Cd. Th. 67, 28; Gen. 1107. Sunu weóx and ðáh, 138, 30; Gen. 2299. Þág, 167, 25; Gen. 2771. Ðæt cynn þeáh, Wulfst. 13, 11. Heó ðurh mægðhád mǽrlíce þeáh, Homl. Skt. i. 2, 3. Cnæplingc weóx ɫ þéh puer pollesceret, Hpt. Gl. 466, 60. Hyhtful vel ðíendi indolis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 111, 54. Þiónde, 45, 58. (2) where that, in which the growth, etc., takes place, is stated :-- Se gǽst þíhd in þeáwum, Exon. Th. 126, 10; Gú. 369. Sume on ǽgþrum þeóþ quidam in utrisque pollent, Scint. 221, 1. Hé weóx under wolcnum, weorþmyntum þáh, Beo. Th. 16; B. 8. Se Hǽlend þéáh on wísdóme and on ylde Jesus proficiebat sapientia et aetate, Lk. Skt. 2, 52: Homl. Skt. i. 2, 23. Þeáh hwá þeó on eallum welum and on eallum wlencum, Bt. 19; Fox 68, 31. Þió, Met. 10, 28. Ðeónde on cræftum virtutibus pollens, Past. 9; Swt. 59, 11. Ðiónde, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 22. Ðiiende on wæstum proficiens incrementis, Rtl. 38, 41. (3) where that, in relation to which the growth, etc., takes place, is stated :-- Monge lifgaþ gyltum forgiefene, nales Gode þígaþ, Exon. Th. 130, 3; Gú. 432. Wǽron hálige sacerdas Gode ðeónde, Homl. Th. i. 544, 11. II. of things abstract or concrete :-- Andgyt þýhð sensus uiget, Scint. 52, 8. Þýhð (virginitatis gratia) adolescit, Hpt. Gl. 436, 67. Ic þǽh óþþæt ic wæs yldra, Exon. Th. 485, 2; Rä, 71, 7. Se síð ne þáh ðam ðe unrihte inne gehýdde wræote the journey did not turn to the profit of him who unrighteously had hidden treasure within, Beo. Th. 6109; B. 3058: 5665; B. 2836. Hine (him?) se cwealm ne þeáh, Exon. Th. 278, 30; Jul. 605. Þeáh, bleów (gratia) floruerit, Hpt. Gl. 441, 48. His wæstmas genihtsumlíce þugon (uberes fructus ager attulit, Lk. 12, 20), Homl. Th. ii. 104, 15. Se líchama þeónde on strangum breóste, on fullum limum and hálum, i. 614, 11. Ðás wanunge getácnaþ se wanigenda dæg his (John's) gebyrdtíde, and se ðeónda (increasing, lengthening) dæg ðæs Hǽlendes ácennednysse gebícnaþ his ðeóndan mihte, 358, 4. Betweox óðrum mægenum bið ðeónde (ðiónde, Hatt. MS.) sió earnung ðæs geswenctan flǽsces inter virtutes ceteras afflictae carnis meritum proficit, Past. 14; Swt. 86, 25: Hpt. Gl. 420, 37. Þeónde florentis (pudicitiae), 511, 50. [Here tuder swíðe wexeð and wel þieð, O. E. Homl. ii. 177, 18. He was þogen on wintre and on wastme, 127, 15. His welðe deg, Gen. and Ex. 2012. Wexen he (they) and ðogen wel, 2542. So wex here erue, and so gan ðen, 803. So mot I the, Chauc. N. P. T. 156. Theen or thryvyn vigeo, Prompt. Parv. 490. Goth. þeihan: O. L. Ger. O. Sax. thíhan: O. H. Ger. díhan proficere, pollere, florere, crescere, excellere.] v. for-, fore-, ge-, mis-, ofer-, on-þeón.

þeón; p. þeóde To do, perform, effect :-- Wé ðæt ǽbylgð nyton, ðæt wé gefremedon, þeódon bealwa wið ðec ǽfre, Elen. Kmbl. 805; El. 403. v. ge-þeón.

þeón to press. v. þeówan.

þeónest-mann. v. þegnest-mann.

þeór, es(?), e(?), gender is uncertain: in the following passages, which might be decisive, the forms are doubtful :-- Wiþ þeóre drenc, and eft wiþ þære (if þære refers to þeór the word would be feminine, but perhaps þeore should be read; cf. the text: Wyrc gódne ðeórdrenc ... Wiþ þeóre and sceótendum wenne, 324, 15-25) and sceótendum wenne and eft beþing wiþ þam (the beþing is for þeór, v. 326, 3, so if þam refers to þeór the word is masc. or neuter) gif þeór gewunige on ánre stówe, Lchdm. ii. 300, 30. Drenc wiþ þeórádle ... gif hé on þam innoþe biþ þonne ádrífþ hine ðes drinc út (hé and hine may, perhaps, be taken as referring to þeór, as ádl is fem.), 118, 1-12. The meaning, too, is doubtful. It seems to denote an inflamed swelling or ulcer; it is mentioned in connection with wens (Lchdm. ii. Bk. ii. §§ 30, 31); in reference to the eye it is said to be the same as 'fig' (ii. 38, 5), and is mentioned in close connection with the same disease (iii. 30, 3-16); the same prescription is good 'wið ðam micclan líce and wið óþrum giccendum blece and þeórgeride' (iii. 70, 28); þeórwyrt is used against hreófl (ii. 78, 13); purgative and emetic drinks are used for its cure (ii. 115, 23), and bleeding (118, 21: 120, 12), cupping (120, 16), and fomentation (326, 3) are prescribed :-- Gif þeór gewunige on ánre stówe, wyrc beþinge, Lchdm. ii. 326, 2: iii. 30, 6. Drenc gif þeór sié on men, ii. 354, 16: iii. 28, 13, Sealf wiþ þeóre ... Wiþ þeóre on fét, ii. 118, 12, 28. Wið ðeóre, iii. 20, 15: 28, 7, 19: 30, 3, 13. v. next word.

þeór-ádl, e; f. Some disease. v. preceding word :-- Wiþ þeórádle on eágum ðe mon gefigo hǽt, Lchdm. ii. 38, 5. Lǽcedómas wið þeórádlum ... Drenc wiþ þeórádle, 116, 1, 13: 118, 1, 18: 172, 30. Drencas and sealfa wiþ þeórádlum, 12, 1, 3.

þeorcung, Anglia xiii. 398, 475: 400, 508. v. deorcung.

þeór-drenc, es; m. A drink for þeór-ádl, Lchdm. ii. 324, 18: iii. 28, 25. v. þeór-ádl.

þeorf; adj. I. unleavened, used substantively, unleavened bread :-- Gehafen hláf fermentacius panis, ðeorf azimus, Wrt. Voc. i. 41, 15-16. Þeorf azimum, ii. 6, 8. Sýfernysse þearf sinceritatis azima, Hymn. Surt. 82, 31. Þeorfne hláf ðú scealt etan vesceris azymis, Ex. 34, 18: Homl. Th. ii. 264, 16. Etaþ þeorf azyma comedetis, Ex. 12, 15, 18. Doege ðara ðorofra (ðefra, Rush.) mæta die azymorum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 26, 17. Lactuca hátte seó wyrt ðe hí etan sceoldon mid ðám þeorfum hláfum, Homl. Th. ii. 278, 26, 18. On ðærfum biluitnises in azymis sinceritatis, Rtl. 25, 19. Healdaþ þeorfe mettas observabitis azyma, Ex. 12, 17. Hí worhton þeorfe heorðbacene hláfas fecerunt subcinericios panes azymos, 12, 39: Lev. 8, 2; Homl. Th. ii. 210, 34: 264, 2. I a. in the Lindisfarne gloss fermento is glossed by ðærfe, Mt. 16, 6, 11. II. of milk, fresh (as opposed to sour? cf. Icel. þjarfr, of water, fresh as opposed to salt), skim (? so Cockayne) :-- Dó on beór swá on wín swá on þeorfe meoluc, Lchdm. ii. 270, 29. [Bræd all þeorrf wiþþutenn berrme, Orm. 997. Þerue kakeʒ, Allit. Pms. 57, 635, Þerf bred, Mand. 19, 1. Of þerf brede de azymo pane, Trev. v. 9, 6: Wick. Gen. 19, 3. Therf, not sowyryd azimus, Prompt. Parv. 490. A tharf bred panis siliginus, sigalinus, Wrt. Voc. i. 198, 8, 9. O. H. Ger. derb brót azymus: Icel. þjarfr unleavened; fresh (water).]

þeorf-dæg, es; m. A day on which unleavened bread was to be eaten :-- Ðæt geríst preóstum tó witanne hwæt beó betwyx Eástron and ðeorfdagum. Eásterdæg wæs se forma dæg on ðære ealdan ǽ, þonne se móna wæs .xiiii., and ða seofon dagas, ðe ðǽr æfter wǽron, wǽron gecíged dies azimorum, Anglia viii. 330, 19.

þeorf-hláf, es; m. A loaf of unleavened bread :-- Hí ǽton þeorfhláfas, Jos. 5, 11.

þeorfling, es; m. An unleavened loaf :-- Ðeorflingas azimos, Wrt. Voc. ii. 6, 32. [Þerrflinng bræd iss clene bræd, forr þatt itt iss unnberrmedd, Orm. 1590.]

þeorfness, e; f. Unleavenedness; metaphorically, freedom from impurity, purity :-- Ðonne wé búton yfelnysse beorman on ðeorfnysse sýfernysse and sóðfæstnysse faraþ, Homl. Th. ii. 212, 1. On ðeorfnyssum sýfernysse and sóðfæstnysse, 278, 25.

þeorf-symbel, es; n. The feast of unleavened bread :-- Ðú ytst þeorf-symbel, Ex. 23, 14.

þeór-gerid, es; n. The inflammation accompanying þeór(?) :-- Gódne morgendrænc ... wið ðam micclan líce and wið óþrum giccendum blece and þeórgeride and ǽghwylcum áttre, Lchdm. iii. 70, 28. v. þeór; and cf.(?) O. H. Ger. rito febris.

þeorscwold. v. þerscold.

þeór-wærc, es; m. The pain caused by þeór (q. v.) :-- Wiþ þeórwærce, Lchdm. ii. 120, 7.

þeór-wenn, es; m. An inflamed wen, a carbuncle(?) :-- Wiþ þeórwenne, Lchdm. ii. 342, 16.

þeór-wyrm, es; m. A worm in a boil :-- Wiþ þeórwyrme on fét, Lchdm. ii. 12, 2: 118, 25.

þeór-wyrt, e; f. Ploughman's spikenard; inula conyza :-- Wiþ hreófle ... þeórwyrt, Lchdm. ii. 78, 13, Wyrc gódne ðeórdrenc ... þeórwyrt, 324, 20. Ðyórwyrt, iii. 28, 27.

þeóster-cofa, an; m. A dark chamber, used of the place where a person or thing is buried :-- Under neólum niðer næsse gehýdde in þeóstorcofan, Elen. Kmbl, 1662; El. 833. Ðæt heó ðis bánfæt beorge bifæste, láme bilúce líc orsáwle in þeóstorcofan, Exon. Th. 173, 29; Gú. 1168. v. þeóster-loca.

þeóster-full (þístre-, þrýstre-); adj. Full of darkness, dark, obscure :-- Þeóstorfull wæter tenebrosa aqua, Ps. Spl. 17, 13. Ðín líchama byþ þýsterfull (tenebrosum), Mt. Kmbl. 6, 23. Þéstreful tenebrosa, obscura, Hpt. Gl. 483, 53. Of þrýstrefulre de latebroso, tenebroso, 458, 52. Se engel mé lǽdde tó ánre þeóstorfulre stówe ... ealle ða ðeóstorfullan stówe, Homl. Th. ii. 350, 15-26. Hé geseah swilce án ðeóstorful dene, 338, 5. Ðeósterfulle wununga, i. 68, 4. Þésterfulle dimhoua latebrosa latibula, Hpt. Gl, 446, 5.

þeósterfullness, e; f. Darkness, obscurity :-- Þéstrefulnysse latebras, tenebras, Hpt. Gl. 488, 33.

þeóster-líc; adj. Dark :-- Ðæs muntes cnoll mid þeósterlícum genipum oferhangen wæs, Homl. Th. i. 504, 30. [Cf. Þe clene of herte þet hier ssolle ysy him be byleaue, ac alneway þiesterliche, Ayenb. 244, l0.]

þeóster-loca, an; m. A dark enclosure, a tomb :-- In byrgenne bídende wæs under þeósterlocan, Elen. Kmbl. 967; El. 485.

þeósterness, e; f. Darkness :-- Wearð micel þeósternes ofer eallne middangeard tetra nox obducta terris est, Ors. 6, 2; Swt. 256, 16. Ðá com ðære nihte þýsternys, Homl. Ass. 203, 265. Þǽsternes (cf þióstro, Met. 21, 40), Bt. 34, 8; Fox 146, 4. On ðýsternesse in obscuro, Ps. Spl. 10, 2. [A. R. þeosternesse: Orm. þeossterrnesse: Gen. and Ex. ðisternesse: Piers P. þesternesse: O. L. Ger. thiusternussi.]

þeóstre darkness. v. þeóstru.

þeóstre, þeóster (-or, -ur), and þiéstre, þístre, þýstre; adj. Dark. I. in a physical sense, without light :-- Ðis (hell) is ðeóstræ hám, Cd. Th. 267, 14; Sat. 38. Ðá hangode swíðe þýstru wæter on ðám wolcnum tenebrosa aqua in nubibus, Ps. Th. 27, 11. Wæs se óðer beám eallenga sweart, dim and þýstre, Cd. Th. 30, 36; Gen. 478. Þýstre genip, 9, 9; Gen. 139. Se þeóstra, Wulfst. 186, 4. Niht seó þýstre, Judth. Thw. 21, 25; Jud. 34. Hit wearð þýstre tenebrae factae erant, Jn. Skt. 6, 17. On óþre healfe ys þýstre land, Shm. 120, 20. Ða fúlnessa ðæs ðystran ofnes foetorem tenebrosae fornacis, Bd. 5, 12; S. 629, 21. Under ðam scúwan ðære ðýstran nihte sub nocte per umbras, S. 628, 15. Was heora sum ðýstran onsýne (tenebrosae facici), 5, 13; S. 633, 3. In ðære sweartan niht and in ðære þýstran, Nar. 15, 1. In ðam þýstran hám (hell), in ðam neólan scræfe, Exon. Th. 283, 21; Jul. 683. Þýstre land (hell), Cd. Th. 46, 1; Gen. 737. Sume ðara ðýstra gásta quidam spirituum obscurorum, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 40. Þeóstrum nihtum, Bt. 7, 4; Fox 22, 28. Ðeóf sceal gangan in ðýstrum wederum, Menol. Fox 544; Gn. C. 42. Niht biþ wedera þeóstrost, Salm. Kmbl. 621; Sal. 310. II. metaphorically, of absence of spiritual or mental light, or of cheerfulness :-- Gif ðín eáge byþ deorc, eall ðín líchama byþ þýstre (ðióstor, Rush.), Lk. Skt. 11, 34. Biþ seáð ðam fyrenfullan deóp ádolfen, deorc and ðýstre, Ps. Th. 93, 12. Tódríf ðone þiccan mist, ðe wið ða eágan foran ússes módes hangode, hefig and þystre, Met. 20, 266. On hú ðióstrum horaseáþe ðara unþeáwa, Bt. 37, 2; Fox 188, 1. On ðás þeóstran weorulde, Exon. Th. 86, 18; Cri.1410. Ðióstur (caecatum) habbas gé heorta iówre, Mk. Skt. Rush. 8, 17. Breóst innan weóll þeóstrum geþoncum, Beo. Th. 4653; B. 2332: Elen. Kmbl. 623; El. 312. [Laym. þe þestere (þustere) niht: Orm. þessterr: O. and N. bi þeostre nihte: Ayenb. þiestre: O. Sax. thiustri: O. Frs. thiustere.]

þeóstrian, þéstrian, þiéstrian, þístrian, þystrian; p. ode. I. to make dark or dim, to make the eye less capable of seeing, dim the sight :-- Se dæg bletit and ðióstraþ hiora eágan, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 5. II. to grow dark or dim :-- His eágan þýstrodon caligaverunt oculi ejus, Gen. 27, 1: 48, 10. Ðýstrodan, Bd. 4, 10; S. 578, 19. Geseah ic onginnan ðýstrian ða stówe vidi obscurari incipere loca, 5, 12; S. 628, 10. Þa þestrede þe dai, Chr. 1135; Erl. 260, 32. Steorren sculen þeostren, O. E. Homl. i. 143, 20. Heó þeostreð (make dark) ham suluen, A. R. 94, 20. Aras a ladlich weder, þeostrede (þustrede, 2nd MS.) þa wolcne, Laym. 4575.] v. á-, for-, fore-, ge-, of-þeóstran (-þióstflan, -þéstrian, þiéstrian, -þístrian, -þýstrian).

þeóstrig; adj. Dark :-- All líchoma ðín ðióstrig (tenebrosum) biþ, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 23: Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 34. Ðióstrig ɫ blind hearta caecatum cor, Mk. Skt. Lind. 8, 17. Ðurh ðrióstrie wegas per vias tenebrosas, Kent. Gl. 21.

þeóstru (sometimes written þr- instead of þ-) and þiéstru, þístru, þýstru; f.: and þeóstre, þýstre; n. [cf. O. Sax. thiustri; n.] Darkness (lit. and metaph.); dimness of sight (lit. or metaph.); like the Latin tenebrae, which it translates, it is often used in the plural :-- Ðǽr wæs deorc þeóstru, Ps. Th. 87, 6. Leóht and þeóstro, Cd. Th. 239, 27; Dan. 376. Þióstro, Met. 21, 41. Gif ðæt léht, ðætte in ðé is, þeóstru sint, ðæt þeóstre hú micel biþ, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 6, 23. On ðæt gemǽre leóhtes and þeóstro, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 170, 13. Mid þýstro genipum, Blickl. Homl. 203, 8: 209, 33. On ðýstres onlícnisse ... on leóhtes onlícnisse, Salm. Kmbl. p. 144, 30. For ðære egeslícan þióstro ðære nihte, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 29. Ne gǽþ hé on þeóstro, Blickl. Homl.103, 31. In þýstro, Exon. Th. 432, 10; Rä. 48, 4. Mid þýstro, Cd. Th. 148, 1; Gen. 2450. Wið eágena þýstru and genipe, Lchdm. i. 366, 13. On þeóstre, Exon. Th. 87, 11; Cri. 1423: 94, 27; Cri. 1546. Þeóf ðe on þýstre færeþ, on sweartre niht, 54, 22; Cri. 872. Mid þýstre, 462, 20; Hö. 55: 470, 12; Hy. 11, 14. Þeóstru tenebre, Wrt. Voc. i. 76, 48. Þeóstru wǽron, Gen. 1, 2. Becómon ðicce ðeóstru, Homl. Th. ii. 194, 4. Swá dóþ ða þeóstro ðíne gedréfednesse, Bt. 6; Fox 14, 30. Beóþ þeóstra gewordene, Blickl. Homl. 93, 18. Ðære nihte þióstro hí onlíhtaþ, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 5. Ðióstro, Jn. Skt. Lind. Rush. 6, 17. Gif ðæt leóht, ðe on ðé is, synt þýstru (ðióstræ, Lind.: þeóstru, Rush.), hú mycle beóþ ða þýstru (ðióstro, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 6, 23: Lk. Skt. 11, 35. Ðæt þýstro eów ne befón ut non tenebrae nos compraehendant, Jn. Skt. 12, 35: 1, 5. Æfter ðǽm clammum helle þeóstra, Blickl. Homl. 83, 22: Exon. Th. 143, 28; Gú. 668. Se beorhta dæg tódrǽfþ ða dimlícan þeóstru ðære sweartan nihte ... Crist ús fram deófles ðeóstrum álýsde ... 'Uton áwurpan þeóstra weorc...,' Homl. Th. i. 604, 1-5. Ðara þióstra ðisse worulde, Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 26. Þýstra (ðióstrana, Lind. Rush.) anweald, Lk. Skt. 22, 53: 11, 36. Ðiéstra dæg and mistes, Past. 35; Swt. 245, 5. On þýstra bealo, Exon. Th. 76, 32; Cri. 1248. Þrýstra wræce, 37, 15; Cri. 593. Hé gedǽlde ðæt leóht fram ðám þeóstrum, Gen. 1, 4: Cd. Th. 8, 21; Gen. 127: Blickl. Homl. 65, 17. Þióstrum, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 30. Ðyóstrum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 12. Mid ðǽm ðiéstrum (ðiétrum, Hatt. MS.) ðisses andweardan lífes ... on ðǽm ðístrum (ðiéstrum, Hatt. MS.), Past. 65; Swt. 64, 8, 12. Ðýstrum, Ps. Th. 106, 9. ¶ The acc. sing. and pl. are given together, as often the two cannot be distinguished :-- God hét ða þeóstra niht, Gen. 1, 5: Blickl. Homl. 17, 36. Ðeós India hæfþ on ánre sídan þeóstru, Homl. Th. i. 454, 14. On ða úttran þýstru (in þeóstra ðæt ýtterre, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 25, 30. Ðara deófla þeóstro hé oforgeát mid his leóhte, Blickl. Homl. 85, 8, 21. Áweorpan ða ðióstro his módes, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 166, 26: Met. 24, 56: Rtl. 37, 9. On ða úttran þýstro (in ðióstre ðæt ýtemæst &l-bar; ýterræ, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 22, 13: 8, 12. Þýstro (ðióstro, Lind.: ðióstru, Rush.) tenebras, Jn. Skt. 3, 19. Þístro, Bt. 3, 2; Fox 6, 10. Ðístro, Past. 56; Swt. 433, 13. Þýstru, Ps. Th. 103, 19. Þrióstre senna, Hy. 8, 28. [Of þeóstran de tenebris, O. E. Homl. i. 131, 12. Hit luveþ þuster and hateþ liht, O. and N. 230. O. Sax. thiustria; f.: thiustri; n.] v. carcern-, hinder-þeóstru.

þeóstrung, þýstrung, e; f. Darkness, gloom, obscurity :-- Hí on ðære þýstrunge hine swencton, Guthl. 5; Gdwin. 36, 14. Næhtes [ðió]strung noctis caliginem, Rtl. 182, 35.

þeótan and þútan; p. þeát, pl. þuton. I. to howl like a wolf :-- Wulf ðýtt lupus ululat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Zup. 129, 1. Hwílum hí ðuton eall swá wulfas, Shrn. 52, 29: Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 36. Sume hí tó wulfum wurdon ... hió þióton ongunnon, Met. 26, 80. Ðeótende swá swá wolf, Homl. Th. i. 374, 9. Hwílum swá swá þeótende wulf, hwílum swá beorcende fox, Shrn. 141, 12. II. of other sounds :-- Þeótende murmurans, Germ. 399. 417. Hlówende, þútende bombosa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 126, 51. Ðære þútendan bombose, 11, 71. Him on gafol forlét ferðfriþende feówer wellan scíre sceótan on gesceap þeótan (or gesceapþeótan. ? v. gesceap, III, and þeóte. The passage describes a calf sucking from its mother; if þeótan is an infinitive, it must refer to the sound made by the milk coming from the teat, but perhaps gesceap-þeóte may be a compound noun meaning the teat), Exon. Th. 420, 2; Rä. 39, 4. [Bigunnen to þeoten and to ʒellen alle þe untrume weren, Marh. 22, 29. Wummone wroð is wuluene ... ne deð heo bute þeoteð, A. R. 120, 12. ʒeinde ʒurinde & þeotinde wið reowfule reames queruloso gemitu deplorantes, Kath. 161. Giff mann wollde tælenn þatt, and hutenn hire & þutenn, Orm. 2034. O. H. Ger. diozan stridere, fremere, strepere, mussare: Icel. þjóta to whistle (of the wind, etc.), to howl (of a wolf), to rush: Dan. tude to howl. Cf. Goth. þut-haurn, -haurnjan.] v. á-þeótan; ge-þeót, -þot, and next word.

þeóte, an; f. A pipe or channel through which water rushes :-- Þeóte canalis, Wrt. Voc. i. 38, 17: fistula, 39, 56. Of þeótan (þeóte, Wrt. Voc. ii. 76, 4, the passage glossed is the same) tubo, Hpt. G1. 418, 61. Þeótan organa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 64, 51: 97, 24. Þeótan, wæterþrúh cataractae, 13, 15. Ealle heofones þeótan wǽron mid wætere gefylde, Wulfst. 206, 17. In stefne ðeótena (cataractarum) ðínra, Ps. Surt. 41, 8. Þeótum fistulis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 108, 67: 35, 59. Hé wundorlíce mid þeótum wæter út áteáh, Homl. Skt. ii. 27, 32. Hé ús ontýneþ heofenes þeótan, Blickl. Homl. 39, 31: 51, 11. [O. H. Ger. watar-dioza cataractae. Cf. Icel. þjótandi the name of an artery.] v. líc-, wæter-þeóte, and previous word.

þeów, es; þeówa, an; m. A servant; often with the stronger sense of slave; servus, famulus, mancipium :-- Ic Béda Cristes ðeów and mæsse-preóst Baeda famulus Christi et presbyter, Bd. pref.; S. 471, 7. Se ðe wyle betweox eów beón fyrmest, sý hé eówer þeów (ðeá ɫ ðegn servus, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 20, 27: 18, 16: 10, 24. Se Godes þeów the priest, Blickl. Homl. 49, 3. Metodes þeów (Abraham), Cd. Th. 146, 29; Gen. 2429. Dryhtnes þeów (Guthlac), Exon. Th. 121, 8; Gú. 285. Þegn and þeów þeódne mǽrum, 209, 3; Ph. 165. Þeów mancipium, Wrt. Voc. ii. 80, 31. Ðeówa servus, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Zup. 12, 18. Þeówa, Wrt. Voc. i. 50, 15. Cham biþ þeówena þeówa (servus servorum) his ge-bróðrum ... beó Chanaan Semes þeówa (servus), Gen. 9, 25-26. Wé synd ealle ðíne þeówas ... Sig se mín þeówa, ðe ðone læfyl forstæl, and fare gé frige, 44, 17-18. Ðú góda þeówa, Lk. Skt. 19, 17: Mt. Kmbl. 25, 23. Se yfela þeówa, 24, 48. Se hláford and se þeówa gelíce clypiaþ tó ðam heofonlícan Fæder, Homl. Th. ii. 326, 28. Gif óðer wyle Godes þeówa beón if one wishes to enter a monastery, L. Ecg. C. 25; Th. ii. 150, 28. Biþ hé deófles ðeówa, Homl. Th. i. 172, 20. Hé biþ ðæra ǽhta ðeówa, 66, 7. Fram Gode hé is send, and hé is Godes þeówa, Blickl. Homl. 247, 19. Ðæs Godes þeówes synna, 49, 6. Moises gelíca mínes þeówes, Num. 12, 7. Ðæs þeówan hláford, Lk. Skt. 12, 46. Ic cweðe tó mínum þeówe (ðeua, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 8, 9. Geseoh hú ðás men ðínum ðeówe dóþ, Blickl. Homl. 229, 23: Ps. Th. 118, 49. Gecum tó mínum ðeówan Saulum, Homl. Th. i. 386, 19: Exon. Th. 157, 19; Gú. 894. Ðissum ðeá (famulo) ðínum, Rtl. 103, 13. Ðiosne ðeá hunc famulum, 97, 4. Sec ðínne þeów, Drihten, Blickl. Homl. 87, 31. Ðone unnyttan þeówan, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 30: Homl. Th. i. 64, 17: ii. 578, 26. Wit syndon Cristes þeówas, Blickl. Homl. 187, 32: Wulfst. 157, 19. Eálá gé míne ðeówan beóþ getreówe o mea mancipia, estote fideles, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 102, 3. Ðeás servi, Mt. Kmbl. p. 18, 7. Ða þeówan drincaþ medo, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 17. Micel menigu Godes ðeówa (ðiówa, Hatt. MS.), Past. pref.; Swt. 4, 11. Wítniendra þiówa lictorum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 52, 77. Seó myccle menigo heora þeówa, Blickl. Homl. 99, 34. Ðæra þeówa (ðeána, Lind.) hláfurd, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 19. Án ðæs bisceopes þeówena, Jn. Skt. 18, 26: Wulfst. 199, 22. Ðǽm earmestan Godes þeówum, ðe ða cyrican mid godcundum dreámum weorþiaþ, Blickl. Homl. 41, 26. Ðá clypode hé his týn þeówas, Lk. Skt. 19, 13. Ðeá ðíno famulos tuos, Rtl. 100, 22: 170, 31. Ðiúwas (ða ðiówe, Rush.) ancillas, Lk. Skt. Lind. 12, 45. ¶ Slavery, which is mentioned by Tacitus (Germania, cc. 24, 25) as existing among the Germans, is recognized by the earliest English laws, and early traces of it are to be found in the English slaves whom Gregory saw at Rome. It was a condition that was due to many causes. The fortune of war might put life and liberty at the disposal of another, as in the case of the Northumbrian, Imma, who, falling into the hands of a hostile Mercian, was by him sold to a Frisian, Bd. 4, 22. Kidnapping, to judge by Theodore's Penitential, was not unknown: Si quis Christianus alterum Christianum vagantem reppererit, eumque furatus fuerit, ac vendiderit, Th. ii. 50, § 5; and cf. Earme men beswicene and hreówlíce besyrwde, and út of ðisan earde gesealde swýðe unforworhte fremdum tó gewealde, Wulfst. 158, 13. Freedom might be forfeited as the punishment of crime; e. g. Gif hwá stalie on gewitnesse ealles his hírédes, gongen hié ealle on þeówot .x.-wintre cniht mæg bión þiéfðe gewita, L. In. 7; Th. i. 107, 16; and cf. Wulfst. 158, 14. Gif se frigea on Sunnandæg wyrce, þolie his freótes, L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 6. See also L. Eth. vii. 16; Th. i. 332, 18. v. wíte-þeów. Again, the power which one relative had over another was at times exercised to enslave the latter. A child of less than seven years might, in case of need, be sold by its father: Se fæder his sunu, gif him mycel neód byþ, hé hine mót on þeówet gesyllan óð ðæt hé biþ .vii. winter; ofer ðæt, bútan ðæs suns willan, hé hine ne mót syllan, L. Ecg. C. 27; Th. ii. 152, 17: L. Th. P. 19, 28; Th. ii. 19, § 28. Cf. L. Alf. 12; Th. i. 46, 12. The sale of kindred is elsewhere, and not without occasion, denounced: Gif hwylc cristen man his ágen bearn, oððe his néhstan mǽg wið ǽnigum wurðe sylle, næbbe hé nánne gemánan mid cristenum mannum, ǽr hé hine álýsed hæbbe of ðam þeówdóme, L. Ecg. P. 26; Th. ii. 212, 8; cf. Wé witan ful georne, hwǽr seó yrmþ gewearð, ðæt fæder gesealde bearn wið weorðe, and bearn his módor, and bróðor óþerne fremdum tó gewealde, Wulfst. 161, 6. Further, slavery was at times entered into voluntarily; such cases seem contemplated in Theodore's Penitential: Homo .xiii. annorum sese potest servum facere, Th. ii. 19, § 29; and that such cases did occur may be seen from the following passage: Geatfleda geaf freóls ... ealle ða men ðe heó nam heora heáfod for hyra mete (cf. On .xii. mónðum ðú scealt sillan ðínum þeówan men .vii. hund hláfa and .xx. hláfa, búton morge[n]metum and nónmetum, Salm. Kmbl. p. 192, 18) on ðám yflum dagum, Chart. Th. 621, 9. And besides the causes enumerated there was that which must have been the most efficient-birth; the child of slaves was itself a slave: cf. the phrase in the document last cited, in which freedom is given to certain persons and to 'eall heora ofsprinc, boren and unboren.' See also þeów-boren. The terms used in connection with the slave shew him to be the property of his master: Gif þeúw stele and hine man ácwelle, ðam ágende hine man healfne ágelde, L. Wih. 27; Th. i. 42, 20. Gif hwylc man his ǽht (servum) ofslyhþ, L. Ecg. P. ii. 3; Th. ii. 182, 29: L. M. I. P. 11; Th. ii. 268, 9. Wéron ðǽr ðreó wíteþeówe men búrbærde and ðreó ðeówberde; ða mé salde bisceop tó ryhtre ǽhta, and hire teám, Chart. Th. 152, 22. Bought and sold like an animal, his treatment in other respects was that of an animal. Tacitus (Germania, c. 25) had remarked that the Germans often killed their slaves on the impulse of passion, and that it was done with impunity. The sane might be said of the English: Gif hwylc malt his ǽht (servum suum) ofslyhþ, and hé náne gewitnysse næbbe ðæt hé forworht sig, bútan hé hine for his hátheortnesse and for gýmeleáste ofslihþ, L. Ecg. P. ii. 3; Th. ii. 182, 29: L. M. I. P. 11; Th. ii. 268, 9: L. Th. P. 21, 12; Th. ii. 23, § 12. Gif hwylc wíf for hwylcum lyþrum andan hire wífman swingþ, and heó þurh ða swingle wyrð deád, and heó unscyldig biþ, L. Ecg. P. ii. 4; Th. ii. 182, 32: L. M. I. P. 12; Th. ii. 268, 11: L. Th. P. 21, 13; Th. ii. 24, 1. The inferiority of the slave is marked in many ways by the law. The price of redemption in the case of the þeów who stole was seventy shillings, L. Wih. 27; Th. i. 42, 20; in the case of the free man it was 120 shillings, L. Ath. i. 1; Th. i. 198, 23. Ðeówæs wegreáf sé .iii. scillingas, L. Ethb. 89; Th. i. 24, 16; in the case of the ceorl it is six shillings, 19; Th. i. 8, 1. Gif þeów steleþ, .ii. gelde gebéte, 90; Th. i. 24, 17. Gif frigman fréum stelð, iii. gebéte, 9; Th. i. 6, 2. So, too, in the matter of punishments; where the freeman can pay a fine, the slave pays with his hide, i.e. is scourged; see L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 2: L. E. G. 7; Th. i. 172, 1: 8; Th. i. 172, 6: L. C. S. 45; Th. i. 402, 15: L. In. 13: 15; Th. i. 40, 7, 11. Gif þeów man fúl wurðe ... swinge hine man þriwa, L. Ath. i. 19; Th. i. 208, 22. Or mutilation was inflicted, where a freeman was fined, L. Alf. pol. 25; Th. i. 78, 14. The manner in which the punishment of death was executed was an ignominious one-stoning by slaves, L. Ath. iii. 6; Th. i. 219, 13: v. 6, 3; Th. i. 234, 8. The slave could not be vouched to warranty, L. In. 47; Th. i. 132, 5; and he was not allowed the holidays given to freemen, L. Alf. pol. 43; Th. i. 92, 3. Three days, however, in the year were granted, the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday before Michaelmas: Sit omnis servus liber ab opere illis tribus diebus, quo melius jejunare possit, et operetur sibimet quod vult, L. Eth. viii. 2; cf. Wulfst. 181, 18; and one of Alfred's laws speaks of fragments of time in which it was possible for the slave to earn something: &AElig-acute;ghwæt ðæs ðe ðeówum monnum ǽnig mon for Godes noman geselle, oþþe hié on ǽnegum hiora hwílsticcum geearnian mægen, L. Alf. pol. 43; Th. i. 92, 12. It was thus possible for a slave to acquire property, and the church endeavoured to render his possession secure: Ne biþ álýfed æt ðam þeówan his feoh tó nimanne, ðæt hé mid his swynce begiteþ, L. Ecg. P. Addit. 35; Th. ii. 238, 6: L. Th. P. 19, 30; Th. ii. 19, § 30. Throughout the influence of the church seems to have been exerted in favour of the slave. The sale of slaves into heathen lands was denounced: Gif hwá cristene man on hǽðendóm sylle, se ne biþ wurðe ǽnigre reste mid cristenum folce, bútan he gebycge eft hám ongeán, ðæt hé út sealde, L. M. I. P. 43; Th. ii. 276, 20; see, too, L. Th. P. 42, 3, 4; Th. ii. 50, §§ 3, 4: L. Ecg. E. 150; Th. ii. 124, 2: and probably freedom was not unfrequently granted at the suggestion of the church. Cf. such expressions as: Geatfleda geaf freóls for Godes lufa and for heora sáwla þearfe, Chart. Th. 621, 3. Ðá freóde Folcerd Agelwine his man and his ofspring Criste tó lofe and Sca Maria, and his sáwle áliésednisse, 634, 20. Cf. too, L. Wih. 8; Th. i. 38, 15, and L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 2. Gif þeów mon wyrce on Sunnandæg be his hláfordes hǽse, sié hé frioh. To the same effect is L. C. S. 45; Th. i. 402, 18: Gif hláford his þeówan freólsdæge nýde tó weorce, þolige ðæs þeówan, and beó hé syþþan folcfrig. See on the question of slavery Kemble's Saxons in England,' i. c. 8, Andrews' Old English Manor, c. 3, Grimm's R. A., pp. 300 sqq. [Goth. þius; pl. þiwós; m.: O. H. Ger. deo: Icel. þý; n.] v. efen-, níd-, under-, weorc-, wíte-þeów; lád-teów, and following words.

þeów, e; þeówe, an; f. A female servant or slave :-- Seó foresprecene Cristes þeówe praefata Christi famula, Bd. 4, 9; S. 577, 13: 4, 10; S. 578, 5: 4, 23; S. 592, 36. Seó Cristes þeówe, Guthl. 20; Gdwin. 92, 2. Án menen ɫ þeówæ (ðíua, Lind.) ancilla, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 26, 69. Ðínre þeówan sunu filium ancillae tuae, Ps. Th. 85, 15: 115, 6. On Marian ðínre þeówan, Blickl. Homl. 157, 3. Ðió famulam, Rtl. 103, 40. Ðióe, 104, 18. Ðá wǽron ða Cristes ðeówe út gangende of cyricean egressae de oratorio famulae Christi, Bd. 4, 7; S. 575, 3. Ða hús ðara untrumra Cristes ðeówna casulas infirmarum Christi famularum, 3, 8; S. 531, 33. Ne gǽð heó út swá þeówena gewuna ys non egredietur, sicut ancillae exire consueverunt, Ex. 21, 7. Án from ðǽm ðiówum una ex ancillis, Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 14, 66. [Goth. þiwi: O. Sax. thiu; thiwa: O. H. Ger. diu; diwa: Icel. þýr.] v. þeówen.

þeów; adj. Servile, not free, bond :-- Ðes ðeówa mann hic manceps, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 55; Zup. 67, 2. Gif þeów noun wyrce on Sunnandæg be his hláfordes hǽse, sié hé frioh, L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 2. Ðeów swán and ðeów beócere, L. R. S. 6; Th. i. 436, 19. Ðeáh hwá bebycgge his dohtor on þeówenne, ne sió hió ealles swá þeówu swá óðru mennenu, L. Alf. 12; Th. i. 46, 13. Þeów mennen, Agar, Cd. Th. 135, 22; Gen. 2246. On þeówum dóme ɫ tó ðeówan wæs geseald in seruum venundatus est, Ps. Lamb. 104, 17. Se ðe sleá his ágenne þeówne esne, L. Alf. 17; Th. i. 48, 12. Feówertýnewintre man hine sylfne mæg þeówne gedón (se servum facere), L. Ecg. C. 27; Th. ii. 152, 27. Hit þurh ǽnne þeówne mon geypped wearð quadam ancilla indice, Ors. 3, 6; Swt. 108, 31. Gif hé þeów oþþe þeów mennen ofstinge, L. Alf. 21; Th. i. 50, 3: Cd. Th. 134, 32; Gen. 2233. Gif hwylc swíþe ríce cyning næfde nǽnne frýne molt on eallon his ríce, ac wǽron ealle þeówe ... Gif him sceoldan þeówe men þénigan, Bt. 41, 2; Fox 244, 24-27. Ealla gesceafta hé hæfde getiohhod ðeówe (þeówu, Cott. MS.) búton englum and monnum, ða óðra gesceafta þeówe sint, 41, 3; Fox 248, 16-18. Gé giet tó dæge wǽron Somnitum þeówe hodie Romani Samnio servirent, Ors. 3, 8; Swt. 122, 12. Þeówe men ða ðrig dagas beón weorces gefreóde, Wulfst. 181, 18. Seofæn þeówæ mæn, Chart. Th. 163, 10. Ne freó ne þeówe, Cd. Th. 166, 12; Gen. 2746. Freóra and þeówra, 166, 26; Gen. 2753. Míne wealas eriaþ mea mancipia arant, mínra þeówra manna æceras meorum mancipiorum segetes, mínum ðeówum mannum (mancipiis) ic dǽle penegas, míne þeówan men (mancipia) ic ðreáge, fram mínum þeówum mannum ic eom gefultumod, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 101, 19-102, 5. Þeówe men manode se apostol ... Ða hláfordas hé manode ðæt hí milde wǽron heora ðeówum mannum, Homl. Th. ii. 326, 21-27. Nelt ðú nán ðing yfeles habban ... ne yfele cild, ne yfele ðeówe men, 410, 16. [Cuð me ʒef þu art foster of freo monne oðer þeow wummon, Marh. 4, 2. Heo weren þeowe, Laym. 334. ʒonge and olde, thewe and freo, Al. 3. O. H. Ger. frie getuon nals teuue.] v. wíte-þeów, and preceding words.

þeówa. v. þeów; m.

þeówan, þéwan, þíwan, þýwan, þýgan, þeón, þían, þýn, and þeówian, þíwian, þýwian; pres. ic þý, hé þýþ; p. þeówde, þéwde, þíwde, þýwde, þýgde, þeóde, þýde; ppr. þýwende, þíende; pp. þéd, þýd. I. to press :-- Hwílum mec (an animal's skin) wonfeax wale wegeþ and þýð, Exon. Th. 393, 31; Rä. 13, 8. [Hé mec (a cup) fin]grum þýð, 480, 24; Rä. 64, 6. Þýde conpressit (the line in Aldhelm is: Dulcia sed Christi compressit labra labellis), Wrt. Voc. ii. 95, 33. Ðýde, 19, 67. Hé ðá hit eft sette on ðæt ylce þyrh and þýde mid his fét, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 72. He sum fæc ðone swyle mid ðýgde (or midðýgde? mid þýde, Bd. M. 382, 29) aliquandiu tumorem horum adpositione comprimere curabat. Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 41. Sceal mon ðam men mid dríum handum ða handa and ða fét gnídan swíðe and þýn with dry hands must the hands and feet be rubbed hard and squeezed for the man. Lchdm. ii. 182, 9. Ðæs mannes fét and handa man sceal swíþe þýn, 182, 25. II. to press on, urge on, drive :-- Weard æt steorte wegeþ mec (a plough) and þýð, Exon. Th. 403, 10; Rä. 22, 5. Se mec on þýð æftanweardne, 480, 2; Rä. 63, 5. Hwílum ic (a storm) sceal tó staþe þýwan (þyran, MS.) flintgrǽgne flód, 383, 30; Rä. 4, 18. Þéwende (? þerende, MS.) inruens, Wrt. Voc. ii. 111, 12. III. to press with a weapon, to stab, pierce :-- Ðá hét hé him his seax árǽcan, and hine sylfn hetelíce ðýde, Homl. Th. i. 88, 10. Ðá ðýde se cwellere hine bæftan mid átogenum swurde, ii. 478, 59. Se fear arn him tógeánes and hine ðýde, ðæt hé his feorh forlét, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 73. Hí hine ufan mid ísenum geaflum ðýdon ... Hí mid heora forcum hine ðýdon, Homl. Th. i. 430, 5-11. IV. to press, threaten, rebuke :-- Seó módinys on horse ðýwð ðæt folc superbia in equo minatur turbis, Gl. Prud. 31 b. Hé þýwþ (arguet) ðysne middaneard be synne, Jn. Skt. 16, 8. Hé ondrǽde ða þeówwrace ðe Drihten þurh his wítigan ðýwð ðus cweþende metuat prophete comminationem per quem dicit Deus, R. Ben. 51, 14. Se ðe brinu bindeþ, brúne ýða þýð and þreátaþ, Andr. Kmbl. 1039; An. 520. Hé ne þíwaþ non comminabitur, Ps. Lamb. 102, 9. Hé ðýwaþ mé increpabit me, 140, 5. Gif ic ðæt gefricge, ðæt ðec ymbsittend egesan þýwaþ, Beo. Th. 3659; B. 1827. Hé hine þeówde tó ofsleánne, Homl. Ass. 112, 342. Ðíwde, Homl. Th. ii. 174, 32. Ðýwde, 308, 16. Seó ofermódnes þýwde (minatur) ðæt folc, Gl. Prud. 31 a. Ðú hine þíwe commineris, Scint. 114, 10. Næs se folccyning ymbsittendra ðe mec dorste, egesan ðeón, Beo. Th. 5465; B. 2736. Þeówigende, þéwende minax, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 60; Zup. 69, 7. Ic gá út þýwende (minando) oxan ... Ic hæbbe sumne cnapan þýwende (minantem) oxan mid gádísene, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 15, 27. V. to oppress, subjugate :-- Þéde mancipium, Wrt. Voc. ii. 56, 70. Cf. geðédum subjugatis, 121, 69. Þédum teste (? the passage is :-- Teste tyranni (Holofernes) capite), Hpt. Gl. 525, 53. [Þat he miʒte þat liþere folc so þewe, P. L. S. 24, 57. Goth. ga-þiwan to pierce; to subject; ana-þiwan to subject: O. H. Ger. theuwe humiliat; gi-diota, -dieti confracti: M. H. Ger. diuwen to oppress: Icel. þjá to constrain; chastise, afflict.] v. á-, for-, ge-, þurh-þeówan (-þéwan, -þíwan, -þeón, -þían, -þýan, -þýn); and see þyddan.

þeówan; p. þeówde, þeódde To serve (with dat.) :-- Ðæt sind ða gecostan cempan, ða ðam cyninge þeówaþ, Exon. Th. 107, 22; Gú. 62. Hé Dryhtne þeówde, 146, 20; Gú. 712. Israhéla folc on hæftnéde Babiloniscum cyninge þeówde, Homl. Th. ii. 84, 27: 66, 9. Hé Drihtne ðeówde Domino servierat, Bd. 4, 24; S. 599, 9. Ic him geornlícor ðeódde illis impensius servire curavi, 2, 13; S. 516, 9. Ic bebeád ðeówum mannum, ðæt hí getreówlíce heora hláfordum þeówdon, Homl. Th. i. 378, 33: Homl. Skt. i. 2, 85. Ða óðre beóþ frige, ðeáh ðe hí on lífe lange ǽr ðeówdon, Homl. Th. ii. 326, 33. Ðæt hié þeówdon Godes ciricum, Blickl. Homl. 185, 29: Bd. 4, 11; S. 579, 15. Ðeówdun servierunt, Ps. Surt. 80, 7. Hí hǽþenum bigangum ðeówdon paganis cultibus provincia serviebat, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 5. Hí swá frige Drihtne gefeónde ðeóddon (þeówodon, Bd. M. 240, 13) sic liberi Christo servire gaudebant, 3, 24; S. 558, 1. v. þeówian.

þeów-beócere. v. þeów; adj.

þeów-boren; adj. Slave-born, born of parents in slavery :-- Ne sceal hé (the abbot) ðone æþelborenan settan beforan ðane þeówborenan, gif se þeówborena ǽr on ðæm mynstre wæs, bútan hé for hwylcum gesceáde hit dó non preponatur ingenuus ex servitio convertenti nisi forte aliqua rationabilis causa existat, R. Ben. 12, 13.

þeów-byrde, -berde; adj. Of servile birth :-- Wéron ðǽr ðreó wíte-þeówe men búrbærde, and ðreó ðeówberde, Chart. Th. 152, 20.

þeów-cnapa, an; m. A servant-lad :-- His ðeówcnapena án wearð þearle áwéd; ðá sette Martinus his handa him onuppon, and se feónd fleáh forht for ðam hálgan, and se ðeówa siððan gesundful leofode, Homl. Th. ii. 510, 27.

þeów-dóm, es; m. Service; in an unfavourable sense servitude, slavery, bondage, thraldom :-- Ðes þeówdóm haec seruitus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 33; ZuP. 60, 7. Þeówdóm mancipatio, Wrt. Voc. i. 59, 57: famulatus, ii. 147, 35. Þeówdómum famulatibus, 34, 3. Ðeówdóm is twyfeald ... Is óðer ðeówt neádunge búton lufe, óðer is sylfwilles mid lufe, se gedafenaþ Godes ðeówum, Homl. Th. ii. 524, 3. I. in the more favourable sense :-- For lufan ðæs godcundan ðeówdómes, Bd. 4, 23; S. 593, 31. Godes þeówdómes, Blickl. Homl. 23, 18. Ne þearft ðú nó wénan, ðæt ða wlitegan tungl ðæs þeówdómes áþroten weorðe, Met. 29, 40. Embichta ðeádómes obsequium servitutis, Mt. Kmbl. p. 8, 3: Rtl. 9, 13. Wyrta ðeówdóme manna, Ps. Spl. 103, 15. Swá hwá swá ðæs wyrþe biþ, ðæt hé on heora ðeówdóme beón mót, ðonne biþ hé on ðam héhstan freódóme, Bt. 5, 1; Fox l0, 13. On Godes ðone sóþan þeówdóm, Blickl. Homl. 45, 24: Elen. Kmbl. 402; El. 201. Hé hine sylfne on ðeówdum (-dóm, Bd. M. 450, 29) gesealde ðara muneca monachorum famulatui se contradens, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 12. I a. service of the church, divine service :-- On mynstre ðǽr lytel þeówdóm sý, L. C. E. 3; Th. i. 360, 22. Nú habbaþ hig ðæt mynster gesett mid preóstan, and willaþ ðǽr habban þeówdóm eall swá man hæfþ on Paules byrig on Lundene, Chart. Th. 370, 22. II. in the less favourable sense :-- Gif se Godes þeów nelle ðære cyrican on riht þeówian ðæt hé ðonne mid lǽwedum mannum onfó ðæs heardestan þeówdómes, Blickl. Homl. 49, 5. Se freódóm ðæs unáræfnedlícan þeówdómes freedom from the intolerable bondage, 137, 13. From deófles þeówdóme, 65, 33: 73, 8. Hí synd of miclum dǽle heora sylfes anwealdes, hwæþere of miclum dǽle hí syndon Angelcynnes ðeówdóme betǽhte (Anglorum sunt servitio mancipati), Bd. 5, 23; S. 647, 4. Nales ðæt án ðæt men hié mehten áliésan mid feó of þeówdóme, ac eác þeóda him betweónum búton þeówdóme gesibbsume wǽron, Ors. 1, l0; Swt. 48, 34. Ealle ða men ðe hié on ðeówdóme hæfdon, hié gefreódon, 4, 9; Swt. 190, 31: L. Alf. prm.; Th. i. 44, 5. In nédhérnisse ɫ in ðeádóme ic bégo in servitutem redigo, Rtl. 6, 9. Þeówdóm þolian, Cd. Th. 135, 9; Gen. 2240: 136, 24; Gen. 2263. Ðeádóm captivitatem, Lk. Skt. p. 10, 16. [Heo woneð inne þeowedome (þeu-, 2nd MS.), þrelwerkes doð, Laym. 454. I þeowwdom unnderr laferdd, Orm. 3611. Leden ut of þeoudome (þeowedom, MS. C.), A. R. 218, 28. Leaden in to þeowdom, H. M. 5, 5.] v. ǽfen-þeówdóm.

þeówdóm-hád, es; m. Service :-- Monige hí sylfe and heora bearn má gyrnaþ on mynster and on Godes ðeówdómhád tó syllanne ðonne hí synd bigongende woruldlícne camphád plures se suosque liberos, depositis armis, satagunt magis accepta tonsura monasterialibus adscribere votis, quam bellicis exercere studiis, Bd. 4, 23; S. 647, 8.

þeówe. v. þeów; f.

þeówen, þíwen, [n]e; þeówene, an; f. A female servant or slave, a handmaid :-- Ic eom Drihtnes þeówen (ancilla, Lk. 1, 38), Blickl. Homl. 9, 20. Ðá com tó hym án þeówyn (-en, MS. A.) accessit ad eum una ancilla, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 69. Seó Godes ðeówen, Bd. 4, 9; S. 576, 14: Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 192. Nergendes þeówen (Judith), Judth. Thw. 22, 23; Jud. 74. Ic Luba eáðmód Godes ðíwen, Chart. Th. 475. 21. Hé sceáwode ða eáþmódnesse his þeówene, Blickl. Homl. 7, 4. Swá eágan gáð earmre þeówenan (ancillae), ðonne heó on hire hlǽfdigean handa lócaþ, Ps. Th. 122, 3. Heó hié sylfe tó ðeówene genemde, Blickl. Homl. 9, 24. Þeówene, 89, 12. Gif hwá ásleá his þeówe oþþe his þeówenne (-ene, MS. H.) ðæt eáge út, L. Alf. 20; Th. i. 48, 24. Þeówne (or adj.?) bernam, Wrt. Voc. ii. 12, 24. Ðeáh hwá bebycgge his dohtor on þeówenne, L. Alf. 12; Th. i. 46, 12. Se fæder hire sealde áne þeówene (servam), Gen. 29, 29. Ðióenne famulam, Rtl. 104, 2: 34, 10 (see Skeat's collation). Ðióen, 25. Sca Affra and hire þreó ðeówena ... Sió Affra wæs ǽrest forlegor wíf mid hire þeówenum, Shrn. 115, 3-5. Ðá hét hire fæder hí bewyrcean on ánum torre mid twelf ðeówennum, 106, 1. Þeówenna bernas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 95, 59: 12, 17. Ic hæbbe þeówas and þeówena (servos et ancillas), Gen. 32, 5. v. efen-þeówen.

þeówene. v. preceding word.

þeówet(-ot, -ut), þeówt, [t]es; m. Service; in an unfavourable sense, servitude, bondage, slavery :-- Is óðer ðeówt neádunge búton lufe, óðer is sylfwilles mid lufe, se gedafenaþ Godes ðeówum, Homl. Th. ii. 524, 5. I. of voluntary service :-- Githro sǽde ðæt Moyses on dyslícum gesuincum wǽre mid ðæs folces eorðlícan ðeówote quod terrenis populorum negotiis stulto labore deserviat, Past. 18; Swt. 131, 14. II. of forced service :-- Ǽlc ðeówt biþ geendod on ðisum andweardan lífe, búton ðæra ánra ðe aynuum ðeówiaþ; hí habbaþ écne ðeówt, Homl. Th. ii. 326, 30. Sí þreora án for his feore, wergild, éce þeówet, hengenwítnung, L. Eth. vii. 16; Th. i. 332, 18. Of þeówetes húse de domo servitutis, Deut. 6, 12. Þeówettes, 13, 10. Se synfulla ðeówaþ ðam wyrstan ðeówte the sinner is a slave to the worst slavery, Homl. Th. ii. 228, 10. Of þeówete út álǽdan de servitute eruere, Ex. 6, 6. Þeówette, Deut. 5, 6. Of þeówte gelǽdan, Ælfc. T. Grn. 5, 19. Of þeówte álísan, 2, 11. On þeówote gebringan to enslave, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 128, 29. Ðeówte, Homl. Th. ii. 190, 90. Tó ðeówte gelǽdan, 66, 34. Hé wolde ðæt folc habban ongeán tó his lande tó his láðum þeówte, Ælfc. T. Grn. 5, 26. Bige ús tó ðæs cynges þeówette eme nos in servitutem regiam, Gen. 47, 19. Tó þeówte bebycggan to sell into slavery, L. Alf. 12; Th. i. 46, 12 MS. H. On þeówete standan to remain in bondage. L. Ath. v. 12, 2; Th. i. 242, 5. Ðære wylne sunu wunaþ eal his líf on ðeówte, Homl. Th. i. 110, 29. Drihtenes áre oððe deófles þeówet, Hy. 7, 98. Tódǽlan freót and þeówet to distinguish between freedom and slavery, i.e. between the free and the bond, L. C. S. 69; Th. i. 412, 10. On þeówot gangan, L. In. 7; Th. i. 106, 17. On þeówot sellan, Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 112, 30. Þeówet, L. Ecg. C. 27; Th. ii. 152, 17. [Cf. Swa summ þu þeowwtesst tin eorþlike laferrd swa shall þin sune himm þeowwtenn, butt iff he wurrþe lesedd ut off hiss þeowwdomess bandess, Orm. 43-46.]

þeówet-dóm, es; m. A service :-- Georne ymb ealle ða ðeówutdómas (ðiówot-, Hatt. MS.) ðe hié Gode dón sceoldon, Past. pref.; Swt. 2, 10.

þeówet-líc; adj. Servile :-- Þeówtlíc (þeówet-, þeówot-) servilis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Zup. 55, 1. Þeówtlícum inhíréde vernacula clientela, Hpt. Gl. 483, 71. Mid þeówetlícum móde seruili mente, Scint. 63, 13. Þeówtlícne líchoman servile corpus, Hymn. Surt. 50, 12. Gif wé ðeówtlícera weorca, ðæt sind synna, geswícaþ, Homl. Th. ii. 208, 6. Ðæt Sunnandæg freóls beó fram þeówetlícum weorcum, Wulfst. 292, 7.

þeówetling, es; m. A (poor) slave; the diminutive form seems to be depreciatory in this case :-- Quintianus wæs grǽdig gítsere, deófles þeówetlincg a miserable slave of the devil, Homl. Skt. i. 8, 6. Þeáh ðe hé brúce brádes ríces hé is earm ðeówtling ná ánes hláfordes though he exercise extensive power, he is a poor miserable slave, and not of a single master, Homl. Th. ii. 228, 11. Ǽlc hysecild ǽgðer ge æþelboren ge þeówetling, i. 92, 1. Ǽlces mannes þeówetlingas ða ðrý dagas weorces beón gefreóde, Wulfst. 171, 19. Be teóðunge ... þridda dǽl gá þearfum and earman þeówetlingan, L. Eth. ix, 6; Th. i. 342, 9. Þearfena helpan and þeówetlingan beorgan, L. I. P. 11; Th. ii. 318, 26. Þeówetlingum servulis, Hymn. Surt. 25, 18. Þeówtlingas servulos, 124, 13: 125, 5. v. níd-þeówetling.

þeówetscipe, es; m. Service :-- Hé ealle ðæs regoles bebodu and fulfremednysse ðæs munuclícan þeówtscypes geheóld, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 26.

þeów-hád, es; m. The condition of a servant, service :-- Heó háligryfte onféng and Godes ðeówháde she took the veil and accepted the condition of a servant of God; accepto velamine sanctimonialis habitus, Bd. 4, 19; S. 587, 42. Hé Godes ðeówháde and sceare onféng accepta tonsura, 5, 12; S. 627, 26.

þeówian; p. ode. I. to serve (of animate or inanimate objects), be a servant or slave. (1) in the more favourable sense, (a) absolute :-- Ðiós síde gesceaft þénaþ and þiówaþ, Met. 29, 77. Gehérsumendre stilnesse ɫ þieówiende quiete, Hpt. Gl. 413, 20. (b) followed by dat. of the person or institution served :-- Ic (an animal's skin) dryhtunt þeówige, Exon. Th. 394, 9; Rä. 13, 15. Him ánum ðú þeówast (þéwige, Rush.) illi soli servies, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 10. Ðam (God) þeówiaþ ealle, ða ðe þeówiaþ ... ge ða ðe hit witon, ðæt hié him þeówiaþ, ge ða ðe hit nyton, Bt. 21; Fox 72, 30-32: Exon. Th. 106, 34; Gú. 40. Hú ne þeówode ic ðe for Rachele nonne pro Rachel servivi tibi? Gen. 29, 25: Lk. Skt. 15, 29. Hí ne mihton elles béón, gif hé ne þiówedon hiora fruman, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234, 30. Þiówoden, Met. 29, 99. Ða ðe fram cildháde Gode þeówodon, Homl. Th. ii. 78, 17. Him ánum ðú þeówa, Blickl. Homl. 27, 21. Eall ðeós eorðe Gode þeówie, Ps. Th. 99, 1. Sume secgaþ ðæt se milte ðám sinum þeówige, Lchdm. ii. 242, 22. Ðæt wé ðíwgen him ut serviamus illi, Ps. Surt. ii. p. 199, 26. Ne mæg nán man twám hláfordum þeówian (ðeówigan, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 6, 24: Lk. Skt. 16, 13. Drihtne on dǽdum þeówian, Blickl. Homl. 31, 12. Gif hí mid rihte willaþ Gode þeówian, ðonne sceolan hí þegnian Godes folce, 45, 36. Ðære cyrican þeówian, 49, 4. Hé nolde Gode þeówian, Cd. Th.17, 24; Gen. 264. ¶ In special reference to the services of religion :-- Þeówian his Drihtne swá wel swá hé (the monk) betst mæge, L. Eth. v. 6; Th. i. 306, 9. Ic ðǽr Englisce scole gesette, ðe ǽfre for úre þeóde Gode þýwian scolde, Chart. Th. 116, 35. Þeówigende (ðió hérde Gode, Rush.) on fæstenum and on hálsungum, Lk. Skt. 2, 37. Wæs heó Drihtne ðeówiende on ðam mynstre, Bd. 3, 8; S. 531, 15. On ðam mynstre wǽron fif bróþra oþþe syxe Drihtne ðeówiende, 4, 13; S. 582, 23. (c) with dat. of practice in which a person labours, to be devoted to, attend to, bestow pains on, work at :-- Hé wæs manod ðæt hé his ðam gewunelícan wæccum and gebedum geornlíce ðeówode admonitus est vigiliis consuetis et orationibus indefessus incumbere, Bd. 3, 19; S. 547, 55. Sealmsangum hig þeówian psalmodiis inseruiant, Anglia xiii. 373, 117. (d) with acc.(?) of service done, to perform a service :-- Ealle ða ðénunga ðe (acc. or dat.?) wé nú ðiówiaþ and wyrceaþ quod in actione servemus, Past. 34; Swt. 233, 10. (2) in the less favourable sense, (a) absolute :-- Eálá gé ðeówan ... ne ðeówige gé tó ansýne, Homl. Th. ii, 326, 24. Gif ðú þeów bigst, þeówie hé six gér and beó him freoh on ðam seofoðan, Ex. 21, 2. Gilde hé, þeówige hé whether he pay or serve (as a slave), L. Eth. vii. 17; Th. i. 332, 19. (b) with dat. of that which is served :-- Hé biþ ðæra ǽhta ðeówa ðonne hé him eallunga þeówaþ (he is entirely in bondage to them), Homl. Th. i. 66, 7. Se synfulla ðeówaþ ðam wyrstan ðeówte the sinner is a slave to the worse slavery, ii. 228, 10. Pharao áh ǽgðer ge eów and eówer land ... Hig cwǽdon: 'Wé þeówiaþ blíðelíce ðam cynge,' Gen. 47, 25. II. to enslave, reduce to a state of slavery, deprive of freedom :-- Ðæt hé ús þeówige ut violenter subjiciat servituti nos, Gen. 43, 18. Sý ǽlc cirice on Godes griðe and on ðæs cynges and on ealles cristenes folces, and ǽnig man heonanforð cirican ne þeówige, L. Eth. v. 10; Th. i. 306, 27. vi. 15; Th. i. 318, 26. [Þa hwile þu þeowest þire sunne, O. E. Homl. i. 25, 1. Heo hine beden þat he nomen heom to þrallen & heo him wolden þiwien (hii him wolde be þeouwe, 2nd MS.), Laym. 10015.] v. ge-þeówian, þeówan.

þeówincel, es; n. A young slave, a slave :-- Ðiówincelu familici (the word has been taken as if connected with famulus), Ps. Surt. ii. p. 186, 15.

þeów-líc; adj: Servile :-- Þeóulíc servulis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Zup. 55, 1 MS. W. [Resstedaʒʒ off alle þewwlike dede, Orm. 4177. O. H. Ger. deo-líh.]

þeówling, es; m. A slave :-- Þeówlincgas ða þrý dagas ǽlces weorces beón frige, Wulfst. 173, 23. Cf. þeówetling.

þeów-men[n]en. v. þeów; adj . þeów-níd , e; f. Violence or force that enslaves or subdues, oppression, enslavement :-- His suhtriga (Lot) þeównýd þolode; bæd hé (Abraham) ða rincas ðæs rǽd áhicgan, ðæt his hyldemǽg áhred wurde, Cd. Th. 122, 21; 2030. Wé nú hǽðenra þeównéd (þreánýd, Exon. Th. 187, 1; Az. 28), 235, 18; Dan. 308: Elen. Kmbl. 1536; El. 770. For þreáum and for þeónýdum (for þearfum and for þreánýdum, Exon. Th. 186, 4; Az. 14) on account of afflictions and oppression, Cd. Th. 234, 19; Dan. 294.

þeówot, þeówracian, þeówracu, þeówt, þeówut. v. þeówet, þeów-[w]racian, þeów-[w]racu, þeówet.

þeów-weorc, es; n. Servile work, work to be done by a slave :-- Gif hwá freót forwyrce ... sý hé ðæs þeówweorces wyrðe ðe ðǽr tó gebyrige if any on forfeit his freedom ... let him have such servile work assigned him as pertains thereto, L. Ed. 9; Th. i. 164, 12. Gif esne ofer dryhtnes hǽse þeówweorc wyrce an Sunnanǽfen (v. þeówet-líc, last passage), L. Wih. 9; Th. i. 38, 18.

þeów-[w]racian; p. ode To threaten :-- Ne on écnysse hé þeówracaþ neque in aeternum comminabitur, Ps. Spl. 102, 9. v. next word.

þeów-, þíw-, þýw- [w]racu, e, an; f. A threat, threatening :-- Martianus hét hí gebúgan tó his deófolgyldum, ðe læs ðe hí fordémede wurdon; ac Iulianus ne róhte ðæs réðan þýwrace (cared not for the cruel one's threat), Homl. Skt. i. 4, 114. Þreále oððe þeówraca[n?] invectionis, inlationis, Hpt. Gl. 448, 52. Heó næs áfyrht for his þeówracan, Homl. Skt. i. 7, 87. For ðeówracan sweartra deófla, Homl. Th. ii. 142, 32. Hé ondrǽde ða þeówwrace ðe Drihten þurh his wítigan ðýwþ metuat prophets comminationem, R. Ben. 51, 13. Basilius cýdde ðæs réðan cáseres ðeówrace, Homl. Th. i. 450, 17. Uae getácnaþ hwílon wánunge, hwílon ðeówracan (þeówrace, MS. D.: þ-iwrace, MS. C.: ðíwwrace, MS. U.), hwílon wyrigunge, Ælfc, Gr. 48; Zup. 278, 17. Ðíne ðeówracan synd hwílwendlíce, Homl. Skt. i. 14, 100. Mid menigfealdum ðeówracena teartnyssum gebrégede, Homl. Th. i. 578, 27. Hé ne mihte mid nánum þeówracan ða cristenan geegsian, 564, 2. Mid þíwracum minis, Scint. 63, 8. Þeówwracan minas, Wülck. Gl. 252, 19. Hí him ne ondrédon hǽðenra cyninga þeówracan, Homl. Th. ii. 44, 12. Ic forseó ðíne þeówracan, Homl. Skt. i. 7, 524. Ic gehýre hyra egeslícan þíwracan, 3, 432. v. þeówan, IV.

þeox a spear :-- Ísenum bársperum ɫ þioxum ferratis venabulis, Hpt. Gl. 423, 68. [Cf. (?) Thyxyl ascia, Prompt. Parv. 491, and see note there. Thyxylle, Wrt. Voc. i. 234, 18. O. H. Ger. dehsa ascia; dehsísen confertorium; dehsala ascia, ferrum confertorium: Icel. þexla an adze.]

þerende inruens, Wrt. Voc. ii. 111, 12, (se) þe rende (? from rennan), or(?) þéwende. v. þeówan, II.

þerh. v. þurh.

þero? :-- .vii. hríðru and six weðeras and .xl. cýsa and .vi. lang þero and þrítig ombra rúes cornes, Chart. Th. 40, 8.

þerscan; p. þærsc, pl. þurscon; pp. þorscen To thrash. I. to strike, beat, flog, scourge :-- Ðú ðe rehtlíce ðersces synfullo qui juste verberas peccatores, Rtl. 43, 9. Ða wéregan neát ðe man drífeþ and þirsceþ, Elen. Kmbl. 716; El. 358. Se ðunor ðæt deófol ðrysceþ mid ðære fýrenan æcxe, and hit drífeþ tó ðære írenan racenteáge ðe his fæder on eardaþ, Salnt. Kmbl. p. 148, 6. Sume hiá ðurscun quosdam caedentes, Mk. Skt. Lind. 12, 5. Hí þurhsun (þurcsun, MS. A.) his nebb percutiebant faciem ejus, Lk. Skt. 22, 64. Ðá hét hé hine mid stengum ðyrscan, Shrn. 55, 10. Ongunnun sume mið fýstum hine slá ɫ ðarsca (caedere), Mk. Skt. Rush. 14, 65. Ðærscende hine stánum concidens se lapidibus, Lind. 5, 5. Swoelce lyft ðerscende (verberans), Rtl. 6, 7. II. to thrash corn :-- Hé corn ðærsc and ðæt windwode, Shrn. 61, 19. Mænige inweorc wýrcean, ðerhsan, wudu cleófan, Anglia ix. 261, 25. Flór on tó þerscenne area, Wrt. Voc. i. 37, 59. III. to pound, batter :-- Ðéh ðú þercce ... swá berecorn ðercce[n]dum si contuderis (stultum in pila) quasi ptisanas feriente, Kent. Gl. 1034-6. Ðerscaþ ðone weall mid rammum, Past. 21; Swt. 161, 6. [Þin þrosshenn corn, Orm. 1530. Goth. þriskan triturare: O. H. Ger. drescan triturare: Icel. þryskva (wk.) to thrash corn.] v. be-, ge-, tó-þerscan.

þerscel, es; m. An implement for thrashing corn, a thrashle, threshel (v. Halliwell's Dictionary), a flail :-- Þerscel tritorium, Wrt. Voc. i: 16, 36: 34. 49: bainus, ii. 115, 2. Ðerscel, 12, 73. [O. H. Ger. driscil tribula.]

þerscel-flór, e; f. A threshing-floor :-- Hé áfeormaþ his þyrscelflóre (aream suam), Mt. Kmbl. 3, 12, v. þirsce-flór.

þerscold, þerxold, þrexold, þersc-wold, -wald, es; m. A threshold :-- Oferslege oððe þerexwold (þræx-, þreox-, þerx-wold, ðrexold) limen, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 12; Zup. 40, 15. Þrexwold, Wrt. Voc. i. 85, 65. Þerxwald, 290, 16. Þerscwold oððe duru, ii. 52, 5. Wríte on ðínum þerscolde (limine), Deut. 6, 9. On ðam þerxolde, Ex. 12, 22. Fram deáþes ðrecswalde (þirsc-, Bd. M. 398, 23) ab ipso mortis limite, Bd. 5, 6; S. 618, 34. Of ðæs portices dura ðærscwolde, Blickl. Homl. 207, 11. Ofer ðone ðerscold, Past. 13; Swt. 77, 22. Ðerscwold, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 413. Þerscwold, Shrn. 141, 17. Þeorscwold, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 26. Þyrscwold, Met. 11, 68. Þerxwold, Lchdm. ii. 142, 12. Þrexwealdum liminibus, Hpt. Gl. 513, 66. Ðærscwaldas limina, Bd. 5, 7; S. 620, 27. [Icel. þresköldr.]

þes, þæs; m.: þeós, þiós, þiús; f.: þis, þiss, þys; n. demons. pron. This :-- Iste, þes (þæs, MS. F.), ys æteówiendlíc, and ðǽr biþ, ðǽr man swá bícnaþ be him; ille, hé, ne biþ ðǽr ætforan andwerd, ðǽr men swá be him clypaþ ... ille hé, ipse hé sylf, iste ðes, hic ðes, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 93, 8-13. I. used adjectivally. (1) alone with a noun :-- Eal þes middangeard, and þás windas, and þás regnas, Blickl. Homl. 51, 19. Ðes eorl, Beo.Th. 3409; B. 1702. Þes Paulinus, Chr. 627; Erl. 25, 5. Ymbhwyrft þes, Exon. Th. 424, 21; Rä. 41, 42. Þeós (ðiós, Lied., Rush.) sealf unguentum istud, Mk. Skt. 114, 5. Þþeós (ðiús, Lind.: ðiós, Rush.) stefn uox haec, Jn. Skt. 12, 5. Þeós wundrung, Exon. Th. 6, 24; Cri. 89. Þiús eorðe, Met. 20, 118. Snytry ðiós sapientia haec, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 13, 54. Þis word verbum istud, Mt. Kmbl. 28, 15. Þis (ðis, Lind.) godspel hoc evangelium, 24, 14. Þisses niiddangeardes, Blickl. Homl. 27,17. Þisses lífes, Cd. Th. 68, 21; Gen. 1120. Þysses, Beo.Th. 397; B.197: Blickl. Homl. 31, 3. Þyses, 115, 5. Heofones þisses, Met. 24, 3. Þisse worulde saeculi istius, Mt. Kmbl. 13, 22: Blickl. Homl. 17, 17. Ðisse, 129, 9: Beo. Th. 1860; B. 928. Þysse eorðan terrae, Ps. Th. 70, 19. Ðeosse wísan geweotan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. ii. 121, 36. Weorulde þisse, Met. 29, 82. Þissum hysse, Andr. Kmbl. 1099; An. 550: Blickl. Homl. 11, 28. Þyssum, 7, 13. Ðyssum, 209, 4. Þisum, Mt. Kmbl. 21, 21. Þysum, Blickl. Homl. 151, 35. Of ðæssum (þissum, Rush.) cynne de hoc genimine, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 26, 29. Tó dæge þissum, Cd. Th. 63, 13; Gen. 1031. On þisse meoduhealle, Beo. Th. 1280; B. 638: Blickl. Homl. 23, 3. Ðisse, 139, 32. Þysse, 35, 33. On þysse (ðasser, Lind.: þisse, Rush.) nihte in ista nocte, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 31. On þissere (ðisser, Lind.: ðisse, Rush.) nihte in hac nocte, 26, 34. Tó dúne þissere, Rush. 21, 21. Þissere þeóde, Chr. 1057; Erl. 192, 22, 27. Þisse ælþeódigan, Blickl. Homl. 247, 13. Þysne, 11, 8. Ðysne, Elen. Kmbl. 624; El. 312. Wíngeard ðeosne vineam istam, Ps. Surt. 79, 15. Þás woruld ofgifan, Cd. Th. 68, 32; Gen. 1126: Blickl. Homl. 5, 28. Ðás, 117, 35. Ðiós (þás, Rush.) istam, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 15, 15. Ðæt folc þis wundor geseah, Blickl. Homl. 15, 29. On þýs geáre, 119, 2. Mid þisse sealfe and mid þýs drence, Lchdm. ii. 118, 17. Mid ðýs beácne, Elen. Kmbl. 184; El. 92. Of þís middanearde, Bt. 26, 3; Fox 94, 16. Fram þís wígplegan, Byrht. Th. 141, 2; By. 316. Ealle þás gód cumaþ, Blickl. Homl. 29, 10. Ðás men, 189, 28. Þissa leóda land, Andr. Kmbl. 535; An. 268. Þyssa, Met. 7, 54. Þeossa, Blickl. Homl. 15, 13. Ealra ðeassa portweorona gewitnisse, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. ii. 3, 11. Worda þissa, Exon. Th. 246, 6; Jul. 57. Of þissum lioðobendum, Cd. Th. 24, 23; Gen. 382. Þyssum, Andr. Kmbl. 175; An. 88: Blickl. Homl. 25, 9. Þisum, Met. 20, 255. Þysum, 26, 98: Blickl. Homl. 145, 5. Þeossum, 95, 11: 135, 31, Þiossum, Met. Einl. 4. Þás folc sleán, Cd. Th. 151, 10; Gen. 2506. Þás dǽda, Blickl. Homl. 31, 20. Ðás word, 177. 33. Þǽs, 5, 30. (1 a) where objects are contrasted, this as opposed to that, one as contrasted with others :-- Ðonne hí eów éhtaþ on þysse (ðissær, Lind.) byrig, fleóþ on óðre, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 23. Þis leóht wé habbaþ wið nýtenu gemǽne, ac ðæt leóht wé sceolan sécan, ðæt wé mótan habban mid englum gemǽne, Blickl. Homl. 21, 13. Ánra gehwylc hæfþ syndrige gife of Gode, sume þás gife, sume óðre gife, Homl. Ass. 34, 242. (2) with numerals or adjective forms used substantively :-- Ðæt fæsten þyses feówertiges daga, Blickl. Homl. 35, 5. On þyssum feówertigum nihta, 35, 17. For ðissum (ðeosun, Hatt. MS.) ilcan is gesǽd, Past. 17; Swt. 120, 9. Ðioson, Swt. 125, 6. Be ðýs ilcan, 22; Swt. 168, 19. Þás þyllíce mé tugon tó helle, Homl. Skt. i. 4, 290. Mon ðissa twéga hwæðer ondrǽtt suíður ðonne óðer, Past. 27; Swt. 189, 9. Menn þisra seofona héddon, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 137. (3) where the noun is qualified by an adjective :-- Þes ealda man, Blickl. Homl. 43, 33: Cd. Th. 7, 11; Gen. 104. Ðæs andwearda wela, Bt. 32, 1; Fox 114, 2. Þeós swíðre hand, Cd. Th. 195, 22; Exod. 280: Blickl. Homl. 5, 29. Þiós, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 14, 4. Ðiós unstille gesceaft and þeós (þiós, Cott. MS.) hwearfiende, 39, 6; Fox 220, 23. Þis mennisce cyiin, Blickl. Homl. 17, 14. Ne þyses lǽnan welan, ne þyssa eorþlícra geofa, 21, 11. On ðissum andweardan dæge, 171, 3: Cd. Th. 271, 27; Sat. 111. Ðeossum, 271, 20; Sat. 108. Þysum, Hy. 3, 53. Be þisse ondweardan tíde, Blickl. Homl. 15, 4. Þeosne andweardan dæg, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 579. Þýs uferan Sunnandæge, Blickl. Homl. 119, 15. Hwelc þǽs flǽsclícan gód sién, Bt. 32, 2; Fox 116, 28. (3 a) with a numeral used adjectivally :-- Intó ðýs twéntigum hídum, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 331, 1. On þýs ylcum þrím dagum, Lchdm. iii. 76, 26. II. used substantivally, (i) pointing out a person or object :-- Þes ys smiðes sunu, Mt. Krnbl. 13, 55: Jn. Skt. i. 34. Nys þes Iósepes sunu? Lk. Skt. 4, 22. Hé wæs geháten Zosimus. Ðes on ánum mynstre drohtnode, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 22. Æfter ðyses forðsíðe, 25, 142. Hwanon ys þysum (ðissum, Lind.) þes wísdóm? Mt. Kmbl. 13, 54, 56. Tó hwon lǽddest ðú hider þeosne? Blickl. Homl. 85, 25: 87, 1. Wé þissa wundra gewitan sindon; eall þás geeodon in ússera tída tíman, Exon. Th. 147, 11; Gú. 725. Þysum (for these men) is tó gearcigenne ða réþestan wíta, Homl. Skt. ii. 24, 21. Ðeossum ða his qui, Ps. Surt. 30, 24. Þassum, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 8, 32. (1 a) this, the present :-- Ǽr ðissum (ðysum, Cott. MSS.), Past. pref.; Swt. 7, 16. Of þisson forð áwa tó worulde ex hoc nunc et usque in seculum, Ps. Th. 120, 7. Ðyssum, 130, 5. Ðyssan, 113, 25. Óð ðiss (ðis, Cott. MSS.) hitherto, Past. 23; Swt. 173, 14. Þis, Homl. Skt. i. 22, 44. (1 b) where there is a contrast between two objects, this as opposed to that or the other :-- Ðeós wyrt ys twégea cynna; þonne ys þeós reád...; þonne ys óðer byterre on byrgincge, Lchdm. i. 320, 15. þeós ... seó óþer, Exon. Th. 91, 9; Cri. 1489. Of þysum on þæt, Ps. Th. 74, 8. ¶ Þis, like þæt, is used with the substantive verb in reference to a subject of any gender or number :-- Þis is mín se leófa sunu, Blickl. Homl. 29, 28. Þis ys se dæg, Ps. Th. 117, 22: Cd. Th. 195, 7; Exod. 273. Eart ðú þis, Drihten? 298, 22; Sat. 537. Þis is seó eorðe, 107, 10; Gen. 1787. Þis (ðiós, Lind. Rush.) is eówer tíd haec est hora uestra, Lk. Skt. 22, 53. Þis is landa betst, Cd. Th. 49, 21; Gen. 795. Þiss wǽron ealle Créca leóde, Ors. 3, 1; Swt. 100, 13. Þis sint ða ðe sceolon standan hi stabunt, Deut. 27, 12: Jos. 12, 1. Þis synd ða bebodu and dómas and laga haec sunt judicia atque praecepta et leges, Lev. 26, 46: Num. 3, 2. Þe þis sint hira naman quorum ista sunt nomina, 1, 5. Ne synt ná þis wódes mannes word haec uerba non sent daemonium habentis, Jn. Skt. 10, 21. Sint þis ða gód and ðæt edleán ðe ðú gehéte? Bt. 3, 4; Fox 6, 19. (2) where the pronoun refers to that which has just been stated :-- 'Ðú cennest sunu.' Ðá cwæþ heó: 'Hú mæg þis geweorþan?' Blickl. Homl. 7, 21. Hwá ne wafaþ ðæs ðonne se fulla móna wyrþ ofertogen mid þióstrum? oððe eft ðæt ða steorran scínaþ beforan ðam mónan and ne scínaþ beforan ðære sunnan? Ðisses hí wundriaþ, Bt. 89, 3; Fox 214, 31. Þisses, Exon. Th. 15, 18; Cri. 238. Hwanun wát ic þis ? Lk. Skt. 1, 18. Swá lange swá ge ðis dydon, Blickl. Homl. 169, 21: Exon. Th. 39, 24; Cri. 627. For þís (þý, Cott. MS.) is se cwide sóþ for this reason is the saying true, Bt. 36, 7; Fox 184, 18. Þiss, Mt. Kmbl. 28, 14. Wé ðiss (ðis, Cott. MSS.) feáwum wordum sǽdon, Past. 3; Swt. 33, 6: 22; Swt. 169, 3. Wé sculon ðissa ǽgðer underðencean, 7; Swt. 49, 23. ¶ Referring to a circumstance which serves to mark time :-- Æfter ðrím mónðum ðises (the circumstance just mentioned), Homl. Th. ii. 496, 29. Æfter þisson, Jn. Skt. 11, 7. Betwux ðisum, Homl. Th. i. 480, 27. Æfter þiossum, Blickl. Homl. 239, 32. (2 a) where the pronoun refers to a statement immediately following :-- Þis næs gecweden be Criste, ðæt his fót æt stáne óþspurne, Blickl. Homl. 29, 30. Þis þinceþ riht, ðæt ðú ðé áferige of þisse folcsceare, Cd. Th. 149, 17; Gen. 2476: 294, 2; Sat. 465. For ðeosum wæs geworden ... for ðæm, Past. 15; Swt. 91, 26. [O. Sax. thius; f.; thit; n.: O. Frs. this, thisse; m.; thius, thisse; f.; thit, this; n.: O. H. Ger. dese; m.; desiu; f.; diz; n.: Icel. þessi; m. f.; þetta; n.]

þéwan, þí, þían. v. þeówan, þý, þeówan.

þicce; adj. Thick :-- Þicce condensa, i. spissa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 135, 64. Þicce and þynne, Exon. Th. 424, 8; Rä. 41, 36. I. of substances, (1) of liquids or moist materials, thick, viscous :-- Gegníd on gewleced wæter, óþ ðæt hit sié swá þicce swá huniges teár, Lchdm. ii. 74. 4. Náne óþre wǽtan ðæt þicce and stille sié, 138, 13. Óþ hit sié þicce swá þynne bríw, 314, 3: 316, 24. Swá þicce swá molcen, 332, 18. Wyl on swíþum beóre ðæt hit sié þicce, 358, 19. Þat hé út hrǽcþ byþ swýþe þicce, iii. 126, 11. Ðicce, ii. 262, 21. Tósoden and þicce geurnen, 230, 8. Mid þiccere wǽtan, 280, 4. Ne drince hé þicce wín (cf. þynne wín, l. 18), 254, 26. Of þiccum lento (defruto), Hpt. Gl. 408, 38. 'Wá ðæm ðe gaderaþ an hine selfne ðæt hefige fenn (densum lutum)' ... Ðæt is ðonne ðæt men gadrige ðæt ðicke (ðicce, Cott. MSS.) fenn (densum lutum) on hine, Past. 44; Swt. 329, 19. (2) of solid material, dense :-- Sió eorþe is hefigre and þiccre þonne óþra gesceafta, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 19. Þicre, Met. 20, 134. II. of air, cloud, darkness, etc., thick, dense :-- Þicce genip (nubes densissima) oferwréh ðone munt, Ex. 19, 16. Ǽr se þicca mist þinra weorðe, Met. 5, 6. Sió þicce ǽrlyft gravis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 41, 74. Þiccre crassae, densae (noctis), Hpt. Gl. 446, 25. Tódríf ðone þiccan mist, Met. 20, 264. Anlíce swá ðú bærne þornas þyre Þicce fýre, Ps. Th. 117, 12. Ða ðýstru swá ðicce wǽron tenebrae in tantum coudensatae sunt, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 12. Becómon ðicce ðeóstru, Homl. Th. ii. 194, 3. III. where objects are placed close together, thick, dense :-- Gif hǽr tó þicce sié, Lchdm. ii. 156, 8. Of þiccum (thickly planted?) felde de denso campo, Wrt. Voc. ii. 138, 59. Ðú lǽtst mé on þicne wudu, Bt. 35, 5; Fox 164, 13. On þiccon bearwum, Lchdm. i. 322, 25. Intó ðam wudu ðǽr hé þiccost wæs, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 31. In ðone þiccestan wudu, Shrn. 118, 16. III a. growing thickly, abundant :-- Gebeorh Godes bringep tó genihte wæstme weorðlíce and wel þicce (or adv.?) montem Dei, montem uberem; mons coagulatus, mons pinguis, Ps. Th. 67, 15. Seó eá (Nile) gedéþ mid ðæm flóde swíþe þicce eorþwæstmas, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 12, 36. IV. marking dimension, (1) in a general sense, thick, stout :-- Dó on ánne þicne (þynne, MS. H.) línenne cláð, Lchdm. i. 240, 21. Lege on þone þiccestan cláð oþðe on fel, ii. 200, 11. (2) of more exact measurement, thick :-- Hí woldon witon hú heáh hit wǽre tó ðæm hefone, and hú ðicke (þicce, Cott. MS.) se hefon wǽre, oððe hwæt ðær ofer wǽre, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 22. Se weall was .xx[x]. fóta ðicce is locus murum triginta pedes latum habuit, Ors. 4, 13; Swt. 210, 30. Seó eá oferfleów mid fótes þicce flóde, 1, 3; Swt. 32, 6. Ða wágas wǽron gyldne mid gyldnum þelum ánæglede fingres þicce auratos parietes laminarum digitalium grossitudine, Nar. 4, 26. [O. Sax. thikki: O. Frs. thikke: O. H. Ger. dicchi crassus, spissus, densus, torosus, grossus, frequens: Icel. þykkr.] v. þicness.

þicce; adv. I. marking closeness in the texture or composition of a whole, closely :-- Þicce gewefen hrægel pavidensis, Wrt. Voc. i. 40, 11. II. marking closeness of separate objects, thickly, densely, closely :-- Ðá flugon ða légetu swylce fýrene strǽlas tó ðæm þicce ðæt..., Blickl. Homl. 203, 10. Swá þicce is þeó heofon mid steorrum áfylled on dæg swá on niht, Lchdm. iii. 234, 31. Wæl þicce gefylled the corpses lying thick on the ground, Cd. Th. 130, 16; Gen. 2160. Swá þicce hié áweóllon swá æmettan they swarmed as thick as ants, Nar. 11, 12. III. marking action that occurs with frequency or with little intermission :-- Feónda feorh feóllon ðicce, Cd. Th. 124, 20; Gen. 2065. Hió spræc him þicce tó she spoke to him again and again, 43, 1; Gen. 684, IV. marking abundance, thickly :-- Lege ðæt dust swíþe þicce on cláð, Lchdm. ii. 148. 15: 340, 21. Wearð beám monig blódigum teárum birunnen reáde and þicce, Exon. Th. 72, 22; Cri. 1176. [O. Sax. thikko (mid thiodu gisetan): O. H. Ger. diccho dense, frequenter, saepe.] v. þiclíce.

þiccet[t], es; n. A place where there is dense growth (v. þicce, III), a thicket :-- On þyccetum in condensis, Ps. Lamb. 117, 27. Stefn Drihtnes áwríhþ þiccettu (þiccetu, Ps. Lamb.) vox Dominis revelabit condensa, Ps. Spl. 28, 8.

þiccian; p. ode To thicken (trans. and intrans.), to make or to become thick, of persons, to throng :-- Ic ðiccige denso and denseo, Ælfc. Gr. 37; Zup. 220, 8. Þiccaþ densescit, spissat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 138, 94. Ðá þiccodan þider semninga þa Ismahéli, Shrn. 38, 4. [Hit bicometh to a thikke blod ... neoʒe dayes hit thicketh so, Wrt. popl. science 139, 3. Thykkyn or make thykke, as wodys condenso, thykkyn or make thykke, as lycurys spisso, inspisso, Prompt. Parv. 491. O. H. Ger. dicchén glomerare, grossescere, crebriscere.]

þiccness. v. þicnes.

þiccol(-ul); adj. Stout, corpulent :-- Þiccol corpulentus, Wrt. Voc. i. 83, 47. Ðiccul, 51, 13.

þic-feald; adj. Dense, close :-- Þicfealdum þreátum spissis cohortibus, Hpt. Gl. 413, 1. v. next word.

þicfildan. v. ge-þicfyldan (l. geþycfyldan densere, Germ. 401, 21). v. preceding word.

þicgan; p. þah, þeah, and þigde, þigede, pl. þǽgon, þégon, and þígdon, þigedon; pp. þegen, and þiged. I. to take, receive, accept :-- Hé him brád syleþ load tó leáne, hé hit on lust þigeþ, Exon. Th. 331, 31; Vy. 76. Hié ða lác þégon tó þance, Andr. Kmbl. 2225; An. 1114. Ðeáh hé máðmas þége, Elen. Kmbl. 2516; El. 1259. Ðæt hý beágas þégon, Exon. Th. 283, 29; Jul. 687. Heó hafaþ gefreód ða men ðe heó þigede æt Cwæspatrike, Chart. Th. 621, 18. Welan þicgan, Exon. Th. 331, 1; Vy. 61. Feoh þicgan, 332, 7; Vy. 81. His giefe þicgan tó þonce, l09, 26; Gú. 96. Láfe þicgan, 498, 9; Rä. 87, 10. Ne gé ðæt geþyldum þicgan woldan, 131, 12; Gú. 454. Se æðeling gehwilcan feoh and feorh beád, and heó nǽnig þicgan noldan, Chr. 755; Erl. 51, 5. II. to take food, poison, medicine, etc., to eat or drink, consume :-- Hú ðæt ne gemylt, ðæt se maga þigeþ, Lchdm. ii. 158, 16. Þigð, 186, 21. Fýr þigeþ lǽnne líchoman, Exon. Th. 213, 4; Ph. 219. Nó hé þigeþ mete, 215, 27; Ph. 259: 357, 28; Pa. 35. Of ðam mete ðe wé þicgaþ, Bt. 34, 11; Fox 150, 35. Ðonue hig mete þicgeaþ cum panem manducant, Mt. Kmbl. 15, 2. Hí hyra hláf þicgaþ, Mk. Skt. 7, 5. Hé on his hús eode and his swǽsendo ðeah intravit epulaturus domum ejus, Bd. 3, 22; S. 553, 30. Ðæt hé nǽfre oftor swǽsendo ðeah (reficeret), 4, 25; S. 600, 16. Swá ðæt hé nǽfre mete onféng ne swǽsendo ðeah ita ut nihil unquam cibi vel potus perciperet, S. 599, 30. Wé medu þégon, Beo. Th. 5260; B. 2633: Judth. Thw. 21, 15; Jud. 19. Hí wiste þégon, Andr. Kmbl. 1186; An. 593. Hié fira flǽschoman þégon, 49; An. 25. Hí þégun æppel, Exon. Th. 226, 8; Ph. 402. Ðæt hé mæte ðygde ad prandendum, Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, 11. Israhél ðigde ðæs lambes flǽsc, Homl. Th. ii. 278, 18. Þigde consumeret, biberet, Hpt. Gl. 450, 32. Þigede, Guthl. 4; Gdwin. 26, 18: 5; Gdwin. 34, 7. Ðygede, Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, 17. Wit eaples þigdon, Cd. 290, 7; Sat. 411. Hé sumum liéfde tó ðicgganne ðætte hé nolde ðæt hí ealle ðigden, Past. 59; Swt. 451, 29. Þigedan, Ors. 3, 6; Swt. 110, 1: 6, 21; Swt. 272, 23. Ðæt hí of his swǽsendum mete ne ðygedon ne de cibis illius acciperent, Bd. 3, 22; S. 553, 28. Ceorf nygan penegas, and ðige ða, Lchdm. iii. 8, 2. Nǽfre gé beódgereordu unárlíce eówre þicgeaþ, Cd. Th. 91, 29; Gen. 1519. Ne hé náht fúles ne þicge (comedat), Jud. 13, 4. Wiþ þon þe mon þicge átor, Lchdm. ii. 110, 24. Ðæt hí móston onfón and ðicgean ða foresetenysse hláfas ut panes propositionis acciperent, Bd. 1, 27; S. 496, 14: 5, 4; S. 617, 14. Nolde ic mid þæm men mínne mete ðicgean cum hoc simul non edebam, Ps. Th. 100, 5. Ðicgan, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 12: Homl. Th. ii. 244, 11: 40, 13. Syle ðone wyrttruman ðam seócan þicgean ... Gyf ðú ðás wyrte sylst þicgean on strangon wíne, Lchdm. i. 172, 10-13. On drince þicgean, 198, 25. Genim ðás ylcan wyrte, seóð on hunige, syle þiggean (þiggcan, MS. H.: þicgan, MS. B.), 150, 9. Symbel þicgan, Beo. Th. 2025; B. 1010. Ðonne áliéfþ hé ðæm siócan eal ðæt ðæt hine lysð tó dónne and tó ðycganne, Past. 50; Swt. 391, 25. Bið seó án snǽd sélre tó þicganne, Salm. Kmbl. 813; Sal. 406. Se forbeád blód tó þicgenne, Ælfc. T. Grn. 4, 43. Ðicgendum (ðiccendum, Rush.) mið him and etendum discumbentibus cum eis et manducantibus, Mk. Skt. Lind. 14, 18. [Þet mon to muchel ne þigge on etc and on wete, O. E. Homl. i. 105 3. But later the word means to beg :-- He haueth me do mi mete to thigge, Havel. 1373. Beggyn or thyggyn mendico, Prompt. Parv. 28. Cf. thyggynge or beggynge mendicacio, 490. Thiggand egenus, Ps. 39, 18. See also Halliwell's Dict, and Jamieson's Dict. O. Sax. thiggean (wk.) to receive, to ask: O. H. Ger. diggen (wk.) impetrare, petere, expetere: Icel. þiggja; p. þá, pl. þágu; pp. þeginn to receive, accept.] v. ge-þicgan, þegan; þegu.

þiclíce; adv. Thickly, in great numbers, in quick succession :-- Ðá hié gesáwan ða deádan men swá þiclíce tó eorþan beran, Ors. 3, 10; Swt. 138, 25. Steorran of heofenan feóllan, náht be ánan oððe twám, ac swá þiclíce ðæt hit nán mane áteallan ne mihte, Chr. 1095; Erl. 231, 21. v. ful-þiclíce; þicce.

þicness, e; f. I. referring to the consistency of matter, thickness, viscosity. v. þicce, I :-- Cnuca mid wíne on huniges þicnysse, Lchdm. i. 126, 12. Gyf hwá mycelne hracan þolige, and hé ðone him eáþelíce fram bringan ne mæge for ðycnysse, 284, 24. Seóþ óþ ðæt ðæt hæbbe huniges þicnesse, ii. 190, 5. II. referring to the lack of transparency, thickness, obscurity, cloud, darkness. v. þicce, II :-- Genipu and þicnæs nubes et caligo, Ps. Spl. 96, 2. Tegánre þicnysse rupto tenebrarum situ, Germ. 388, 43. Of nyþerhreósendre þicnysse deciduo imbre, 390, 79. Wé ne magon for ðære fyrlynan heáhnysse and ðæra wolcna ðicnysse and for ure eágena tyddernysse hí (heofenan) nǽfre geseón, Lchdm. iii. 232, 16. Ða þicnyssa smíces stigon upp the clouds of smoke rose up, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 36. III. a thicket. v. þicce, III :-- On ðicnessum in condensis, Ps. Lamb. 117, 27. Ðicnyssa condensa, 28, 9. IV. referring to dimension, thickness, depth, a thick body. v. þicce, IV :-- Hreóflícre þicnesse elephantina callositate, Hpt. Gl. 519, 31. Hit næfde eorþan þiccnesse non habebat altitudinem terrae, Mk. Skt. 4, 5. Sweflenum þicnyssum sulphureis fammarum globis, Hpt. Gl. 499, 41. [O. H. Ger. diknissa densitas.]

þídan, þiddan. v. þeódan, þyddan.

þider, þieder; adv. Thither, whither, where motion is expressed or implied. I. as absolute demonstrative, thither, to that place :-- Ne færst ðú þider (illuc), Deut. 1, 37. Ða ðe hine þider lǽddon, Gen. 39, 1. Þyder (ðider, Lind.) faran illuc ire, Mt. Kmbl. 2, 22. Hé com þyder (ðidir, Lind.: þidera, Rush.), Jn. Skt. 18, 3. Ðyder (ðidder, Lind.: ðider, Rush.), 11, 8. Hí tó ðon ðider (illo) sende wǽron, ðæt hí sceoldon ðæt gyldene mynet mid him geniman ðætte ðider (eo) of Kent com, Bd. 3, 8; S. 530, 40. Ðá férde hé ðyder, Blickl. Homl. 225, 7. Nú þyder ingongaþ and mé ætstondaþ, 207, 2. Uton mid him þyder geond gán, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 748, 321. Ðæt gifeðe ðe ðone þyder ontyhte, Beo. Th. 6164; B. 3086. Hit witena nán þider (cf. þǽr, Bt. 32, 3; Fox 118, 9) ne séceþ no wise man goes thither to look for it, Met. 19, 8. Þider wǽron fúse, Cd. Th. 190, 9; Exod. 196. Hé þyder folc samnode, 230, 5; Dan. 228: Blickl. Homl. 67, 20. Se síþfæt is þyder tó lang, 231, 26. Ǽrende wé þyder habbaþ, 233, 11. I a. in an indefinite sense :-- Ðæt hió on ǽnige healfe ne heldeþ; ne mæg hió hider ne þider sígan, Met. 20, 164. On healfa gehwǽr, sume hyder, sume þyder, Elen. Kmbl. 1093; El. 548. II. as antecedent :-- Ðá ferede hine Godes hand þider, þǽr hine men siððan áredon, Shrn. 57, 5. Uton ácerran þider, þǽr hé sylfa sit, Cd. Th. 278, 6; Sat. 217. Gingran þider ealle urnon, þǽr se éca wæs, 298, 11; Sat. 531. Þider cuman, þonan þe hit ǽr com, Bt. 25; Fox 88, 30. III. in correlative clauses, thither ... whither :-- Ðider becuman ... ðieder ðe hé wilnaþ, Past. 11; Swt. 65, 16. Ðyder ðe hé sylfa tóweard wæs æfter deáþe, ðider hé his módes eágan sende ǽr his deáþe ubi erat futurus post mortem, ibi oculos mentis ante mortem misit, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 41. Þider ðe Stephanus forestóp, ðider folgode Paulus, Homl. Th. i. 52, 6. IV. where antecedent and relative are contained in the one form, to the place to which, whither :-- Cuman þyder (ðidder, Lind.) ic fare quo ego vado venire, Jn. Skt. 8, 21. Ðú móst féran þider ðú fundadest, Exon. Th. 102, 12; Cri. 1671: Met. 26, 119: 13, 3. Ðæt heó mé gerihte þyder hire willa wǽre, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 509. V. as a relative, whither :-- Tó heofenum, þider hié witon ðæt hé ástág, Blickl. Homl. 125, 29. Hé tó heofenum lócade, þyder his módgeþanc á geseted wæs ... tó Drihtne þyder hé féran sceal, 227, 17-22. v. þæder.

þideres, þidres; adv. Thither :-- Ðæt sió úterre ábisgung ðissa worldðinga ðæs monnes mód gedréfð and hiene scofeð hidres ðidres, óððæt hé áfilþ of his ágnum willan quod cor externis occupationum tumultibus impulsum a semetipso corruat, Past. 22; Swt. 168, 13. Hidres þidres, Bt. 40, 5; Fox 240, 21. Hé lange hyderes and þyderes sécende fór, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 730. v. þædres.

þider-inn, -in; adv. Into that place, (1) where motion is expressed or implied :-- Þeáh hwá his ágen spere sette tó óðres mannes húses dura, and hé þiderinn (-in, MS. B.) ǽrende hæbbe, L. C. S. 76; Th. i. 418, 5. Ic mé þyderinn eode, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 500. Hié þyderin wǽron gesamnode they were got together into the place, Blickl. Homl. 207, 36. (2) of other relations :-- Eal seó sócna ðe ðǽrto héreþ and ðæt land þiderinn the land belonging to it, Chart. Th. 547, 2. Ic wille ðæt se cyng beó hláford ðæs mynstres and ðære landára ðe ic þyderinn becweden hæbbe (that I have bequeathed to the monastery), 547, 32. His béc ealle hé cwæð þyderin, 550, 23. Ósaníg gange þyderin, 550, 19.

þider-leódisc; adj. Of that people :-- Hé geleórde on Burgenda mǽgðe, and hé wæs bebyrged mid micle wópe ge Angelcynnes monna ge þiderleódiscra, Shrn. 134, 24.

þider-weard; adv. Thitherward, in that direction, towards that place or point :-- Iosue férde mid his fyrde þiderweard ascendit Iosue et omnis exercitus cum eo, Jos. 10, 7. Ðá hé þiderweard seglode as he sailed towards that port, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 19, 24. Ealle þiderweard éfeston all hastened towards the spot, Guthl. 1; Gdwin. 8, 20. Hié wǽron flocmǽlum þiderweard they were flocking to the place, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 200, 19: 5, 13; Swt. 246, 21. Ðá hé ðyderweard wæs when he was on the way to it, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 179: Chr. 1009; Erl. 142, 3. Beheóld Abraham þyderweard Abraham looked in that direction, Gen. 19, 27. Beseah hé þiderweard, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 499. Þinga gehwilc þiderweard fundaþ, Met. 13, 14. Wuhta gehwilc wilnaþ þiderweard, 20, 159.

þiderweardes; adv. Thitherwards :-- Wæs se cyng þiderweardes on fære ... Þá hé þá wæs þiderweardes and sió óþeru fierd wæs hámweardes the king was on the march thither ... When he was on the way thither and the other troops were on the road home, Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 32. Swá heó ǽr dyde þyderweardes as she did before when on the way to that place, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 724. Ðá ongon hé sprecan swíþe feorran ymbúton, swilce hé ná þa sprǽce ne mǽnde, and tiohhode hit þeáh þiderweardes (towards that point), Bt. 39, 5; Fox 218, 12.

þidres, þiédan, þiéfan, þiéfe-feoh, þiéfþ, þiéstru. v. þideres, þeódan, ge-þiéfian (read -biéfan), þífe-feoh, þífþ, þeóstru.

þífe-feoh stolen goods :-- Gif þiéfefeoh (forstolen feoh, MS. H.) mon æt ciépan befó, L. In. 25; Th. i. 118, 13. [Cf. Icel. þýfi; n. stolen goods.]

þífe-, þeófe-, þéfe-, þýfe-, þéfan-þorn, es; m. Buckthorn :-- Ðeófeðorn, thébanthorn ramnus, Txts. 93, 1710. Þífeþorn, Wrt. Voc. i. 33, 43. Þéfeþorn, 68, 34. Þýfeþorn ramnus vel sentix ursina, 39, 23. Þéfanðorn, coltetræppe ramnus, 285, 47. Þéfanþorn, Lchdm. ii. 312, 15: 352, 12: 354, 24. Nim ðéfeþorn, iii. 56, 27. Þéfeðorn ramnum, Ps. Spl. T. 57, 9. [Wicklif uses thevethorn in the passage last cited, as also in Jud. ix. 14; see, too, Ps. 57, 10, and Prompt. Parv. thevethorn tre ramnus. Thief is given as a word for bramble in E. D. S. Leicestershire Glossary. O. H. Ger. dépan-dorn ramnus.] v. þúfe.

þiffe? :-- Defruto ɫ felde ɫ þiffe (þífe? Cf.(?) theve, brusch, Prompt. Parv. 490; or þífele(?). The passage glossed is lento careni defruto, in which the first word is glossed by of þiccum, but in the margin by of þiccum þéfele. Cf. too Wrt. Voc. ii. 138, 59 de lento fruto of þiccum felde), Hpt. Gl. 408, 50.

þífþ, þiéfþ, þýfþ, þeófþ, þeóft, e; f. I. theft, act of thieving :-- Be ánre nihtes (nihte, MS. B.) ðiéfðe (þýfte, MS. B.: þýfðe, MSS. G. H.). Gif hit bið nihteald þiéfð (þýfð, MS. H.) if a day has elapsed since the theft was committed, L. In. 73; Th. i. 148, 10. Móna se syofoða ... þýfð gestrangaþ, Lchdm. iii. 186, 22. Gif hwá stalie on gewitnesse ealles his hírédes, gongen hié ealle on þeówot .x. wintre cniht mæg bión þiéfðe (þýfðe, MSS. B. H.) gewita (cf. wǽron cradolcild geþeówode þurh wælhreówe unlaga for lytelre þýfðe, Wulfst. 158, 15), L. In. 7; Th. i. 106, 18. Betygen þiéfðe (þífðe, MS. H.), 37; Th. i. 124, 22. Be ðýfðe betogenum. Gif hwá þífðe betogen sý, L. Ed. 6; Th. i. 162, 16. Onsacan ðære þiéfðe (þeófðe, MS. B.), L. In. 46; Th. i. 130, 14. Se ðe þýfðe forworht wǽre openlíce, L. Ath. v. 1, 4; Th. i. 228, 25. Gif man leúd ofsleá an þeófðe, licge bútan wyrgelde, L. Wih. 25; Th. i. 42, 13. Be ðeófes onfenge æt ðiéfðe, L. In. 28; Th. i. 120, 4: 37; Th. i. 124, 20. Þýfðe, L. Ath. i. 3; Th. i. 200, 20. Æt openre þýfðe, L. C. S. 26; Th. i. 392, 3. Ðá geácsode se biscop ðæt ða bécc forstolene wǽron, bæd ðara bóca geornlíce ... man gerehte ðam biscope ða forstolenan bécc, and bóte æt ðære þýfðe, Chart. Th. 265, 10. For þeófte oþþe for manslihte, L. Wil. ii. 1; Th. i. 489, 6. Gif hé ða þiéfðe gedierne, L. In. 36; Th. i. 124, 17. Ðæt hý on heora mǽge náne þýfðe (þeófðe) nyston, L. Ath. i. 13; Th. i. 206, 2: iv. 4; Th. i. 224, 6. Man forgá þýfðe (-a), i. 20; Th. i. 210, 3. Ealles folces þing byþ ðe betere æt ðám þýfðum, v. 8, 9; Th. i. 238, 20. Ðæncunge ðǽm ðe wið ðýfðe fylstaþ. Ic þancige Gode and eów eallum ðæs friðes ðe wé nú habbaþ æt ðǽm þýfðum, L. Edm. S. 5; Th. i. 250, 5. II. what is stolen, theft :-- Tó dý ðæt earm and eádig móte ágan ðæt hý mid rihte gestrýnaþ, and þeóf nyte hwǽr hé þýfðe (þeófte, MS. C.) befæste, þeáh hé hwæt stele, L. Edg. S. 2; Th. i. 274, 3. [O. E. Homl. Laym. A. R. þeofðe: R. Glouc. þufþe: Gen. and Ex. ðefte: Ayenb. þiefþe: Chauc. thefte. O. Frs. thiufthe, thiufte: Icel. þýfð, þýft.]

þigaþ, Exon. Th. 130, 3; Gú. 432. v. þeón.

þigen, e; f. I. the taking of food, partaking, eating or drinking :-- Ne sý him gemǽne þigen mid gebróðrum geþafod non permittatur ad mense communis participationem, R. Ben. 69, 13. Ðæs hálgan húsles ðygen partaking of the eucharist, Homl. Th. i. 266, 17. Se frumsceapena man wearð ádrǽfed of neorxenawanges myrhðe for ðigene ðæs forbodenan bigleofan, 118, 25. Lactuca is biter on ðigene lettuce is bitter in the eating, ii. 278, 27. Mid unálýfedre ðigene, 332, 1. Æt ðære ðigene (at the Passover), 280, 34. Sý hé áscyred fram gemǽnre mýsan þigene from eating at the common table; a mensa, R. Ben, 49, 15; 70, 4. Sý á on ðære þigene forhefednes let there ever be moderation in taking wine, 65, 3. Wið áttres ðigne, Lchdm. i, 150, 3. His gereordes þigene hé ána underfó refectionem cibi solos accipiat, R. Ben. 49, 6: Wulfst. 284, 25: Homl. Th. ii. 98, 30. Ðurh ðæs hálgan húsles þygene ús beóþ úre synna forgyfene, i. 266, 8. Ðurh ánes æpples ðigene through eating an apple, ii. 330, 33. Ða oferflówendlícan ðygene excessive eating and drinking, i. 360, 13. II. what is taken, food, meat or drink :-- þigen edulium, Hpt. Gl. 513, 63. Ðæt seó dæges þigen tófered sý and seó hǽte ðære þigene oferslegen ut digesti surgant, R. Ben. 32, 14. Ne sý him nánre óðere þigene getíðod let him have no other food given him, 69, 21. Werede ðigene nectareum edulium, Hpt. Gl. 413, 38. Ða hálgan ðigene (the eucharist) onfón, Homl. Th. ii. 280, 29. Heora þigne gehealdan to retain their food, Lchdm. i. 90, 12. Þygne, 8, 6. Ðú ðás werðeóde wræccan láste freónda feásceaft gesóhtest þíne þearfende (þíne for þigne? needing food; or þíne pron. (v. þín, III) thy men being in need), Cd. Th. 149, 25; Gen. 2480. Fram eallum ðám þigenum ðe hracan oþþe innoþ tó miclum luste getýhþ, R. Ben. 138, 14. Áwendan úrne swæcc fram unálýfedum, ðigenum, Homl. Th. ii. 374, 5. v. blód-þigen; þicgan.

þiging, e; f. The taking of anything to eat or drink, eating or drinking :-- Of metta and of drincena þiginge, Lchdm. ii. 244, 12.

þignan to eat :-- Hý ðýnde depastus est eam, Ps. Spl. C. 79, 14.

þignen[n], þínen[n], þinnen[n], e; f. I. a female servant, female attendant, handmaid :-- Ðignen pedisequa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 116, 63. Þínen, i. 282, 15: ancilla, ii. 4, 12. Þínen, wyln abra, i. ancilla, i, 17, 26, Þýnen vernacula, servula, ancilla, Hpt. Gl. 498, 20. Sum þínen (ðignen, Lind.) a certain maid, Lk. Skt. 22, 56. Sió ðignen (ðegnen, Rush.) durehaldend ancilla ostiaria, Jn. Skt. Lind. 18, 17. Ic eom Godes ðínen behold the handmaid of the Lord (Lk. 1, 38), Homl. Th. i. 200, 10: Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 237. Heó cwæð tó him: 'Ic eom deófles ðínen, Shrn. 140, 18. Þínene ancillae, Gen. 35, 25, 26: Scint. 229, 6. Þínenne, Ps. Lamb. 115, 6: 85, 16. Þinnenre (-ne?), Ps. Spl. 85, 15. Þinnenne abrâ, Wrt. Voc. ii. 87, 49. Seó abbudisse eode mid ánre hire ðígnenne (cum una sanctimonialium feminarum) ... Ðá hét heó hire ðínenne (ministram) gán, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 18-27. Þínenne, Judth. Thw. 24, 4; Jud. 172. Heó hæfde áne þínene (ancillam), Gen. 16, 1. Áne hire þínena unam a famulabus suis, Ex. 2, 5. Þínennum pedisequis, þínenna pedisequas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 67, 9, 10. Þínum vernaculis, Hpt. Gl. 523, 26. Þínenne vernaculas, 404, 56. Þínena ancillas, Lk. Skt. 12, 45: Gen. 33, 2: Homl. Th. ii. 478, 10. II. used with the meaning of byrþ-þignen, a mid-wife :-- Se cyning cwæþ tó ðám þínenum ðe ðám Ebréiscean wífun þénodon (obstetricibus Hebraeorum) ... Ða þínena (obstetrices) him ondrédon God, Ex. 1, 15, 17, 20, 21. v. beorþor- (written broþor-), byrþ-, duru-, in-þignen (-þínen).

þíht; adj. Tight, firm, strong. This word seems to be the second part in each of the two compounds found in the following charm :-- Gehwér férde ic me ðone mǽran magaþíhtan mid ðysse mǽran meteþíhtan ðonne ic mé wille habban and hám gán, Lchdm. iii. 68, 17. [Thyht, hool fro brekynge integer, solidus; thyhtyn or make thyht integro, consolido, solido, Prompt. Parv. 491. Halliwell gives thiht close, compact, as an Eastern counties word. M. H. Ger. díhte: Ger. dicht: Icel. þéttr.]

Thíla(-e). v. Thýle.

þilian, þillian, þillan to plank, lay planks as in making a bridge :-- Ðá hét Maxentius oferbricgian ða eá eal mid scipum, and syððan ðylian swá swá óðre bricge, Homl. Th. ii. 304, 22. Tó þilianne plancas ponere, Cod. Dip. B. iii. 659, 33. Tó þillianne, 5, 8, 10, 14. Tó þelliene, 26. Tó þillanne, 28. Tó þyllanne, 24. (The section is headed: Ðis is ðære bricge geweorc on Hróuecæstre.) [O. H. Ger. gi-dillón insternere (pontes): Ger. dielen to board, plank: Icel. þilja to cover with deals, to board, plank.] v. next two words.

þiling, e; f. A boarding, flooring, something composed of planks :-- Breda þiling vel flór on tó þerscenne area, Wrt. Voc. i. 37, 59. Hig fæstniaþ ðone stepe þurh ða þilinge (deck; cf. Icel. þiljur; pl. the deck), Shrn. 35, 15. v. wáh-þiling.

þille, an; f. A boarding, flooring, floor :-- Ðille tabulata, tabulamen, Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 8, 10. Þille tabulamen, i. 290, 73. [O. H. Ger. dilla; f.; dil, dillo; m. planca, ima pars navis, pluteus, tabula parietis: Ger. diele: Icel. þilja; f. a deal, plank, planking.) v. þel.

þillíc. v. þyllíc.

þín; prop. poss. I. attributive, thy, thine, (1) with noun alone :-- Tó becume þín (ðín, Lind.) ríce. Gewurðe þín willa, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 10. Þínes fæder God, Gen. 31, 29. Far of þínum lande and of þínre mǽgðe and of þínes fæder húse, 12, 1. Þínre dura belocenre, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 6. (1 a) where the noun is to be inferred :-- Ða ilcan ðé habbaþ nú heora ágnes þances forlétan, hales þínes, Bt. 7, 2; Fox 18, 13. (1 b) strengthened by ágen :-- Þín ágen geleáfa þé hæfþ gehǽledne, Blickl. Homl. 15, 26. Þurh þíne ágene gémeléste, Bt. 5, 1; Fox 10, 1. Gif ðæt þíne ágne (ágnan, Bod. MS.) welan wǽron, 7, 3; Fox 20, 17. (2) where the noun is qualified by an adjective :-- For þínum ídlan gilpe, Blickl. Homl. 31, 14. For þínum gódan willan ... ða leán eallra þínra gódena weorca, Bt. 7, 3; Fox 22, 14-16. Þurh þíne æðelan hand, Hy. 7, 5. Ða mód ðínra getreówra freónda ... nimaþ hí heora men mid him and lǽtaþ þíne feáwan getreówan mid þé, 20; Fox 72, 14-17. (3) where a demonstrative pronoun is used with the noun :-- Þes þín sunu, Lk. Skt. 15, 30. Þín se fægresta fæþm that fairest bosom of thine, Blickl. Homl. 7, 24. Sege mé hwæþer se þín wela swá deóre seó, Bt. 13; Fox 38, 6: Met. 20, 29. Álés þíne þa liófan gesceft, Hy. 8, 33: Ps. Th. 90, 7. Hi ðæt þín fægere hús forbærndan, 73, 7. Ðæt wé ðæt yrfe þín herige, 105, 5. (4) used in the genitive where the personal pronoun might be expected :-- On þínes silfes hand, Hy. 7, 83. Þurh þínes sylfes geweald, Exon. Th. 466, 26; Hö. 127. Þínre sylfre sunu, 21, 23; Cri. 339. Mid þínes ánes geþeahte with the counsel of thee alone, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 19: Met. 20, 40. ¶ In poetry the pronoun may be separated from the words to which it belongs :-- Blǽd is árǽred geond wídwegas, wine mín Beówulf, þín ofer þeóda gehwylce, Beo. Th. 3414; B. 1705. Ðæt ic mǽgburge móste þínre rím miclian, Cd, Th. 134, 6; Gen. 2220. Gewít þú þínne eft waldend sécan, 138, 16; Gen. 2292. II. used predicatively, thine :-- Gilpan ðæt heora fægernes þín sié, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 40, 22. Nán ðara góda þín nis, 14, 2; Fox 42, 29. Ealle míne þing synt þíne (ðíno, Lind.), Lk. Skt. 15, 31. Hig wǽron þíne (ðíno, Lind.), Jn. Skt. 17, 6. III. used substantively, thine :-- Nis sceat ðæs ic þínes áhredde not a penny of what I saved of thine, Cd. Th. 129, 16; Gen. 2144. Ðonne þú and þíne beóþ álýsde when thou and thine are released, Lchdm. i. 328, 25. Þú ðás werðeóde gesóhtest þíne þearfende (thy men being in need(?); v. þigen, II), Cd. Th. 149, 25; Gen. 2480. Ealle míne synt þíne, and þíne (ðíno, Lind.) synt míne, Jn. Skt. 17, 10. [Goth. þeins: O. L. Ger. O. Frs. thín: O. H. Ger. dín: Icel. þinn.]

þínan; p. þán; pp. þinen To get moist or damp :-- Dó on næsc, hæbbe him on, ðý læs hit þíne, Lchdm. ii. 36, 8. v. of-þinen; þǽnan.

þincan, þind. v. þyncan, ge-þind.

þindan; p. þand; pp. þunden. I. to swell up :-- Þindeþ him se milt his milt swells up, Lchdm. ii. 232, 11. Þint sió lifer, 198, 23. Gif innop þinde, i. 354, 1. Þindan, Exon. Th. 431, 17; Rä. 46, 2. Se streám ongan tó þindende ongeán swilce hit wǽre án heáh dún (ad instar montis intumescentes), Jos. 3, 16. Hit bíþ þindende, Lchdm. ii. 210, 22. Gif ómihte blód and yfel wǽte on ðam milte sié þindende, þonne sceal him mon blód lǽtan, 252, 25: 168, 11. II. figurative, to swell with indignation, pride, etc. :-- Synful yrsaþ, tóþum torn þolaþ, þearle þindeþ (in this and the next passage the Latin verb is tabescere, but tumescere seems in each case to have been read), Ps. Th. 111, 9. Ic þand (I was angry) wið ðan ðe hí teala noldan þínre sprǽce spéd gehealdan, Ps. Th. 118, 158. Ðindende weleras labia tumentia, Kent. Gl. 1002. v. á-, tóþindan; for-þunden; ge-þind.

þínen. v. þignen.

þing, es; n. I. a thing, (1) a single object, material or immaterial :-- Hweðer ðú wéne ðæt ǽnig ðing on ðisse worulde swá gód sié, Bt. 34, 1; Fox 134, 6. Ðonne ða fíf þing ealle gegadorade beóþ, ðonne beóþ hit eall án ðing, and ðæt án þing biþ God, 33, 2; Fox 122, 18. Ðæt ilce ðú miht geþencan be ǽlcum ðinge, ðæt nán þing ne biþ swelce hit wæs, siþþan hit wanian onginþ, 34, 9; Fox 148, 9: Met. 20, 37. Ǽghwilc þing ðe on ðís andweardan lífe lícap, 21, 28. Ǽlc þing ðe líf hæfde, Gen. 7, 22. Ic seah sellíc þing singan, Exon. Th. 413, 10; Rä. 32, 3. Hefon and eorþe and sǽ and ealle ða þing ðe on ðǽm syndon, Blickl. Homl. 91, 21. Ðinga scæpend rerum creator, Rtl. 180, 9. Wé ágyltaþ þurh feówer þing, þurh geþóht and þurh word and þurh weorc and þurh willan, Blickl. Homl. 35, 14. (1 a) of particular classes of objects, (α) a thing of value, property, a thing for sale; generally in pl., things, goods :-- Him eallum wæs gemǽne heora ðing, Homl. Th. i. 316, 9. Nán man nán þing ne bycge ofer feówer peninga weorð ne libbende ne licgende, L. C. S. 24; Th. i. 390, 2. Breng ðing offer munus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 4. Him eallum wǽron heora ðing gemǽne, Homl Th. ii. 506, 18. 'Búton ðú mé sylle sum ðínra þinga' ... se apostol cwæð: 'Hafa mínne stæf,' 416, 34. Hú Wulfgyð gean hire þinga æfter hire forðsíðe, Chart. Th. 563, 3. Ðingum muneribus, Mt. Kmbl. p. 14, 2: Lk. Skt. Lind. 21, 4. Ða teóþan sceattas ge on lande ge on óþrum þingum ge on óþrum gestreónum, Blickl. Homl. 51, 8. Hié mid miclum þingum hámweard fóran ingentem praedam ad classem devexerunt, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 176, 27. Ðe ealle his þing bewiste qui praeerat omnibus quae habebat, Gen. 24, 2. Ðinga ɫ geafa munera, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 2, 11. Ða felarícan bróhtort micele ðing, Homl. Th. i. 582, 14. Hé hæfde ǽr his ðing þearfum gedǽlede, ii. 500, 24. Hé becwæð his ðincg, Homl. Skt. i. 19, 211: 18, 414: 9, 41. Hé on swilce weorc áspende his ðing, ii. 31, 68. Wilt ðú syllan þinge ðíne? Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 15. (β) a thing to eat :-- Eal ða wǽtan þing, and ða smerewigan, and eal swéte þing, Lchdm. ii. 210, 27. Mid wyrmendum þingum swilc swá pipor, 62, 2: 82, 4, 15. (2) a thing that is done, an action, a proceeding, way of conduct :-- Án þping ðé is wana (one thing remains for you to do); gesyle eall ðæt ðú áge, Mk. Skt. 10, 21. Plyhtlíc þinge hit ys gefón hwæl, Coll. Monast. Th. 24, 21. Hé on axan and on duste licge: gif ic eów óþres ðinges bysene onstelle ðonne ágylte ic, Blickl. Homl. 227, 15. Wes ðú gemyndig Marian þinga be mindful of Mary's conduct, 67, 33. Æfter þissum þingum hyra fæderas dydon ðám wítegum in these ways their fathers treated the prophets, Lk. Skt. 6, 23. Tó morgen déð Drihten ðás þing, Ex. 9, 5: Mk. Skt. 11, 33: 7, 8: Ps. Th. 28, 4. Ealle ða þing ðe wé ofor his bebod gedydon, Blickl. Homl. 91, 16: 131, 33. (3) a thing that happens, an event, what takes place :-- Nǽnges þinges máre þearf nǽre ðonne his unriht yppe wurde nothing better could happen than that his wickedness should become manifest, Blickl. Homl. 175, 9. Þás þing ealle geweorþan sceoldan, 109, 8: Homl. Th. ii. 538, 3. Ðara þinga (ðingana, Lind., Rush.) race ðe on ús gefyllede synt, Lk. Skt. 1, 1. Æfter þeossum þingum, Blickl. Homl. 95, 11. (4) where the word has much the same force as a cognate accusative, or where the meaning of the indefinite þing is determined by a verb :-- Hé hine ǽlces þinges geclǽnsode ðe him mann on sǽde he cleared himself of every charge that was brought against him, Chr. 1022; Erl. 161, 37. Hú manigfeald þing Drihten geþrowode what manifold suffering the Lord endured, Blickl. Homl. 91, 11. Ic sceal þinga gehwylc þolian, Exon. Th. 270, 15; Jul. 465. Hine betellan æt ǽlc ðæra þinga þe him, man on léde, Chr. 1048; Erl. 180, 12. Ealle ða þing ðe hálige men writon, Blickl. Homl. 233. 1. (5) a thing, circumstance; in combination with an adjective nearly the same as the neuter of the adjective used as substantive, or as an abstract noun formed from the adjective :-- Is ðæt earmlíc þing, ðæt his gebídan ne magon burgsittende, Met. 27, 16: 28, 53. Þreálíc þing, réðe wíte, Cd. Th. 79, 28; Gen. 1318. Æfter sóðum ðincge according to the truth, Homl. Th. ii. 230, i4. Swá hit ágǽð mid sóðum ðincge as it actually happens, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 109. Wundorlíc ðingc, Lchdm. i. 112, 13. Manegu díglu ðing sindon tó smeágeanne, Past. 21; Swt. 153, 13. On ðǽm sélran þingum and on ðǽm gesundrum in secundis rebus, Nar. 7, 26. Næs nó on gesundum þingum ánum ac eác swylce on wiðearweardum þingum not only in prosperity but also in adversity, Blickl. Homl. 13, 7: 35, 33: Exon. Th. 337, 1; Gn. Ex. 58. Tó écum ðingum to eternity, Homl. Th. i. 16, 18: 616, 21: 568, 25. Tó sóþan þingon truly, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 736. Mid unrihtum þingum per fraudem, L. Ecg. P. ii. c. 13; Th. ii. 180, 23. Be fullum ðingum fully, Wulfst. 51, 11: 57, 8. (6) state, condition :-- Ealles folces þing byþ ðe betere æt ðám þýfðum the condition of the whole people will be the better in the matter of the thefts, L. Ath. v. 8, 9; Th. i. 238, 20. Séna hine gelóme; his þing biþ sóna sélre, Lchdm. ii. 344, 19: Exon. Th. 378, 1; Deór. 9. Tó hwan ðínre sáwle þing (sið, Exon. Th. 368, 11) siððan wurde, Soul Kmbl. 39; Seel. 20. Cýð hwæt ðú ðæs tó þinge þafian wille declare to which (life or death) thou wilt assent as thy condition, Elen. Kmbl. 1212; El. 608. (7) a thing, matter, subject of consideration or enquiry :-- Ánes þinges ic ðé wolde ácsian, Bt. 34, 1; Fox 134, 5: Blickl. Homl. 117, 20. Uton ðás þing geþencean, 97, 1. (8) concern, affair :-- Hé þearfendra þinga teolode he attended to the concerns of the needy, Ps. Th. 108, 30. Sió geornfulnes eorðlícra ðinga terrena studio, Past. 18; Swt. 128, 15. Hé mínre geðylde þingum wealdeþ ab ipso est patientia mea, 61, 5. On menniscum ðingum in human affairs, Blickl. Homl. 213, 6. Hé wolde beón embe his þincg, Homl. Skt. i. 6, 120. (9) a cause, sake, account, reason; in the phrase for ... þingum :-- Þinge causam, Wrt. Voc. ii. 20, 12. For hwylcum þinge ob quam causam, Lk. Skt. 8, 47. For ǽnegum þinge quacumque ex causa, Mt. Kmbl. 19, 3. Árís tó mínam þinge (in causam meam), Ps. Th. 34, 22. For hira þinge because of them, Deut. 28, 34. For ðan miceles blódes þinge, Lchdm. iii.140, 30. For feós þinge pecuniae causa, L. Ecg. P. addit. 20; Th. ii. 234, 30. Búton forlegennysse þingum excepta fornicationis causa, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 32. For þisum þingum igitur, Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92,19. For ðám þingum for those reasons, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 12. For þrím þingum Hǽlend eode on wésten, Blickl. Homl. 29, 19. For monigra monna ðingum, Past. 5; Swt. 41, 22: Ps. Th. 50, arg, For mínes wífes þingon propter uxorem meam, Gen. 20, 11: 43, 30. For Iósefes þingon, 39, 5: Homl. Skt. i. 23, 304. For his sceatta ðingon for the sake of his money, Basil admn. 9; Norm. 52, 29. For ðæs áðes þingum propter juramentum, L. Ecg. P. ii. 29; Th. ii. 194, 12. For mínon þingon, for eówrum þingon propter me, propter vos, Jn. Skt 12, 30: 11, 15. For mínum ðingum, Bt. 7, 3; Fox 20, 3. For ðínum þingum, 7, 2; Fox 18, 28. Þurh þon þingum ðú eart eádig on écnesse, Nar. 46, 23. Incan vel þing causas, res, Wrt. Voc. ii. 130, 12. (10) an object, a purpose :-- Gode wé cyrican betǽcaþ tó ðám þingum, ðæt cristene men ðǽrtó faran magan and ðǽr heora neóda tó Gode mǽnan and synna forgifenesse biddan, Wulfst. 278, 19. Hé wearð man geboren tó ðám þingum, ðæt hé mid his ágenum feore mancynn álýsde of deófles gewealde and of helle wíte, 16, 11. Þingum purposely, Exon. Th. 472, 10; Rä. 61, 14. (11) a relation, respect :-- Hé ðone welegan wædlum efnmǽrne gedéð ǽlces þinges in every respect, Met. 10, 32, 50. Unmǽle ǽlces þinges, Exon. 21, 12; Cri. 333. Ne wéne hé nánes ðinges hine selfne beteran, Past. 17; Swt. 107, 16. Sóð hí sǽdon sumera ðinga (in some respects), Homl. Th. i. 190, 16: 236, 11. Ðæt ic ðé geþeó þinga gehwylce, Hy. 4, 12. God hine gebletsode on eallum þingum, Gen. 24, 1. Wæs heó on eallum þingum þe eáþmóddre, Blickl. Homl. 13, 3. On ǽnigum þingum cræftig, 49, 28. On eallum ðingum gehýrsum, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 17. (12) a condition :-- Hié bǽdon friðes, ac hit Scipia nolde him áliéfan wið nánum óþrum þinge bútan hié him ealle hiera wǽpeno ágeáfen, Ors. 4, 13; Swt. 210, 20. (13) a way, means, wise; mostly in phrases, every way, by no means, in any wise, etc. :-- Ðæt ðæt nǽnig ðing ne gedafenade quia nulla ratione conveniat, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 38. Ne mihte hine nán man þurh ǽnig þing (by any means) áteón, Homl. Skt. i. 4, 194. Gif gé míne lima þurh ǽnig þing gehǽlan magon, 5, 198: Wulfst. 49, 7. Þurh ǽlc þing by all means, L. I. P. 2; Th. ii. 304, 13. Oeghwelce ðinga omni modo, Wrt. Voc. ii. 115, 50. Ðá wolde hé ǽlce þinga ðæt gyld ábrecan, Blickl. Homl. 221, 21. Hwæðer wén wǽre ðæt wé ǽnige ðinga furþon ðæt eálond gesécean mihte si forte insulam aliquo conamine repetere possemus, Bd. 5, 1; S. 613, 29. Ne hí his bénum ǽnige ðinga geþafigean woldan nor would they in any wise assent to his prayers, 2, 1; S. 502, 14. Ne magon gé ǽnige ðinga lífes hláfe onfón nullatenus valetis panem vitae percipere, 2, 5; S. 507, 20: Beo. Th. 4738; B. 2374: Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 721. Ðæt hé náne ðinga ðæt ryht tó suíðe ne bodige ut ne recta quidem nimie proferantur, Past. 15; Swt. 95, 17. Hé náne þinga beór ne drince, Lchdm. ii. 88, 11. Nǽnig þinga, L. E. I. 21; Th. ii. 406, 21. Nǽnige ðinga nequaquam, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 23: 5, 6; S. 619, 8: nullatenus, 1, 27; S. 495, 20. Hié nǽnige þinga ongeán lócian ne mihton, Blickl. Homl. 203, 10: Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 12: Met. 10, 16. Mid nánum ðingum by no means, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 24. Mid ðám þingum by those means, Lchdm. ii. 208, 26. Oðero ðingo alioquin, Lk. Skt. Lind. 14, 32. (14) thing, as in something, anything, etc. :-- Nán þing grénes nihil virens, Ex. 10, 15. Gé ne biddaþ mé nánes þinges me non rogabitis quicquam, Jn. Skt. 16, 23. Mid ǽnige þinge in aliquo, Chart. Th. 422, 28. Ge on mete, ge on hrægle, ge on ǽghwylcum þinge, Blickl. Homl. 219, 30. Nyste ic nán þing þises I knew nothing of this, Gen. 21, 26: Lk. Skt. 9, 36: Mt. Kmbl. 26, 72. Styrigendlíces nán þincg findan, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 735. Sum ðing miccles gebícnodon ða tungelwítegan Homl. Th. i. 118, 20: ii. 24, 19. Hæfð se mann ealra gesceafta sum ðing, i. 302, 19. Canst ðú ǽnig þing scis to aliquid? Coll. Monast. Th. 20, 37. Beó ðæt þinga ðæt hit beó be it what it may, Btwk. 222, 8. Húru þinga praesertim, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 238, 6. Ǽrost þinga first of all, Wulfst. 32, 9: L. I. P. 10; Th. ii. 316, 11. Raþost þinga at the earliest, L. C. S. 24; Th. i. 390, 14. II. a meeting, court :-- An medle oþþe an þinge, L. H. E. 8; Th. i. 30, 12. Hé Freán gesihð faran tó þinge (the meeting held at the day of judgement), Exon. Th. 57, 32; Cri. 927. Þing gehégan to hold a meeting, Andr. Kmbl. 314; An. 157: 1859; An. 932. Þing sceal gehégan fród wiþ fródne, biþ hyra ferð gelíc, Exon. Th. 334, 19; Gn. Ex. 18. Ic wið Grendel sceal ána gehegan ðing, Beo. Th. 856; B. 426. [O. Sax. thing res; thing-hús court-house: O. Frs. thing res; meeting, court: O. H. Ger. ding res, substantia, negotium; concio, conventus, concilium: Icel. þing; pl. things, articles; þing an assembly, meeting; Norweg. stor-thing parliament.] v. breóst-, brýd-, cípe-(cýpe-), cyric-, ge-, woruld-þing.

þingan; p. de To invite, address :-- Hé him thinget invitat se, Wrt. Voc. ii. 49, 39. Þinge interpella, Hymn. Surt. 127, 14. [Cf. O. H. Ger. dingen; p. dingta conducere, convenire; gi-dingen appellare.] v. ge-þingan; un-þinged.

þingere, es; m. I. an advocate, intercessor :-- Þingere advocatus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 99, 39. Ðingere, 4, 48: interventor, Rtl. 79, 36. Beón ðingere for óðerra scylde intercessor fieri pro culpis aliorum, Past. 10; Swt. 63, 20. Ðæs wordes (Paraclete) andgit is swá mon cweþe þingere, Blickl. Homl. 135, 33. Ðæt heó ús sý niilde þingere wið úrne Drihten, 159, 33. Ic beó eówer þyngere tó Gode, Shrn. 155, 2: Homl. Ass. 137, 701. Mid ða gife his ðingeres gratia suo intercessori, Bd. 4, 29; S. 608, 3. Mid þingere cum advocato, Wrt. Voc. ii. 79, 56: advocato, interpellatore, Hpt. Gl. 466, 72. Hí noldon nǽnne þingere sécan defensorum operam repudiarent, Bt. 38, 7; Fox 210, 13. Ða þingeras (oratores) þingiaþ nú ðǽm ðe læssan þearfe áhton, Fox 208, 25. Þingeras wið Drihten, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. i. 114, 18: Wulfst. 240, 10. II. a priest, who in his office intercedes for the people. v. þingian, 1 a :-- Preóst vel þingere clericus, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 24. [O. Frs. thingere: O. H. Ger. dingari advocatus.] v. cyrc-, fore-, ge-þingere.

þingestre, an; f. A female advocate :-- Ðæt heó ús beó þingestre tó ðam heofenlíce mægenðrymme, Homl. Ass. 137, 698.

þing-gemearc, es; n. Measuring (time) by events (? cf. other compounds of gemearc, e.g. fót-, geár-gemearc, where the first part determines the character of the measurement, measurement by feet, by years; in the case of almost all such compounds it is an (adverbial) genitive that is found) :-- Ðá wæs ágangen tú hund and þreó geteled rímes swylce þrittig eáe þinggemearces wintra measuring by the events that had happened two hundred and thirty-three years would be counted as past, things had been going on for two hundred and thirty-three years, Elen. Kmbl. 6; El. 3. Ðá wæs first ágán þinggemearces bútan þrím nihtum things had gone on till there remained only three days of the allotted time, Andr. Kmbl. 295; An. 148.

þingian; p. ode. I. to intercede, ask favour, supplicate, plead, intervene, (1) absolute :-- Ðǽr Satanus þingaþ, Cd. Th. 292, 28; Sat. 447. (2) to intercede for a person (dat. or for with dat. or acc.) :-- Ic for mínes Godes húse þingie, Ps. Th. 121, 9. Ða þingeras þingiaþ ðæm ðe læssan þearfe áhton; þingiaþ ðǽm ðe man yflaþ, and ne þingiaþ ðám ðe ðæt yfel dóþ oratores pro his, qui grave quid perpessi sunt, miserationem judicum excitare conantur, Bt. 38, 7; Fox 208, 26. Ic (Christ) eów þingade, ðá mé on beáme beornas sticedon, Cd. Th. 296, 29; Sat. 509. Him (himself) ðingode David, and tó Drihtne gebæd, Ps. C. 26: Elen. Kmbl. 985; El. 494. Gif hé wyle him sylfum þingian si pro seipso supplicare velit, L. Ecg. P. iv. 62; Th. ii. 222, 25. Hwæðer his mágas him fore þingian willon num amici ejus pro eo intervenire vellent, L. Ecg. P. addit. 29; Th. ii. 236, 32. (3) to ask for (for with acc.) a person that some favour may be granted (clause) :-- Ðæt hé sceolde for hí ðingian (supplicatu obtineret) ðæt hí ne ðorftan féran, Bd. 1, 23; S. 485, 36. (4) to intercede, plead before a person :-- Þinga for ðeódne ǽr ðam seó þráh cyme, ðæt hé ðec áworpe of woruldríce, Cd. Th. 252, 33; Dan. 588. (5) to intercede for a person (dat. or for with dat. or acc.) to or with another (tó, mid, wið) :-- Ðá spæc ic him fore and þingade him tó Ælfréde tinge, Ðá lýfde hé ðæt hé móste beón ryhtes wyrðe for mínre forspǽce, Chart. Th. 169, 30. Wǽre þearf ðæt him mon þyngode tó ðam rícum, Bt. 38, 7; Fox 208, 29. Se ðe bitt ðone monn ðæt him ðingie wið óðerne ðe hé biþ eác ierre cum is, qui displicet, ad intercedendum mittitur, Past. 10; Swt. 63, 12. Hú mæg ǽnig man tó his hláforde óðrum þingian, gif hé his hláforde sylf hæfð ábolgen, L. I. P. 21; Th. ii. 332, 5. Earmum ðingian tó ðam rícan; Homl. Th. ii. 558, 2. Tó ðingienne þiódum sínum wið ðane Sceppend, Ps. C. 7. (6) to make intercession to () a person that something may be granted (clause) :-- Þingode Dauid tó Dryhtne, ðæt..., Ps. C. 146. I a. referring to intercession to the Deity. v. þingere, II :-- Ða ðe on heofenum syndon, hí þingiaþ for ða ðe ðyssum sange fylgeaþ, Blickl. Homl. 45, 36. Swá oft swá hig clypiaþ tó Criste, and for folces neóde þingiaþ, L. C. E. 4; Th. i. 362, 4. Ic for ðé þingode, Homl. Skt. i. 5, 416. Búton sum hálga me þingie tó ðam Hǽlende, ii. 26, 255. Ðingige, Homl. Th. ii. 518, 34. Hé cleopie tó Godes hálgum, and bidde ðæt hig him tó Gode þingien, L. E. I. 23; Th. ii. 420, 10. Hú dearr hé ðingian óðrum monnum, and nát hwǽðer him selfum geðingod bið quomodo aliis veniam postulat qui, utrum sibi sit placates, ignorat? Past. 10; Swt. 63, 9: Homl. Th. ii. 388, 4: 528, 15: i. 174, 10: L. I. P. 21; Th. ii. 332, 6. For heora campwered gebiddan and tó Gode ðingian ad exorandum Deum pro milite, Bd. 2, 2; S. 503, 40. For hine ðingian and for sibbe his ðeóde ad supplicandum pro pace gentis ejus, 3, 24; S. 556, 43. Ðæt hí for mínum untrunmessum ðingian mid ða upplícan árfæstnesse ut pro meis infirmitatibus apud supernam clementiam intervenire meminerint, pref.; S. 472, 35. II. to make terms, settle, (1) absolute :-- Áge hé þreora nihta fierst him tó gebeorganne, búton hé þingian wille, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 2. (2) to settle a dispute :-- Siððan ic ða fǽhðe feód þingode, Beo. Th. 945; B. 470. Feorhbealo feó þingian, 315; B. 156. (3) to settle the terms of an agreement, to agree that ... :-- Búton hiora hwæðer ǽr þingode ðæt hé hit ángylde healdan ne þorfte, L. Alf. pol. 19; Th. i. 74, 11. (4) to settle with (wið) a person, to come to terms, be reconciled. v. (6) :-- Heom man raþe ðæs wið þingode soon after people came to terms with them, Chr. 100l; Erl. 136, 32. Hé sceal þingian wið ðone ðe hé ábylgþ debet reconciliari ci quem offendebat, L. Ecg. P. addit. 19; Th. ii. 234, 27. (5) to make terms for :-- Be ðǽm ðe for ordále ðingiaþ. Gif hwá þingie for ordál, þingie on ðam ceápgilde, and náht on ðam wíte, L. Ath. i. 21; Th. i. 210, 15. Weorpe ðæt neát tó honda oþþe fore þingie let the beast be handed over, or terms settled for it, L. Alf. pol. 24; Th. i. 78, 10. (6) to make terms for a person (dat. or for) with (wið) another, to reconcile. v. (4) :-- Gif gesíðcund mon þingaþ wið cyning for his inhíwan, oððe wið his hláford for þeówe, L. In. 50; Th. i. 134, 2. Þinga þé wið God concilia tibi Deum, L. Ecg. P. iv. 66; Th. ii. 226, 17. Ðæt wé ús beþencan and wið God sylfne þingian, Wulfst. 166, 35. (6 a) where the person with whom is not stated :-- Ne sié him nó ðý þingodre none the more shall the case be settled for him, L. In. 22; Th. i. 116, 12. III. to settle to do something, to determine. v. ge-þingan, geþingian, II :-- Hú hé him on ðás world þingian ongan how he settled for himself to come into this world, Blickl. Homl. 105, 8. IV. to speak, discourse :-- Ðú ða wordcwydas wittig Drihten on sefan sende; ne hýrde ic snotorlícor, on swá geongum feore, guman þingian, Beo. Th. 3691; B. 1843. IV a. with geán, ongeán, wið, to address, accost. v. þingan :-- Him brego engla geán þingade, Cd. Th. 62, 5; Gen. 1009. Iudas hire ongén þingode, Elen. Kmbl. 1214; El. 609: 1330; El. 667: Exon. Th. 116, 20; Gú. 210. Hyre se wræcmæcga wið þingade, 258, 5; Jul. 260: 268, 9; Jul. 429: Andr. Kmbl. 612; An. 306: 1264; An. 632; Elen. Kmbl. 154; El. 77. [Do we mid ere weldede þingen us wið ure helende, O. E. Homl. ii. 43, 30. To þingenn uss wiþþ ure Godd, Orm. 8997. O. Sax. thingón: Hie géng im wið thena heritogon mahlian, thingón wið thena thegan késures, Hél. 5725. O. Frs. thingia placitare: O. H. Ger. dingón concionare, judicare, disceptare, pacisci: Ger. dingen to bargain for, agree on: Icel. þinga to hold a meeting; to consult about, discuss.] v. for-, fore-, ge-, óþ-þingian.

þingiend. v. fore-þingiend.

þing-leás; adj. Exempt :-- Unscyldigo and ðingleáso from ðissum synne innocentes et immunis ab hoc crimine, Rtl, 114, 7. [O. Frs. thing-lós.]

þing-rǽden[n], e; f. Intercession, advocacy, pleading, intervention, mediation, (I) in a general sense :-- Ða apostoli hí ástrehton æt ðæs ealdormannes fótum, biddende ðæt ða hǽðengildan nǽron for heora intingan ácwealde ... Ðá cwæð se ealdorman: 'Wundor mé ðincþ eówer ðingrǽden,' Homl. Th. ii. 484, 14. God heora synne ðurh his (Job's) ðingrǽdene forgeaf, 458, 4: 292, 1. Gif ðú geþafian nelt þingrǽdenne (pleading on behalf of a lover), Exon. Th. 250, 13; Jul. 126. (2) of intercession to the Deity. v. þingian, Ia :-- Mid ðínre (Stephen's) þingrǽdene tuo interventu, Hymn. Surt. 46, 24. Þissere for þingrǽdene hujus obtentu, 139, 27. Þurh his hálgena þingrǽdene, Chart. Erl. 231, 28. Þurh his moder ðingrǽdene, Homl. Th. i. 450, 26. Þa þingrǽdene for ðam folce, ii. 536, 11. Mid ðínum (St. Andrew's) þingrǽdenum tuis intercessionibus, Hymn. Surt. 126, 8. Þurh heora menigfealdan þingrǽdena, Homl. Th. i. 556, 19. v. fore-þingrǽden.

þing-stede, es; m. A place where a meeting (v. þing, II) is held :-- On ðam þingstede (in the place to which Christ had summoned his disciples to speak with them for the last time. Cf. tó Bethania þeóden his þegna gedryht gelaðade; hý ðæs láreówes word ne gehyrwdon, hyra sincgiefan, 29, 2-9; Cri. 456), Exon. Th. 31, 17; Cri. 497. Ic gefrægn leóde tósomne bannan ... Ðá wæs tó ðam þingstede þeód gesamnod, Andr. Kmbl. 2197; An. 1100. [An that hús innan, thár Pilatus was an thero thingstedi, Hél. 5307. O. H. Ger. ding-stat forum, conciliabulum: Icel. þing-staðr place where a þing is held.] v. next word.

þing-stów, e; f. A place of meeting, a public place :-- Compitum, i. villa vel þingstów vel þrop, Wrt. Voc. ii. 132, 55. In spréc[stów] ɫ in ðingstów in foro, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 20, 3. From ðingstówe (-stów, Lind.) a foro, Mk. Skt. Rush. 7, 4. v. geþing-stów, and preceding word.

þingung, e; f. Intercession, intervention, mediation :-- Þingunge interventu, Wrt. Voc. ii. 111, 28: 48, 76. Hí on friþe wunedon þurh ðære cwéne þingunge, Homl. Ass. 101, 313. ¶ Especially intercession to the Deity :-- Ðæt ic mid eallum ðone wæstm árfæstre ðingunge geméte ut apud omnes fructum piae intercessionis inveniam, Bd. pref.; S. 472, 39. Hé ðære eádigan Marian fultumes and ðingunge bæd, Homl. Th. i. 448, 19. Gif wé for synfullum mannum gebiddaþ and hí ðære ðingunge unwurðe synd, ii. 528, 12, Biddaþ eów þingunge æt ðysum martyrum, i. 88, 33: ii. 110, 30. Eádges Ióhannes ðincgunge (intercessione), Rtl. 46, 30: 51, 16. Ús tó þingunge, Chart. Th. 240, 24. Ðurh ða bróþorlícan ðingunge per intercessionem fraternam, Bd. 4, 22; S. 593, 22: 5, 19; S. 640, 42: Homl. Th. i. 76, 22. Ð&aelig-acute;r n&aelig-acute;nige þingunga ne beóþ, Blickl. Homl. 95, 30. Wé biddaþ þingunga æt hálgum mannum, Homl. Th. i. 174, 9. Mid hira ðingengum, Past. 10; Swt. 63, 15. Þurh bisceopes þingunga ex episcopi interventu, L. Ecg. P. i. c. ix; Th. ii. 170, 17. v. fore-, ge-þingung.

þinne, þió a slave, þió, pron. (Jn. Skt. Lind. Rush. 4, 5), þio-, þió-, þióen. v. þynne, þeów, se, þeo-, þeó-, þeówen.

þír a female servant :-- Ðír ɫ sió ðignen (ðír ɫ ðegnen, Rush.) ancilla, Jn. Skt. Lind. 18, 17. [The Scandinavian form þýr?]

þirda, þirding, þirel, þirlian. v. þridda, þridding, þyrel, þyrlian.

þirran, þierran to dry, wipe. [O. H. Ger. derren torrere, exsiccare; ar-derren arefacere: Icel. þerra to dry, wipe dry. Cf. Goth. ga-þairsan to wither.] v. á-þierran.

þirsce-flór a threshing-floor :-- Hig cómon tó ðære þirsceflóre venerunt ad aream, Gen. 50, 10. v. þerscel-flór.

þirscwald, þis, þisl, þislíc. v. þerscold, þes, þíxl, þyslíc.

þistel, es; m. A thistle :-- Þistel, thistil cardu[u]s, Txts. 47, 384. Ðystel, Wrt. Voc. i. 79, 56. Þistel carduus, 31, 53. Se onscunienda þystel carduus orrens, ii. 22, 43. Se unbráda þistel scolimbos, i. 69, 12. (Se unbráde thistel, Lchdm. iii. 305, col. 1. Brád thistle erithius, 302, col. 1.) Þúfe þistel sow thistle, Lchdm. ii. 312, 20. Genim ðæs scearpan þistles moran, 314, 11. Þistles blóstm thistle-down; pappus, Wrt. Voc. i. 32, 23. Þistlum card[u]is, ii. 128, 63. ¶ The word is found in compounds which are names of places. Þistel-beorh, Cod. Dip. B. iii. 396, 33: þistel-mere, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 82, 15: þistel-leáh, iv. 49, 2. [O. H. Ger. distil: Icel. þistill.] v. þú, wudu-þistel.

þistel-geblǽd a blister caused by the prick of a thistle :-- Wið þorn-geblǽd, wið þys[tel]geblǽd, Lchdm. iii. 36, 22.

þistel-twige, an; f. A goldfinch or some other bird that eats thistle-down. [In E. D. S. Pub. Bird Names, p. 58, thistle-finch is given as a name of the goldfinch; Halliwell quotes: 'Carduelis a linnet, a thistle-finch' (1581). Cf. O. H. Ger. distil-finco carduelis: Ger. distel-fink a linnet: O. H. Ger. distil-ziu carduelus] :-- Þisteltuige, distiltige cardella, Txts. 47, 381. Þisteltwige, Wrt. Voc. i. 281, 19.

þístra, þrístra a trace (?), part of an animal's harness :-- Þístra conjuncta, Wrt. Voc. ii. 136, 34. Þrístra, i. 16, 9. [For similar double form cf. þeóstru, for meaning cf. (?) Goth. þinsan: O. H. Ger. dinsan trahere: 'Bavarian dünsel a twisted withy or other thin branch, used to bind rafts of wood to the shore,' Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. xlii; and see Du Cange coniuncta.]

þístru, þiú (Mt. 24, 15). v. þeóstru, se.

þiustra, Wrt. Voc. ii. l00, 18; according to form the word might belong to þeóstru, but it glosses ambulas, the meaning of which, according to the dictionary, is endive or chicory.

þíwan, þíwen, þíwracan. v. þeówan, þeówen, þeó[w]-wracu.

þíxl, þisl, e; þísle, an; f. I. a beam or pole of a waggon; temo: used, also, like temo, to denote a constellation, the Bear :-- Wǽnes ðísl (wægne þíxl (wægnes?), 100, 72) archtoes, Wrt. Voc. ii. 7, 23. Þísl temo vel arctoes, i. 16, 24: themon (in a list 'de plaustris'), 284, 46. Þistle temo (Wülcker prints þísle themon, Gl. 295, 14), 66, 83. Díxl arquamentum, Txts. 109, 1147. Tunglu ðe wé hátaþ wǽnes ðísla, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 19. Án ðara tungla woruldmen hátaþ wǽnes þísla, Met. 28, 10. Þíxlum, díxlum, díslum temonibus, Txts. 101, 2007. II. a pole (?) :-- Of ðære ác in ða heortsole; of ðære sole in ða þísle; of ðære þísle eft in ða mýðan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 380, 6. [O. L. Ger. thísla; f. wk. temo: Du. dissel axle-tree; dissel-boom beam or pole of a carriage: O. H. Ger. díhsel, díhsila, dísala; f. temo: Ger. deichsel: Icel. þísl; Swed. tistel-stång coach-pole.]

þó, þóae. v. þóhe.

þocerian; p. ode To run to and fro, run about :-- Þoceraþ cursat, currit, cursitat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 137, 53. Þocerodan (vitae late praeconia) cursant, 95, 19: 19, 65. Sitte him ðín mód on mínum hrædwǽne, þocrige him on mínne weg mea semita, meis vehiculis revertaris, Bt. 36, 1; Fox 174, 1. [Cf. Icel. þoka to move.]

þoddettan; p. te To push, strike, batter :-- Ða deóflu þoddetton ða earme sáwle and héton hý út faran of ðam líchaman, Wulfst. 235, 15. Þoddetton pulsent, Germ. 399, 264. v. þyddan.

þoden, es; m. A violent wind, a whirlwind; also, a whirlpool; turbo :-- Þoden alcanus (l. altanus), Wrt. Voc. ii. 100, 3: altanus, i. 17, 34. Ðoden turbo, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Zup. 37, 10. Þoden ða nán ne tócwíse oþþe worigende tówurpon windas turbo quam nullus quatit aut vagantes diruunt venti, Hymn. Surt. 142, 26. Cumendum swá þoden tó tóstæncanne mé venientibus ut turbo ad dispergendum me, Cant. Ab. 14. Ðonne sió geornfulnes eorðlícra ðinga ábisgaþ ðæt ondgit and áblent ðæs módes eágan mid ðære costunge ðæm folce, suǽ suǽ dust déð ðæs líchoman eágan on sumera mid ðodene (ðodne, Hatt. MS.) dum pastoris sensus terrena studio occupant, vento tentationis impulses ecclesiae oculos pulvis caecat, Past. 18; Swt. 128, 17. Hér wǽron réðe forebécna cumen ofer Norðhymbra land ... ðæt wǽron orméte þodenas and lígrescas, Chr. 793; Th. 101, 5, col. 1. Þurh ðæs windes blǽs, ðe swýðlíce ða heánnyssa ðæs roderes scecð mid his þodenum, Anglia viii. 320, 34. Lageflódum þodenum ceruleis turbinibus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 130, 38. [Swa þode [þodde, 2nd MS.) on felde þenne he þat dust heʒe aʒiueð from þere eorðe, Laym. 27645.]

þóe. v. þóhe.

þoft (?), e; þofte, an; f. A rower's bench :-- Scipsetl transtra, þofta (þoftan?) trastra vel juga, Wrt. Voc. i. 48, 15. Þoftan transtra, 56, 41: 63, 43. (All three occur in lists 'de navibus.') [Du. doft; f. a rower's bench: Icel. þopta; wk. f. a rowing bench. Halliwell gives thoft-fellow a fellow-oarsman.]

-þofta, -þoftian. v. ge-þofta [Icel. þopti a bench-fellow], ge-þoftian.

þoft-rǽden[n], e; f. Fellowship :-- Ðú hopast ðæt ðú hæbbe ðoftrǽdene tó ðam áwyrigedan deófle, ðonne ðú bǽde ðæt hé ðé ásende his englas tó mínre dare, Homl. Th. ii. 416, 14. v. ge-þoftrǽden.

þoftscipe, es; m. Fellowship :-- Sum bróðor ... se him wæs on gástlícum (-re, MS.) þoftscipe geþeóded, Guthl. 10; Gdwin. 52, 5: 14; Gdwin. 62, 2. v. ge-þoftscipe.

þóhe, þóe, þó; gen. þón; f. Clay :-- Thóhae, thóae argilla, Txts. 36, 3. Ðó, Wrt. Voc. ii. 6, 16. Þóe creta, 136, 78. [Goth. þáhó πηλόs: O. H. Ger. dáha argilla, testa: Ger. thon: Icel. þá muddy ground.] v. next word.

þóhiht, þóiht; adj. Clayey :-- Ðóihte argillosa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 6, 15.

þóht, es; m. Thought, mind :-- Pund gefe of ðon is ðóht monnes pondus gratiae, inde eat sensus hominis, Rtl. 192, 23. Suǽ líchomes suǽ ðóhtes (anime) hǽlo, 99, 13. Háles ðóhtes sane mentis, Mk. Skt. Lind. 5, 15. Mid þóhtes wilnunga besmiten desiderio cogitationis coinquinatus, L. Ecg. C. 5; Th. ii. 138, 15. In alle ðóht ðínne in tota mente tua, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 22, 37. In ðon ilco ðócht in eundem sensum, p. 9, 18. Unstaðolfæstnis ðóhta instabilitas mentium, Rtl. 192, 21. [Icel. þóttr, þótti.] v. ge-þóht.

þol. v. þoll.

þole-byrde; adj. Bearing patiently, patient, long-suffering :-- Þolo-byrde mann patiens homo ... Wer þolebyrde vir patiens, Scint. 13, 11, 13. [He beð þoleburde, O. E. Homl. ii. 79, 25.]

þolebyrdness, e; f. Patience, long-suffering, endurance :-- Tó þolibyrdnysse þrowunga strange ad tolerantiam passionum fortes, Scint. 3, 8. [On giwer þoleburdnesse in patientia vestra, O. E. Homl. ii. 79, 9.]

þole-mód; adj. Of a patient disposition, patient, long-suffering :-- Þþolemód longanimis, Hpt. Gl. 437, 43. Heó wæs þolemód and gestǽðþig on hire gebǽran, and ne geseah hí nán man yrre, Homl. Ass. 127, 367. Þolemód on wiþerweardum þingum patient in adversity, R. Ben. 26, 18. His mon fandige hwæðer hé þolemód (þolo-, Wells Frag.) sý and geþyldig probetur in omni patientia, 99, 4. Þolomód patiens, Scint. 8, 12, 14. Ðæt se mann beó geðyldig and ðolomód (þol-, MSS. U. D.), Homl. Skt. i. 16, 335. Geðyldig and ðolmód, 17, 55. On ðære écan worulde, ðe gewelgaþ ða þolmódan, Homl. Th. ii. 456, 2. [Gordoille wes þolemod, Laym. 3141. Katerine wes þuldi & þolemod, Kath. 173. Þolemod is þe pet þuldeliche abereð wouh þet me deð him, A. R. 158, 4. Cf. Icel. þolin-móðr patient: Dan. taal-modig.]

þole-mód (?) patience :-- Patientia ðæt is ðolmód, Homl. Skt. i. 16, 334, MS. D. [Habbe we edmodnesse and þolemod, O. E. Homl. i. 69, 266.] v. next word.

þolemódness, e; f. Patience, long-suffering, endurance :-- Patientia, ðæt is geðyld and þolmódnys gecwæden, Homl. Skt. i. 16, 334. Se geþyldiga man mid his þolmódnysse his sáwle gehylt, ii. 28, 146. Ða getreówfullan ealle lífes wiðerweardnesse forþyldigian scylun, be hiora þolemódnesse (þolo-, MS. T.) is þus áwriten, R. Ben. 27, 8, 13. Wurðigan ða gódan þeáwas ... geþyld and þolemódnysse, Guthl. 2; Gdwin. 18, 16. [Þolemodnesse and edmodnesse, of mild and meek heart, A. R. 158, 2. Þolemodnesse, H. M. 41, 10: Ayenb. 68, 4.]

þolian; p. ode To thole (still used in some dialects), suffer, endure. I. to suffer what is evil, punishment, reproach, illness, grief, etc. :-- Hwílon forlidenesse ic þolie aliquando naufragium patior, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 1. Þolige, Exon. Th. 499, 18; Rä. 88, 17. Hé þreánýd þolaþ, Beo.Th. 573; B. 284. Synfull tóþum torn þolaþ peccator dentibus suis fremet, Ps. Th. 111, 9. Þoliaþ wé þreá on helle, Cd. Th. 25, 5; Gen. 389. Hí hosp þoliaþ contumeliam toleravit, Hpt. Gl. 506, 25. Þú þoladest ferres, i. sustinebas, contuleras, Wrt. Voc. ii. 147, 55. Ðú þolades mægenearfeþu, Exon. Th. 86, 19; Cri. 1411. David his éhtnesse ðolade, Past. 28; Swt. 197, 17. Hé þeównýd þolode, Cd. Th. 122, 21; Gen. 2030. Hí bryne þolodon, Rood Kmbl. 296; Kr. 149. Ða ðe elþeódigra edwít þoledon, hǽþenra hasp, Judth. Thw. 24, 30; Jud. 215. Þoledan and þrowedan luebant, Wrt. Voc. ii. 53, 19. Þéh ðú drype þolie, Andr. Kmbl. 1910; An. 957. Gif wíf ðone fléwsan ðæs wǽtan þoligen, Lchdm. i. 308, 2. Fela þinga þolian fram yldrum multa pati a senioribus, Mt. Kmbl. 16, 21. Þoligean, Lk. Skt. 24, 26. Ðæt micle morð þolian, Cd. Th. 40, 18; Gen. 641. Þeówdóm þolian, 135, 9; Gen. 2240. Hýnðo þolian, 198, 18; Exod. 324. Torn þolian, Beo. Th. 1669; B. 832. Wítu þolian, Andr. Kmbl. 2828; An. 1416. Ðæt ðam weligan wæs weorc tó þolianne, Exon. Th. 276, 21; Jul. 569. Hé lét, torn þoliende, teáras geótan, 165, 15; Gú. 1029. Syle ðam þoligendan ðicgean ... ðú hine gelácnast wundorlíce, Lchdm. i. 220, 17: 17: 188, 1. Mid tóðon torn þoligende, Judth. Thw. 25, 21; Jud. 272. I a. to suffer, undergo, submit to discipline, treatment :-- Se ðe ðysne lǽcedóm þolaþ, Lchdm. i. 300, 20. Ðæt wíf ðe on blódryne wæs fram manegum lǽcum fela þinga þolode, Mk. 5, 26. Tó ðolienne ðínne willan, Ps. C. 90. I b. of things which are used to do hard work :-- Seó ecg geswác þeódne æt þearfe; þolode ǽr fela hondgemóta, Beo. Th. 3055; B. 1525. II. to suffer a person, bear with, tolerate a condition of things, let come to pass :-- Swá lange swá ic mid eów beó, swá lange ic eów þolige (ðola, Lind.: ðolo, Rush.), Mk. Skt. 9, 19. Þolie (ðola, Lind.: ðolo, Rush.), Lk. Skt. 9, 41. Ðæt is micel wundor, ðæt hit God wolde þolian, ðæt wurde þegn swá monig forlǽdd, Cd. Th. 37, 29; Gen. 597. III. to suffer lack or loss of something (gen.), to lose what one has, to fail to get what one desires; in many cases the loss or failure is the result of wrong either done or suffered by the subject of the verb, to forfeit, be (wrongfully) deprived of :-- Ic ðolige sumes ðinges careo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 2; Zup. 154, 16. Ic ðolige mínes feós careo mea pecunia, ðoligende his þinges carens sua re, 41; Zup. 250, 11. Ðonne þolie ic ðus miceles ðæs ðe míne foregengan hæfdon in that case I shall be (unfairly) deprived of thus much of what my predecessors had, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 327, 16. Gif ðú Drihten forgitst, ðú ðolast ðære écan méde, Homl. Th. i. 140, 32. Ðolaþ carebit (benedictione), Prov. 20, 21. Gé þoliaþ ðæs ðe eów God behét for eówre ungehírsumnisse, Deut. i. 40. Hý (evil spirits) háma þoliaþ, Exon. Th. 115, 22; Gú. 193. Ic þolade gódes ealles, 457, 16; Hy. 4, 84. Hé férde swá swá his forcúða fæder, and his lífes ðolode and his lǽnan ríces, Homl. Skt. i. 18, 231. Hé (Job) hæfde his wíf, þeáh hé his bearna þolode, ii. 30, 204. Þolade caruerit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 23, 83. Ne forgit ðú deáð, ðý læs ðú þolie ðæs écan lífes, Prov. Kmbl. 17. Þeáh God wille hwam hys willan tó forlǽtan, and hé ðæs eft þolige, Ors. 1, 5; Swt. 34, 36. Þolige hé his wǽpna and his ierfes, L. Alf. pol. 1; Th. i. 60, 14: L. Edg. i. 4; Th. i. 264, 15. Þolie se þeówa his hýde oþþe hýdgyldes ... þolie se frigea his freótes, L. In. 3; Th. i. 104, 4, 6. Þolige se déma, ðe óðrum wóh déme, á his þegenscipes, L. Edg. ii. 3; Th. i. 266, 17: Chart. Th. 606, 30: Homl. Th. ii. 94, 33. Hefonríces þolian, Cd. Th. 40, 3; Gen. 633: Exon. Th. 402, 8; Rä. 21, 26. Blind sceal his eágna þolian, 335, 28; Gn. Ex. 39. III a. with a preposition :-- Þolige hé be healfre ðære bóte, L. Alf. pol. 11; Th. i. 68, 19. IV. intrans. To hold out, exercise endurance, endure, not to give in: of things, to last, continue to be serviceable :-- Ic tó aldre sceal sæcce fremmau, þenden ðis sweord þolaþ, Beo. Th. 4992; B. 2499. Gif mín (an anchor's) steort þolaþ if my tail can stand the strain on it, Exon. Th. 398, 16; Rä. 17, 8. G[esǽlig?] biþ ðæt, ðonne mon him sylf ne mæg wyrd onwendan, ðæt hé ðonne wel þolige, 459, 16; Hy. 4, 117. Æt ðearfe þolian, unwáclíce wǽpna neótan, Byrht. Th. 140, 53; By. 307: 137, 45; By. 201. [Goth. þulan to tolerate, endure: O. Sax. tholian, tholón (trans. acc. and gen., and intrans.) to suffer, endure, lose, hold out: O. L. Ger. tholón pati, sustinere: O. Frs. tholia: O. H. Ger. dolén, dolón pati, sustinere, tolerare, luere: Icel. þola; p. þolði.] v. á-, for-, ge-, mid-þolian.

þoligend, þoligendlíc, þolibyrdness. v. mid-þoligend, un-þoligendlíc, þolebyrdness.

þoll, es; m. A thole or thowl, a peg in the side of a boat to keep the oar in place :-- Þoll scalmus, Wrt. Voc. i. 63, 79. Thol, ii. 120, 15. [Tholle, cartepynne cavilla, Prompt. Parv. 492. Du. dol a thole: Icel. þollr a wooden peg; esp. the thole of a row-boat: Dan. tol a thole; tolle-gang a row-lock.]

þolle, an; f. A frying-pan :-- Hwer ɫ þollan sartaginem, Hpt. Gl. 503, 16. v. fýr-þolle.

þol-mód, þolo-byrde, þolo-mód, þon, þonan, þonc, þon-écan, þonne, þonon. v. þole-mód, þole-byrde, þole-mód, þan, þanan, þanc, þan-écan, þanne, þanan.

Thómas Thomas :-- Thómas án of ðám twelfon, Jn. Skt. 20, 24. Þómas, 26. Ðómas, 28. Thómas genéðde, Apstls. Kmbl. 99; Ap. 50. Sce Thómas týd ðæs apostoles, Shrn. 155, 28. Nergend Thómase forgeaf éce ríce, Menol. Fox 444; Men. 223. Cf. Hé sǽde þómé (thómase, later MS.), Jn. Skt. 20, 27. Hé nýdde ðysne Thómam, ðæt hé weorðode sunnan deófolgild, Shrn. 156, 9: Mk. Skt. 3, 18.

þoot, Txts. 64, 444. v. wóþ.

þór the Scandinavian form of a name which in English is Þunor (-er), one of the gods, Thor :-- Nú secgaþ sume ða Denisce men on heora gedwylde, ðæt se Iouis wǽre, ðe hý þór hátaþ, Mercuries sunu, ðe hí Óðon namiaþ; ac hí nabbaþ ná riht: for ðan ðe wé rǽdaþ on bócum, ge on hǽþenum ge on cristenun, ðæt se hetula Iouis tó sóðan is Saturnes sunu, Wulfst. 107, 8-13. Þór and Ówðen, ðe hǽðene men heriaþ swíðe, 197, 19. Fled (fleó?) þór (? þr, MS.) on fyrgen hæfde (fyrgenheáfde?), Lchdm. iii. 54, 17. v. Þunor.

þorch. v. þurh.

þorfa; adj. Destitute, poor; used as a substantive, a needy person :-- Of ðorfum de egenis, Jn. Skt. Lind. 12, 6. [Icel. þurfi or þurfa wanting, in need of. Cf. Goth. ga-þaurbs continens.] Cf. þearfa.

þorfan; p. te To need :-- Ne ðorfeþ (-æþ, Lind.) non indiget, Jn. Skt. Rush. 13, 10. Ne ðo[r]feþ ða ðe hálo sint tó léce non egent qui sani sunt medico, Lk. Skt. Lind. 5, 31. Cf. þearfan, and see next word.

þorfend, es; m.: þorfende; adj. (ptcpl.) used substantively. A needy person, a poor person :-- Wæs sum ðærfe ɫ ðo[r]fond (mendicus) ... wæs deád se ðorfendo (mendicus), Lk. Skt. Lind. 16, 20, 22. Ofer armne and ðorfend super egenum et pauperem, Rtl. 175, 33. Ðorfendo pauperes, Mk. Skt. Lind. 14, 7. Eádgo ða ðorfendo beati pauperes, Lk. Skt. Lind. 6, 20. Ic sello ðorfendum do pauperibus, 19, 8: Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 14, 5. Ðorfendum ɫ næfigum (ðarfendum, Rush.) egenis, Jn. Skt. Lind. 12, 5. Cf. þearfende, and see preceding and following words.

þorfendness, e; f. Poverty, destitution :-- In ðorfendnisse in paupertate, Rtl. 105, 11.

þorf-fæst; adj. Useful :-- Ne on eorðo ne in feltúne ɫ on mixenne ðor[f]fæst is neque in terram neque in sterculinium utile est, Lk. Skt. Rush. Lind. 14, 35. Ðor[f]fæst utilis, Rtl. 192, 7. Sié ðor[f]fæsta ús prosint nobis, 91, 27. [Cf. All þatt hemm wass purrfe, Orm. 9628. Icel. þurf--samr helping.] Cf. þearf, V, þearf-líc, II, and next word.

þorf-leás; adj. Useless :-- Ðe ðor[f]leása ðegn inutilis servus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 25, 30. Ðor[f]leáse ɫ sum óðer gefeóllon néh strǽt quaedam ceciderunt secus viam, 13, 4. Esnas ðor[f]leáse (-leóse, Rush.) wé sindon servi inutiles sumus, Lk. Skt. Lind. 17, 10. Cf. þearf-leás, and preceding word.

þorh. v. þurh.

þorian (?) to dare :-- Thorie dosmui (domui?), Wrt. Voc. ii. 141, 82. [Icel. þora to dare.]

þorn, es; m. A thorn, the prickle of a plant or a plant on which such prickles grow :-- Þorn spina, Wrt. Voc. i. 33, 44: 80, 22: tribulus, 33, 45: dumus, ii. 25, 70. On ða þyrnan westeweardes, ðǽr se mycla þorn stód, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 404, 13. Tó hafucðornæ; of ðam þornæ on ðone brádan stán ... on hælnes þorn; of ðam þorne on ðone bróc, v. 348, 21. On weocan þorn; of ðam þorne, vi. 92, 3. Ðornas sentes, Wrt. Voc. ii. 120, 28. Þornas, i. 33, 41: 80, 19. Hí wundon cynehelm of þornum plectentes coronam de spinis, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 29: Exon. Th. 88, 27; Cri. 1446. Of ðæm hylle ðæt swá be ðǽm .IIII. þornan; of ðǽm þornan be ðǽm heáfdon, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 263, 31. Þornas and brémelas spinas et tribulos, Gen. 3, 18. Sume feóllon on þornas; and ða þornas weóxon and forðrysmudon ða, Mt. Kmbl. 13, 7: Mk. 4, 7. Swá ðú bærne þornas fýre sicut ignis in spinis, Ps. Th. 117, 12. Átió hé of lande ða þornas and ða fyrsas and ðæt fearn and ealle ða weód ðe hé gesió ðæt ðám æcerum, derigen liberat arva fruticibus, falce rubos filicemque resecat, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 22: Met. 12, 3. ['The word is found in many local names. v. Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 341.] ¶ The name of the letter þ was þorn :-- Þ byþ þearle scearp, Runic pm. Kmbl. 339. 13; Rún. 3. [Goth. þaurnus: O. Sax. O. Frs. O. L. Ger. thorn spina, dumus: O. H. Ger. dorn: Icel. þorn a thorn; the name of the letter þ.] v. appel-, brémel-, gemǽr-, hæg-, haga-, lús-, mǽr-, pól-, pric-, set-, sláh-, þífe-þorn, and following words.

þorn-geblǽd a blister caused by the prick of a thorn, Lchdm. iii. 36, 21.

þorn-grǽfe, an; f. A thorn-copse :-- Andlang ðære þorngrǽfan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 148, 4.

þornig; adj. Thorny, full of thorns. v. þorn :-- Se yrðling lufaþ ðone æcer ðe æfter ðornum and brémelum genihtsume wæstmas ágifþ swíðor ðonne hé lufige ðone ðe ðornig næs, Homl. Th. i. 342, 8. Gehega þíne eáran mid þornigum hege, Wulfst. 246, 9. [O. H. Ger. dornig: Ger. dornig.]

þorniht; adj. Thorny, full of thorns (v. þorn) or briars :-- Þorniht senticosus, Wrt. Voc. i. 33, 41. Tó ðæm þornihtan heáfodlonde, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 263, 32. On ðam þornehtan dúne, 421, 24. On ða þornihtan leáge, v. 389, 14. Ðǽm ðornihtun senticosis (velut rosa senticosis exorta surculis, Ald. 18, 14), Wrt. Voc. ii. 77, 47. [O. H. Ger. dornohti spinosus: Ger. dornicht.]

þorn-rǽw, e; f. A row of thorn-bushes :-- On ða þornrǽwe, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 77, 28. On ða ealdan þornrǽwe, 199, 33, 34.

þorn-rind, e; f. The bark of a thorn-tree :-- Hnutbeámes rinde and þornrinde gecnúa tó duste, Lchdm. ii. 52, 1.

þorn-stybb, -stubb, es; m. The stump of a thorn-tree :-- Tó ðæm þornstybbe; of ðam þornstybbe, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 252, 28. Tó ðan þornstybbe, vi. 8, 33, 37. On ðonæ þornstub, v. 291, 11. On ðone þornstyb; of ðam stybbe, Cod. Dip. B. iii. 169, 33.

þorof. v. þeorf.

þorp, þrop, es; m. Perhaps the idea at first connected with the words is that of an assemblage, cf. the use in Icelandic: Maðr heitir einnhverr ... þorp ef þrír ero, Skáldskaparmál; þyrpast to crowd, throng: þyrping a crowd: later the word may have been used of the assemblage of workers on an estate, and also of the estate on which they worked; all three ideas seem to be implied in one or other of the following glosses :-- Tuun, þrop, ðrop conpetum, Txts. 53, 557: Wrt. Voc. ii. 15, 7. Compitum i. villa vel þingstów vel þrop, 132, 56. Þrop fundus, i. 37, 51. The idea of an estate belongs to the word in Gothic: Þaurp ni gastaistald άγρόν oύκ έκτησάμην, Neh. 5, 16. In the end the meaning came to be hamlet, village, in which sense it remained for some time in English, e.g.: Ic Ædgar gife freodom Sce Petres mynstre Medeshamstede of kyng and of biscop, and ealle þa þorpes þe ðærto lin: ðæt is, Æstfeld and Dodesthorp and Ege and Pastun, Chr. 963; Erl. 121, 40. He com to Bethfage, swo hatte þe prop, O. E. Homl. ii. 89, 13. Ther stod a throp ... in which that poure folk hadden her bestes and her herbergage, Chauc. Cl. T. 199. Thorp, litell towne or thoroughfare oppidum, Prompt. Parv. 492. The word is now obsolete, but it remains in a great many local names, either alone or in composition; though, as such names are found mostly in those parts of England which were affected by the Danes, its occurrence in them may be due rather to Scandinavian than to English influence. v. Leo, Anglo-Saxon Names of Places, p. 43 sqq.; Taylor's words and Places, s.v. [Goth. þaurp: O. Frs. thorp, therp: O. L. Ger. thorp, tharp: Du. dorp: O. H. Ger. dorf villa, vicus, praedium, oppidum, municipium: Icel. þorp a hamlet, village.]

þost, es; m. Dung, ordure; with this meaning thoste (according to a MS. glossary cited by Halliwell) is used in Gloucestershire :-- Wyrc drenc of hwítes hundes þoste, Lchdm. i. 364, 5. Bærn hundes ðost and gníd smale, 7. Nim drígne hundes þost, 11: ii. 48, 8. [Þost. thoste stercus, Ps. 82, 11. An horse thoste, P. S. 237, 14. As a thost in the weie totreden, Wick. Ecclus. 9, 10. Ass uryne and swynes thost, Pall. 116, 348. Thoste or toord stercus, Prompt. Parv. 492. O. H. Ger. dost stercus, coenum.]

-þot. v. ge-þot. [Cf. Icel. upp-þot a great stir.]

þoterian; p. ode To howl, wail, cry out :-- Þotraþ clamat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 12. Geómriende hell þoteraþ gemens infernus ululat, Hymn. Surt. 84, 34. Gé wépaþ and þoteriaþ plorabitis et flebitis, Scint. 167, 3. Hí ðotorodon swilce óðre wulfas, Homl. Th. ii. 488, 27. v. þeótan.

þoterung, e; f. Howling, wailing, crying :-- Stefn wæs gehýred wóp and mycel þotorung (þoterung, MS. A.) vox audita est, ploratus et ululatus multus, Mt. Kmbl. 2, 18: Homl. Th. i. 80, 19. Ne áblinþ gránung and þoterung (on helle), 68, 7. Geómerung and singal þoteruncg, Wulfst. 114, 27. Hé weóp swíðe biterlíce and hé feóll tó Ióhannes fótum mid geómerunge and þoterunge, Ælfc. T. Grn. 18, 32. Hé symle clypode mid swíðlícere þoterunge: 'And wá ðissere burhware,' Homl. Th. ii. 302, 12.

þóþer (-or, -r), es; m. A ball, sphere :-- Thóthr, thóthor pila, Txts. 87, 1584. Ðóþor, Wrt. Voc. ii. 68, 17. Þóðer, i. 86, 6. Þóþor, 287, 15. Ðóþer pila vel sfera, 39, 51. Þóþer ballum, ii. 125, 14. Ðú leornodest ðone cræft ðe wé hátaþ geometrica; on ðam cræfte ðú leornodest onn ánum þóðere oðþe on æpple átéfred, ðæt ðú meahtest be ðære téfrunge ongytan ðises rodores ymbehwirft ... Ðú leornodest be ánre línan wæs áwriten anlang middes ðæs þóþeres ... Ðú secgst ðæt ðú ymbe ða línan wite ðe on ðam þóðere átéfred wæs ... Ic wolde witan hweðer ðú eác wite ymbe ðone þóðer ðe seó lýne on áwriten is, Shrn. 174, 16-175, 1. Ðá ágan se cyngc plegan wið his geféran mid þóðere, and Apollonius yrnende ðone ðóðor gelǽhte, Ap. Th. 13, 1-3.

Thráceas, þrácie (?); pl. The Thracians :-- Ðrácia cyning, Met. 26, 22, 59, 7. Dorus Thrácea cyning, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 152, 3. In other passages Latin forms occur, Traci, Thraci :-- Be westan ðære byrig sindon Traci, 1, 1; Swt. 22, 8. Hé wæs farende on Thraci and hié tó him gebígde Thracas domuit, 3, 9; Swt. 124, 9: 4, 11; Swt. 204, 16. Another form is Tráciane; pl. :-- Tráciana Traciarium (provincias, Ald. 64, 10), Wrt. Voc. ii. 85, 74. The name of the country is given as Trácia, Thrácia :-- On Trácia (Thrácia, MS. C.) ðæm londe, Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 114, 15. Lysimachus beféng Thráciam Thracia Lysimacho data, 3, 11; Swt. 142, 33.

þracian. v. á-, an-, on-þracian.

þracu; gen. þræce; f. I. not in a bad sense, power, force :-- Þracu (-a, MS.) wæs on óre, heard handplega, hægsteald módige, wígend unforhte, Cd. Th. 198, 22; Exod. 326. Sigores tácn wið þeóda þræce a token of victory against the power of nations, Elen. Kmbl. 369; El. 185. Se cásere héht bannan tó beadwe, beran út þræce ... wǽron Rómware sóna gegearwod the emperor bade give the summons to war, bade put forth their power(?) ... At once were the Romans prepared, 90; El. 45. Geceósan swá þrymmes þræce swá þrýstra wræce to choose either the power of glory or the misery of darkness, Exon. Th. 37, 14; Cri. 593. Oft wé oferségon þeóda þeáwas, þræce módigra the power of the proud, 118, 12; Gú. 238. II. in a bad sense, violence :-- Oft hí þræce rǽrdon ... feóndscipe rǽrdon ... hálge cwelmdon ... bærndon gecorene, Exon. Th. 243, 18; Jul. 12: 262, 16; Jul. 333. [O. Sax. módthraka.] v. ádl-, æsc-, bǽl-, ecg-, flán-, gár-, gúð-, hild-, holm-, líg-, mód-, wǽpen-, wíg-þracu; þrece.

þræc. v. ge-þræc, and preceding word.

-þræc. v. on-þræc.

þræc-heard; adj. Brave in battle :-- Þrungon þræchearde, Elen. Kmbl. 245; El. 123.

þræc-hwíl, e; f. A time of suffering, a hard time :-- Ongan ðá hreówcearig sár cwánian ... 'Ðú mec þreádes þurh sárslege ... 'Hine seó fǽmne forlét æfter þræchwíle, Exon. Th. 275, 22; Jul. 554. [Cf. Icel. þrekaðr wearied, exhausted.]

þræc-róf; adj. Valiant, Cd. Th. 122, 22; Gen. 2030.

þrǽc-wíg, es; m. Hard fighting :-- Þurstige þræcwíges, Cd. Th. 189, 9; Exod. 182.

þræc-wudu, a; m. A spear :-- Helm, byrne, þræcwudu, Beo. Th. 2496; B. 1246.

þrǽd, es; m. A thread :-- Ðréd filum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 108, 59: i. 66, 28. Þrǽd, ii. 35, 44: i. 81, 65: fila, 282, 11. Se gyldna ðrǽd bratea fila, ii. 89, 37: 12, 3. Þrǽd mé (a coat of mail) ne hlimmeþ, ne æt mé hrisil scríþeþ, Exou. Th. 417, 18; Rá. 36, 6. Cnyte mid ánum ðrǽde, Lchdm. i. 218, 20. Mid ánum reádum þrǽde, 100, 19. Mid wyllenan þrǽde, ii. 310, 22. Him ne hangaþ nacod sweord ofer ðam heáfde be smalan þrǽde, Bt. 29, 1; Fox 102, 28. Þrǽda filorum, Hpt. Gl. 494, 18. Ápráwenum ðrǽdum contortis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 18. Webb byþ gefylled mid þrǽdum tela consummatur filis, Scint. 216, 2. [O. L. Ger. thrád filum: O. Frs. thréd: Du. draad: O. H. Ger. drát: Ger. draht Icel. þráðr: Dan. traad.] v. col-, gold-, hefeld-, rihtung-, weall-þrǽd þráwan.

þræft a quarrel, dispute, contention, chiding :-- Siteþ symbelwlonc searwum lǽteþ wíne gewǽged word út faran þræfte þringan þrymme gebyrmed æfæstum onǽled oferhygda ful flushed with the feast he sits, affected with wine, words he guilefully lets fare forth, crowd out with quarrel in their train, leavened as he is with pride, inflamed with ill-will, full of overweening, Exon. Th. 316, 1; Mód. 42. [Icel. þrapt quarrel; þrefa to wrangle. Jamieson gives thrafily in a chiding or surly manner.] v. (?) þrafian.

þrægan (cf. Goth. þragjan, and for conjugation cf. plegan); p. de To run, proceed in a course :-- Sume tungul læsse gelíðaþ, ða ðe lácaþ ymb eaxe ende, oððe micle máre geféraþ, ða hire midore ymbe þearle þrægeþ (-aþ?) (cf. sume tunglu habbaþ lengran ymbhwyrft ðonne sume habban, and ða lengestne ðe ymb ða eaxe middewearde hwearfaþ, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 24), Met, 28, 24. Ðǽr him eoh fore mílpaðas mæt, módig þrægde, Elen. Kmbl. 2524; El. 1263. Ic seah hors swíþe þrægan, Exon. Th. 400, 4; Rä. 20, 3.

-þrǽge. v. wǽpen-þrǽge.

þrǽl, es; m. A thrall, slave, servant :-- Ðe yfle ðrael malus servus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 48. Allra ðrǽl ɫ esne omnium servus, Mt. Skt. Lind. Rush. 10, 44. Se ðe dóeð synne ðrǽl is synnes, Jn. Skt. Rush. 8, 34. Ne cweðo ic iów ðrǽlas (ðrǽllas, Lind.), for ðon ðrǽl (ðrǽll, Lind.) nát hwæt wyrceð hláford his, 15, 15. Wé witan ðæt þurh Godes gyfe þrǽl wearð tó þegene, and ceorl tó eorle, L. Eth. vii. 21; Th. i. 334, 8. Ðeáh þrǽla hwylc hláforde æthleápe and of cristendóme tó wícinge weorðe, and hit æfter ðam eft geweorðe, ðæt wǽpngewrixl weorðe gemǽne þegene and þrǽle, gyf þrǽl ðæne þegen fullíce áfylle, licge ǽgylde ealre his mǽgðe; and gyf se þegen ðæne þrǽl, ðe hé ǽr áhte, fullíce áfylle, gylde þegen-gylde, Wulfst. 162, 5-10. Oft þrǽl ðæne þegen, ðe ær wæs his hláford, cnyt swýðe fæste and wyrcþ him tó þrǽle, 163, 1. Gebéte þrǽl mid his híde, þegn mid .xxx. scillingan, 181, 9. Ðe hláferd ðrǽles ðæs dominus servi illius, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 50. Ðrǽles (ðrǽlles, Lind.), Lk. Skt. Rush. 12, 46. Ic cuoeðo ðrǽle mínum, Lind. 7, 8. Hé sende óðerne ðrael, Mk. Skt. Lind. 12, 4. Gif Englisc man Deniscne þrǽl ofsleá, gylde hine mid punde, and se Denisca Engliscne eal swá, gif hé hine ofsleá, L. Eth. ii. 5; Th. i. 286, 24. Þrǽlas ne móton habban ðæt hí ágon on ágenan hwílan mid earfeðan gewunnen, Wulfst. 158, 38. Antecristes þrǽlas, 55, 9. Ðonne beó gé ealle þrǽlas tunc eritis omnes servi, Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 25. [From Icel. þræll.]

þrǽl-riht, es; n. Thrall-right; in pl. the legal rights and privileges which belonged to the thrall :-- Freóriht wǽron fornumene and ðrǽlriht generwde ... Frige men ne mótan wealdan heora sýlfra, ne faran ðár hí willaþ, ne áteón heora ágen, swá swá hí willaþ; ne þrǽlas ne móton habban ðæt hí ágon on ágenan hwílan mid earfeðan gewunnen, ne ðæt ðæt heom on Godes ést góde men geúðon and tó ælmesgife for Godes lufan sealdon, Wulfst. 158, 15.

þrǽs a fringe, border :-- Ðrés, liste limbus, Txts. 75, 1228. Ðrés, thrés oresta, 85, 1455. Ðrǽs, Wrt. Voc. ii. 63, 51. Þrǽs instita, i. 26, 10. Ðrési lymbo, Txts. 75, 1264. Liste oððe þrǽs lembum, listum oððe þrǽsum limbus(-is?), Wrt. Voc. ii. 50, 68, 69.

þræsce, an; f. A thrush :-- Ðrostle trita, ðraesce truitius, Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 79. [Cf. Icel. þröstr; gen. þrastar a thrush.] v. þrysce.

þræscende. v. þrǽstan.

þræst. v. dærst.

þrǽstan; p. te. I. to twist, writhe, roll about :-- Ðæt hors on misenlíce dǽlas hit wond and ðrǽste cum diversas in partes se torqueret, Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, 36. Hé misenlícum styrenessum ongan his limu ðrǽstan diversis motibus coepit membra torquere, 3, 11; S. 536, 15. II. to torture, torment, harass, plague, afflict :-- Ǽnne of ðám mannum ðe hí on ðam fýre bærndon anð ðrǽston unum de eis quos in ignibus torrebant, 3, 19; S. 548, 48. Ðætte Bryttas hié sylfe ðrǽston (contriverint) on ingefeohtum, 1, 22; S. 485, 11. Mé þræscende (þrǽstende?), Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 554. Hé grimme sáre ongan ðrǽsted beón (torqueri), Bd. 5, 13; S. 632, 59. Ða unríman mænigeo ðrǽste wǽron innumerabilis multitudo torqueretur, 5, 12; S. 628, 4. Missenlícum cwealmnyssum ðréste diversibus cruciatibus torti, 1, 7; S. 479, 13. III. to press, constrain :-- Tó nirwienne ɫ tó þrǽstenne artandum, constringendum, Hpt. Gl. 480, 32. [Is] þrǽst compellitur, coartatur, 469, 20. [In later English the word seems mostly used intransitively, to press in, on, out :-- Monie þurles, þer þet water þrest in, A. R. 314, 54. Þreaste smoke ut, Marh. 9, 6. He þraste to þan fihte, Laym. 27644. Moni þusenden þrasten ut of telden, 26318. Heo þresten in uppon me irruerunt super me, A. R. 220, 31. Mine cnihtes scullen þræsten (preaste, 2nd MS.) biforen me, Laym. 23373. He thurgh the thikkeste of the throng gan threste, Chauc. Kn. T. 1754.] v. á-, for-, ge-þrǽstan.

þrǽstedness, þrǽstness. v. for-þrǽstedness, for-, ge-þrǽstness.

þrǽsting, e; f. Torment, affliction :-- Swá hé sceal etan ðætte hiene sió gewilnung ðære gífernesse of his módes fæstrǽdnesse ne gebrenge, ne eft sió ðrǽsting (ðrǽsðing, Hatt. MS.) ðæs líchoman ðæt mód ne áscrence mid upáhæfennesse ne aut illos appetitus gulae a mentis statu dejiciat, aut istos afflicta caro ex elatione supplantet, Past. 43; Swt. 316, 7.

þræxwold. v. þerscold.

þrafian; p. ode. I. to urge, press :-- Ic ðrafige urgeo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 3; Zup. 155, 12. Gif ic míne heorde tó swíðe þrafige on gancge and swence hig ealle hig sweltaþ ánes dæges si greges meos plus in ambulando fecero laborare, morientur cuncti una die, R. Ben. 120, 20. Mec mín freá þrafaþ on þýstrum, hætst on enge, Exon. Th. 383, 1; Rä. 4, 4. Se biscop sceal þrafian ða mæssepreóstas mid lufe ge mid láþe, ðæt hié healdan Godes ǽwe on riht, Blickl. Homl. 45, 8. II. to reprove, rebuke, correct. v. þrafung :-- Se Hǽlend on manegum wísum ðrafode and áfandode his gingran, and geedlǽhte ðæt ðæt hé ǽr tǽhte tó fulre láre, Homl. Th. ii. 296, 22. Drihten, ne þreá ðú me ne ne þrafa on ðínum yrre Domine, ne in ira tua arguas me, Ps. Th. 37, 1. Hwílum líðelíce tó ðreátianne, hwílum suíðlíce and stræclíce tó ðrafianne aliquando leniter arguenda, aliquando vehementer increpanda, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 12. [Cf. (?) Goth. þrafstjan to exhort, encourage, comfort.] v. (?) þræft.

þrafung, e; f. Reproof, rebuke, censure :-- Þrafunge argumenti (v. þrafian, II), Hpt. Gl. 487, 20. Ðæt is ðonne swelc mon mid forewearde orde stinge, ðæt mon openlíce and unforwandodlíce on óðerne rǽse mid tǽlinge and mid ðrafunga ex mucrone quippe percutere, est impetu apertae increpationis obviare, Past. 40; Swt. 297, 53. Se Hǽlend æteówde hine sylfne cucenne his gingrum æfter his ǽriste on manegum ðrafungum, Homl. Th. i. 294, 16. Hí (Job's friends) mid manegum ðrafungum hine (Job) geswencton, ii. 454, 21. v. níd-þrafung.

þrág, þráh, e; f. I. a time, season :-- Ðonne seó þrág cymeþ wefen wyrdstafum, Exon. Th. 183, 9; Gú. 1324. Wergendra tó lyt þrong ymbe þeóden, ðá hyne sió þrág becwom, Beo. Th. 5759; B. 2883. Ǽr ðam seó þráh cyme, ðæt hé ðec áworpe of woruldríce, Cd. Th. 252, 34; Dan. 588. Nis seó þráh micel, ðæt hí ðé swencan móton, Andr. Kmbl. 214; An. 107. Ða æfterwritenan lǽcedómas ne sculon on áne þráge tó lange beón tó gedóne, Lchdm. ii. 186, 12. Nis ðæt eówer ðæt gé witan ða þráge and ða tíde non est vestrum nosse tempora vel momenta, Blickl. Homl. 117, 24. II. having reference to the condition of things at any time, time as in good, bad, hard, etc. times :-- Hú seó þrág (the happy time just described) gewát, swá heó nó wǽre, Exon. Th. 292, 7; Wand. 95. Is ðeós þrág ful strong, ic sceal þinga gehwylc þolian, 270, 13; Jul. 464. Onwæcnap sió wóde þrág ðære wrǽnnesse and gedréfþ hiora mód libido versat avidis corda venenis, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 18: Met. 25, 41. Ic mé þyslícre ǽr þráge ne gewénde I did not expect such a time as I have had, Exon. Th. 269, 21; Jul. 453. Wéndon hié þearlra geþinga, þráge hnágran, Andr. Kmbl. 3195; An. 1600. Óð ðæt rímgetæl réðre þráge daga forð gewát, Cd. Th. 85, 26; Gen. 1420. Hé ðý wyrs meahte þolian ða þráge, ðá hió swá þearl becom (cf. Ðá hit gelomp ðæt hé on swá micelre nearunesse becom, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 26), Met. 1, 77. III. adverbial uses. Cf. hwíl :-- Þráge interim, Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 76. Hé þráge mid ús wunode he dwelt with us for a time, Blickl. Homl. 131, 19: Exon. Th. 208, 24; Ph. 160: Ps. Th. 81, 5: 111, 4: Met. 20, 134. Tódríf ðone mist ðe þráge nú hangode hwýle, 20, 264. Hé þráge siððan wícum wunode, Cd. Th. 108, 25; Gen. 1811: 74, 5; Gen. 1217. Hit þráge sceal in sondhofe siþþan wunian, Exon. Th. 173, 30;.Gú. 1168. Swelge hé ða ðráge ðe (while, as long as) hé mæge, Lchdm. ii. 284, 14. Geærndon hí sume ðráge they raced for some time, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 9. Ealle þráge all the time, Ps. Th. 101, 25: Exon. Th. 324, 2; Víd. 88: Judth. Thw. 25, 2; Jud. 237: Apstls. Kmbl. 60; Ap. 30. Ðú sægdest ðæt ic sceolde lifigan lange ðráge, Ps. Th. 118, 116. Bád sunu Lameches sóðra geháta lange þráge, Cd. Th. 86, 5; Gen. 1426: 153, 25; Gen. 2544: 252, 4; Dan. 573: Beo. Th. 108; B. 54: Andr. Kmbl. 1580; An. 791. Wǽran hí ǽr on hǽþenra hæfteclommum lange þrága, Chr. 942; Erl. 116, 17, Þéh mín líchama lytle ðráge on niðerdǽlum eorðan wunige, Ps. Th. 138, 13. Swá is þrágum (at times, sometimes) winne, hwílum..., hwílum, Exon. Th. 386, 26; Rä. 4, 67: 381, 1; Rä. 2, 4: 494, 6; Rä. 82, 4: Cd. Th. 271, 29; Sat. 112: Elen. Kmb1. 2475; El. 1239. Wæter wynsumu mónþa gehwam bearo geondfaraþ þrágum (at appointed times), is ðæt þeódnes gebod, ðætte twelf síþum ðæt tírfæste lond geondláce lagufloda wynn, Exon. Th. 202, 11; Ph. 68: Ps. Th. 138, 11. [Habben an alpi þraʒe summe lisse, O. E. Homl. i. 35, 10. He tah hine aʒein ane þrowe, Laym. 640. God þraʒhe a good while, Orm. 3475. Lat me nu habbe mine þroʒe (rimes with oʒe), O. and N. 260. Sume þroʒe for a while, 478. Or he reste hym ony thrawe, Rich. 5062. Liþe me a litel þroʒe, Horn. 336. Þrawe, Havel. 276: R. Brun. 180, 11: Alis. 3836. Thi pynes lastes bot a thrawe, Met. Homl. 142, 2. Throwe, Ch. M. of L. T. 953. Many a throwe, Ch. Yem. T. 941. Any throwe, Monk's T. 3326. Throwe, a lytyl wyle momentum, Prompt. Parv. 493.] v. earfoþ-, ryne-, treów-þrág.

þrág-bisig; adj. Occupied for a time(?), periodically employed(?) :-- Ic sceal þrágbysig þegne mínnm hýran georne, Exon. Th. 387, 6; Rä. 5, 1. The subject of the riddle is a millstone, and the Latin riddles on which the English one is based seem to suggest that the epithet might refer to running; Aldhelm has: Par labor ambarum ... altera currit; Symphosius: Non desinit ille moveri. v. Prehn's Rätsel des Exeterbuches. But the verse requires þrág, while the verb,þrægan, has a short vowel; and þrág seems always(?) used in the sense of time.

þrág-mǽlum; adv. From time to time, at times, at intervals :-- Ic wæs nýde gebǽded, þrágmǽlum geþreád, ðæt ic ðé sóhte, Exon. Th. 263, 3; Jul. 344. Ne meahton hió word forðbringan, ac hió þrágmǽlum þióton ongunnon, Met. 26, 80. Hit on wolcnum oft þearle þunraþ, þrágmǽlum eft ánforlǽteþ (cf. hit hwílum þunraþ, hwílum ná ne onginþ, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 34), 28, 55. Ðrágmǽlum, Andr. Kmbl. 2461; An. 1232.

þrang (?) a throng, crowd :-- Wæterberendra þran[gum] lixarum coetibus, Hpt. Gl. 427, 15. [Grete thrang of men, Pr. C. 4704. A þral in þe þrong, Allit. pms. 42, 135. Du. drang a crowd: M. H. Ger. dranc: Ger. drang: Icel. þröng.] v. ge-þrang; þringan.

þráwan; p. þreów; pp. þráwen To throw (v. throw, thraw to turn wood, to twist; throwster one that throws or winds silk or thread; throwing-clay clay that will work on the wheel, Halliw. Dict. See, also, E. D. S. Pub. Holderness, Lincolnshire and Huddersfield dialects, throw, thrown: Jamieson's Dict. thraw.), twist :-- Ic samod þráwe contorqueo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 3; Zup. 155, 16. I. trans. To twist, rack, torture :-- Hé hét hí on hencgene ástreccan and ðráwan swá swá wiððan, Homl. Skt. i. 8, 113. Hé hér hine hón on hengene, and mid hengene ðráwan tó langere hwíle, Homl. Th. ii. 308, 31. II. intrans. To twist, turn round, (1) to take a different direction :-- Se líg sóna ðreów ðwyres wið ðæs windes the flame at once turned round in a contrary direction towards the wind, Homl. Th. ii. 510, 8. (2) to turn round, revolve :-- Þráwende rotante (fusa, Ald. 175, 34), Wrt. Voc. ii. 93, 78. (3) to curl :-- Þráwendum ɫ cyrpsiendum loccum crinibus crispantibus, Hpt. Gl. 435, 9. [Haremarken þrauwen mid winde, Laym. 27359. But Layamon uses the word intransitively also of movement :-- Of his horse he þreou (cf. anan swa ich lihte of blonken, 793), 807. Þa cheorles up þreowen (þreuwen, 2nd MS.) the churls started up, 12321. Þrawen wyth a þwong, Gaw. 194. The word, however, early gets the meaning of throwing :-- Horn þreu þe ring to grunde... 'Palmere trewe, þe ring þat þu þrewe;' Horn 1160-72. Ded he threow him to grounde, Alis. 2425. In fire saltou thrawe þam in igne dejicies eos, Ps. 139, 11. O. L. Ger. thráan rotare: Du. draaijen to turn, twist: O. H. Ger. drájan; wk. tornare, torquere: Gen. drehen.] v. á-, be-, ge-, ge-ed-, þurh-þráwan; twi-þráwen.

þráwing-spinel, e; f. A curling-iron, crisping-pin :-- Þráwincspinle ɫ hǽrnǽdla calamistro, Hpt. Gl. 435, 7: 513, 75: 526, 46.

þreá, þrawu; gen. þreá; pl. þreá; f.: þreá; gen. þreán, also þreás(?); m.; also neuter. I. rebuke, reproof, threat :-- Thrauuo, thrauu, trafu argutiae, Txts. 41, 200. Se ðe ege healdeþ eallum þeódum and his þreá ne sí ðǽr for áwiht qui corripit genres, non arguet? Ps. Th. 93, 10. For ðínre þreá ab increpatione tua, 75, 5. Hé mid heardre ðreá hí on spræc aspera illos invectione corrigebat, Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 11. Ðreán adversione, Wrt. Voc. ii. 2, 29. Ðǽm scamleásan ne wyrð nó gestiéred bútan micelre tǽlinge and miclum ðreán impudentes ab impudentiae vitio non nisi increpatio dura compescit, Past. 31; Swt. 205, 23. For ðínum þreán and for ðínum yrre ab increpatione tua, ab inspiratione spiritus irae tuae, Ps. Th. 17, 76. Ða him þreá ðíne þearle ondrǽdaþ ab increpatione tua fugient, 103, 8. Hé for him þreá geaf kyningum corripuit pro eis reges, 104, 12. Gé hláfordas, dóð gé eówrum monnum ðæt ilce, and gemetgiaþ ðone ðreán vos domini eadem facite illis, remittentes minas, Past. 29; Swt. 203, 1. Ne hí Agustinus lárum ne his bénum ne his ðreám (increpationibus) geþafigean woldan, Bd. 2, 2; S. 502, 14. Ðreá þeódum eáwan ad faciendas increpationes in populis, Ps. Th. 149, 7. II. chastisement, correction, punishment, an infliction that has been deserved, justifiable severity :-- Se egsan þreá the pain caused by the terror of the day of judgement, Exon. Th. 65, 34; Cri. 1064. Seó lufu ðæt gemet ðære ðreá (the punishment to be imposed for stealing) dihtaþ, Bd. 1, 27; S. 490, 21. On strengo þeódscipes and þreá tó wlæc in disciplinae vigore tepidus, S. 492, 18. Ðære uplecan ðreá sweopon supernae flagella districtionis, 2, 5; S. 507, 2. Æfter ðære ðreá (flagello), 4, 31; S. 611, 1. Ðæt weorþeþ þeódum tó þreá, ðám ðe þone Gode ne cúþun, Exon. Th. 67, 21; Cri. 1092. Ðoliaþ wé þreá on helle, Cd. Th. 25, 5; Gen. 389. Þurh egsan þreá, Exon. Th. 83, 32; Cri. 1365. Næs ǽnig ðæt mec þus bealdlíce bendum bilegde, þreám forþrycte, 273, 22; Jul. 520. III. an infliction (where no idea of correction is implied), evil, ill, pang, plague, calamity, affliction :-- Tó ne geniólaecað tó ðé yfel and ðreá (flagellum) ne geneólaeceþ getelde ðínum, Ps. Surt. 90, 10. Hí gesomnadon in mec ðreá (flagella), 34, 15. Heó fleón gewát þreá (ill treatment, cf. Gen. 16, 6) and þeówdóm, Cd. Th. 136, 24; Gen. 2263. Geþola þeóda þreá bear, the ills inflicted on thee by the gentiles, Andr. Kmbl. 213; An. 107. Swylt ealle fornom ... þurh þearlíc þreá death carried off all ... by a terrible calamity (shipwreck), Exon. Th. 283, 10; Jul. 678. Þreá wǽron þearle, þegnas grimme, 135, 4; Gú. 519. Monge ðreá (flagella) synfulra, Ps. Surt. 31, 10. Wé ðec for þreáum and for ðeónýdum (for þearfum and for þreánýdum, Exon. Th. 186, 3) árna biddaþ, Cd. Th. 234, 18; Dan. 294. Bonan mǽndon ðæt hý monnes bearn þreám oferþunge and him tó earfeðum ána cwóme gif hý him ne meahte máran sárum gyldan gyrnwræce the murderous spirits made moan, that a child of man would have surpassed them in afflictions (i.e. would have caused them greater miseries than they had done to him), and alone would have come to their distress, if they could not requite their misery on him with greater pains, Exon. Th. 128, 10; Gú. 402. Þreám forþrycced þurh ðæs þeódnes word grievously oppressed by the prince's words (which announced his death), 174, 1; Gú. 1171. Hí beág ymb mín heáfod þreám (painfully or with reproaches?) biþrycton, 88, 26; Cri. 1446. Hé Godes ðeówdóm miccle swíðor lufode þonne ða ídlan þreás ðisse worlde he loved God's service much more than the vanities and vexations of this world, Blickl. Homl. 211, 27. III a. in reference to inanimate things :-- Sunne wearð þreám áþrysmed the sun was miserably darkened (at the crucifixion), Exon. Th. 70, 5; Cri. 1134. Wind nearwe geheaðrod, þreám forþrycced the wind, straitly confined, strictly repressed, Elen. Kmbl. 2551; El. 1277. [Hie nimeð swo bittere þrowes, þat hie ne mai hire muð holden, O. E. Homl. ii. 181, 2. A thrawe hire cam, Alis. 616. Wa geres us thol hard traues (thrawes, MS. C.), Met. Homl. 36, 76. In his harde þrowe, L. H. R. 150, 18. On his last þrowe, Ass. B. 533. Throwe, womannys pronge erumpna, Prompt. Parv. 493. O Sax. thrá (in thrá-werk): O. H. Ger. drauua, drouua, dróa animadversio, comminatio, mina; dróa passio: Icel. þrá a throe, pang.] v. bróh-, cwealm-, heáh-, mód-, þeód-þreá, and next word.

þreágan, þreán, and þreáwian (v. þreápian); p. þreáde [in Bt. 38, 1; Fox 196, 7 a form occurs that might be a strong past of þreán, on the analogy of þweán, sleán :-- Ðæt gewit wæs swíþe sorgiende for ðám ermþum ðe hí ðrógan; cf. the rendering of the same passage in the metres: Ðæt mód wæs swíðe sorgum gebunden for ðǽm earfoþum ðe him on sǽton, Met. 26, 97. But, perhaps, drugon should be read, as, Latin is: Mens super monstra, quae patitur, gemit]; pp. þreád. I. to reprove, rebuke, reproach :-- Ic hine þreáge (ðreá, Lind.: ðriá, Rush.) and forlǽte corripiam illum et dimittam, Lk. Skt. 23, 22. Ne þreáge (drégu, Surt.: þreá, Spl. C.: þrǽwie, Spl. T.) ic eów non arguam te, Ps. Th. 49, 9. Þreáge (ðréu, Surt.: ðreáge, Spl.), 49, 23. Ðú ðreást (ðreádes, Surt.: þreádest, Spl.) ðeóda increpasti gentes, 9, 5. Gif ðú ðreást (dreast, MS.) si corripueris, Kent. Gl. 714. Ðreáð corripit, 514: arguit, 290. Ðú oferhýdige þreádest (ðreádes, Surt.) increpasti superbos, Ps. Th. 118, 21. Abraham þreáde Abimelech mid wordum Abraham increpavit Abimelech, Gen. 21, 25: Andr. Kmbl. 3371; An. 1689. Hé ðreáde ðæne wind, Lk. Skt. 8, 24: 23, 40. Ðreáde corripit, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 20. Þreádon increpabant, Mt. Kmbl. 19, 13. Ne þreá ðú mé ne arguas me, Ps. Th. 6, 1: 37, 1. Þreá hine openlíce publice argue eum, Lev. 19, 17: R. Ben. 13, 9. Mé sóðfæst gerecce (ðreáð, Surt.) and þreáge (ðreáð, Surt.) corripiet me justus et increpabit me, Ps. Th. 140, 7. Ðreágan redarguere, Past. 2; Swt. 31, 12. Hé ongan hine þreágean (þreágan, MS. B.) coepit increpare eum, Mk. Skt. 8, 32. Ðreiga, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 16, 22. Hé sceall stíðlícor þreán (arguere), R. Ben. Interl. 15, 1. Monige sindon suíðe líðelíce tó ðreágeanne nonnulla sunt leniter arguenda, Past. 21; Swt. 157, 24. Sindon monige sníðe sníðe tó ðreágeanne ðæt hí gehiéran ðreágende of ðæs láriówes múðe hú micle byrðenne hié habbaþ on hiera scyldum nonnulla sunt vehementer increpanda, ut quanti sit ponderis culpa ab increpantis ore sentiatur, Swt. 159, 16-18. Ðá andwyrde se óðer ðreágende 'the other answering rebuked him (Lk 23, 40), Homl. Th. ii. 256, 12. Ðreágende wer uir objurgans, 530, 28. Wæs hé fram ðám bróþrum ðreád corripiebatur a fratribus, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 10. Wé beóþ þreád corripiemur, Ps. Spl. 89, 12. II. to punish one who deserves punishment, to chastise by way of discipline, with a view to amend, to chasten, correct :-- Ða ðe ic lufige, ða ic ðreáge and beswinge, Homl. Th. i. 470, 26. God beswingð and þreáð ða ðe hé lufaþ, ii. 548, 18: Exon. Th. 63, 23; Cri. 1024. Lég þreáð þeódsceaþan, 97, 25; Cri. 1596. Wé sculon men ðreágean swá swá ða gódan fæderas gewuniaþ heora bearn ða hí for heora synnum ðreágeaþ and swingaþ and hwæðere ða sylfan ðe hí mid ðám wítum ðreágeaþ and swenceaþ lufiaþ eác sic nos fidelibus tenere disciplinam debemus, sicut boni patres filiis solent, quos et pro culpis verberibus feriunt, et tamen ipsos quos doloribus adfligunt amant, Bd. 1, 27; S. 490, 15-18. Ðú mé þreádes þurh sárslege, Exon. Th. 275, 7; Jul. 546. Drihten hyne þreáde myd þearlwýslícere swingle for his ungehýrsumnysse, Shrn. 98, 14. Hé hine sylfne þreáge swíðe þearle mid forhæfednesse ǽtes and drinces, L. Pen. 14; Th. ii. 282, 18. Synrust þweán, hine sylfne þreán, Exon. Th. 81, 10; Cri. 1321. Mid þýstrum þreán, Ps. Th. 104, 24. Ðrégende ðreáde mec Dryhten castigans castigavit me Dominus, Ps. Surt. 117, 18. Hé him eáwde mid hú miclum swingum hé ðread and wítnod wæs, Bd. 2, 6; S. 508, 24. Hé (the man who will not give tithes) bið mid wítum þreád æfter his deáþe, Blickl. Homl. 49, 25. Synfulle (those in purgatory) beóþ þreád, Elen. Kmbl. 2590; El. 1296. III. of undeserved punishment, to torture, torment, afflict, distress, vex, oppress :-- Seó wyrd þreáþ ða unscildigan and náuht ne þreáþ ðám scildigum fortuna premit insonteis debita sceleri noxia poena, Bt. 4; Fox 8, 13. Se hine mid miclum wítum þreáde, ðæt hé Criste wiðsóce, Shrn. 93, 33. Ðreáde, 118, 19, 21. 'Þreá hig lóca hú ðú wylle.' Sarai hig ðá geswencte, Gen. 16, 6. Ic hálsige ðé ðæt ðú mé ne þreáge (torqueas), Mk. Skt. 5, 7: Lk. Skt. 8, 28. Ðrége urgeat, Ps. Surt. 68, 16. Ðá hét hé hí áhón be hire loccum and hí þreágean mid missenlícum wítum, Shrn. 75, 21: 104, 16. Swingan and þreágan, Exon. Th. 251, 9; Jul. 142. Cóme ðú ús tó þreágenne (torquere), Mt. Kmbl. 8, 29. Ðreágende torquens, Kent. Gl. 662. Mid sumre untrumnesse his líchaman ðreád quadam infirmitate corporis arreptus, Bd. 3, 19; S. 547, 12. (Wé) biáð þreáde aporiamur (aporiare ad angustiam reducere, Migne), Wrt. Voc. ii. 100, 44: 7, 6. (Wǽron) þreád (cruciatibus) artabantur, stringebantur, Hpt. Gl. 484, 10. III a. where the subject of the verb is not a person :-- Seó langung hine þreáde, Blickl. Homl. 713, 14. Gif strongra storm and genip swýþor ðreáde si procella fortior aut nimbus perurgeret, Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 12. [Þraghand castigans, Ps. 117, 18. What if þretty þryuande be þrad (punished), Allit. Pms. 60, 751. O. Sax. gi-þróón corripere (Lk. 23, 22, v. first passage in I above): O. H. Ger. drauwen, drouwen arguere, redarguere, increpare, minari, minitari.] v. ge-þreán.

þreágend, es; m. One who reproves or corrects :-- Þreágendes (vox) correctoris (amici), Hpt. Gl. 527, 48.

þreágung, þreáwung (v. þreápung), þreáung, þreáng, e; f. I. reproof, rebuke :-- Þreáiunge castigationis (censura), Hpt. Gl. 476, 48. For ðære strenge ðínre þreáunga, Ps. Th. 38, 11. Of þreáunga (þrǽgunge, MS. T.: ðreánge, Surt.) ðínre ab increpatione tua, Ps. Spl. 17, 18: 79, 17: 103, 8. Fram ðreáwunge (ðreánge, Surt.), 75, 6. Hú gesceádwís se reccere sceal bión on his ðreáunga quae esse debet rectoris discretio correptionis, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 5. Ðreáunge correptionibus; Swt. 155, 5. Ðreánge increpationem, Ps. Surt. 37, 15. Ðreángum increpationibus, 38, 12. Ðreánge increpationes, 149, 7. II. a threat :-- Ǽlc gleáw mód hit gewarenaþ ǽgðer ge wiþ heora þreáunga ge wid ólecunga prudentia nec formidandas fortunae minas, nec exoptandas facit esse blanditias, Bt. 7, 2; Fox 18, 24. III. chastisement, punishment :-- Ic wæs beswungen ǽlce dæg and þreáung (castigatio) mín on dægrǽde, Ps. Spl. 72, 14. Ðæt ic ídel heonone ne hwyrfe míne synna on þreágunge berende that I may not go hence with nothing accomplished, bearing my sins to punish me, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 672. III a. correction :-- Æfter deáþe nán þreágincge ys leáf post mortem nulla correctionis est licentia, Scint. 48, 16. [O. H. Ger. drowunga, dróunga animadversio, comminatio.]

þreahs. v. þreax.

þreál, e; f. Correction :-- Þreál correctio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 135, 81. I. correction by words, reproof, rebuke :-- Ðreál correptio, Kent. Gl. 1061. Þreále invectionis, Hpt. Gl. 448, 52. Hé (John the Baptist) ða heard-heortan ðeóde mid stearcre ðreále and stíðre myngunge tó lífes wege gebígde, Homl. Th. i. 362, 34. II. correction by acts, chastisement, punishment, discipline :-- Gif hé bétan nele underlicgge hé rihtlícre þreále si non emendaverit, discipline regulari subjaceat, R. Ben. 56, 13. Ðú (Belshazzar) noldest ðé warnian þurh ðínes fæder ðreále, Homl. Th. ii. 436, 8. Mistlíce þreála gebyriaþ for synnum, bendas oððe dyntas..., L. Pen. 3; Th. ii. 278, 25. Hine man mid líchamlícum þreálum gewylde, R. Ben. 57, 12: 58, 10. Ðonne wurð seó heardnis stíðmódre heortanswíðe gehnescad þush grimlíce steóra and heardlíce ðreála, ðe ic on mancyu sænde, Wulfst. 133, 19.

þreá-líc; adj. Miserable, woeful, calamitous :-- Godes ágen bearn héngon fæderas ússe; ðæt wæs þreálíc geþóht, Elen. Kmbl. 851; El. 426. Wæs þreálíc þing (the deluge) þeódum tóweard, réðe wíte, Cd. Th. 79, 28; Gen. 1318. Ða apostolas þrowedon folcbealo ðreálíc, mǽrne martyrdóm, Menol. Fox 248; Men. 125.

þreán. v. þreágan.

þreá-níd, es; n.: e; f. Force or compulsion that punishes or causes misery, affliction that comes from punishment :-- Ic hit leng ne mæg helan for hungre; is ðes hæft tó ðan strang, þreánýd ðæs þearl this imprisonment is so hard, so severe the pain of my punishment, Elen. Kmbl. 1404; El. 704. Þrowigean þreániéd micel fýres wylm to suffer much torturing violence, the fervor of fire, Cd. Th. 229, 7; Dan. 213. Þreánýd þolian, Beo. Th. 573; B. 284: Exon. Th. 187, 1; Az. 28. Þreánéd, 270, 12; Jul. 464. Blíðheort wunode eorl in þreánédum cheerful the man remained in his misery, Andr. Kmbl. 2530; An. 1266. Wé ðec for þearfum and for þreánýdum árena biddaþ we pray thee for mercy on account of our needs and afflictions, 186, 4; Az. 14: Beo. Th. 1668; B. 832. Ðone feónd hé gefetrode fýrnum teágum, biþeahte þreánýdum (with penal restraints), 359, 11; Pa. 61. Þreánédum beþeaht, Elen. Kmbl. 1764; El. 884.

þreá-nídla, an; m. Painful constraint, restraint of punishment, oppression :-- Béc ámyrgaþ módsefan of ðreánýdlan ðisses lífes books bring the mind to mirth from the painful pressure of this life, Salm. Kmbl. 481; Sal. 241. Ðonne wyrd and warnung winnaþ mid hira ðreánýdlan hwæðerne áðreóteþ ǽr when fate and prudence strive, each with its own hard constraint, which of the two tires first? 857; Sal. 428. Nealles sylfes willum ac for þreánédlan, Beo. Th. 4450; B. 2224. Hé þeóstra þegnas þreániédlum bond he bound the ministers of darkness with penal restraints, Exon. Th. 143, 29; Gú. 668.

þreáníd-líc; adj. That entails painful violence, calamitous, afflictive :-- Micel is ðæt ongin and þreániédlíc ðínre gelícan ðæt ðú forhycge hláford úrne great is the undertaking and calamitous for the like of thee to despise our lord, Exon. Th. 250, 16; Jul. 128.

þreáp (?) a troop, band :-- Þreápum commanipularibus, sociis (perhaps heápum should be read, cf. efenheápum conmanipularibus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 20, 27; or þreátum; v. þreát: but þreáp may have a double sense as þreát has (see, too, þreápian, þreátian); in later English it remains with the meaning strife, contest, e.g.: Wituten threp (ani enuy, alle chidyng) or strijf, C. M. 13310. This þrepe (the siege of Troy) for to leue, Destr. Tr. 9845: perhaps, also, in sense of troop :-- An feondes trume ... þe saules ... awarieþ al a-þrep (in a troop? or = Ital. a gara) al so wulues doþ þe step, Misc. 149, 85. Halliwell gives thrap to crowd, as an Essex word), Hpt. 477, 52; 487, 33.

þreápian; p. ode To rebuke, reprehend :-- Oft gelintpeþ, ðonne hé tó suíðe and tó ðearllíce ðreápian (ðreáwian, ðreátian, Cott. MSS.) wile his hiéremenn, ðæt his word beóþ gehwyrfedo tó unnyttre ofersprǽce plerumque contingit, ut, dum culpa subditorum cum magna invectione corripitur, magistri lingua usque ad excessus verba pertrahatur, Past. 21; Swt. 165, 17. [Þrepe arguere, Ps. 93, 10. Himm birrþ þræpenn wiþþ skill onnʒæness alle sinness he must with discretion contend against all sins, Orm. 5744. Whan ʒe aʒens the prechur threpe when ye blame the preacher (quotation in Halliwell's Dict.). Há þreapeð aʒein þe, Kath. 1916. Bihat al þ̄ tu wult, þreap (threaten) þrefter inoh, 5499. In þraldom to þrepe (contend) with þe werld, Destr. Tr. 12134. Þai þrappit with stormys, 2003. They threpide wyth the throstille, D. Arth. 930. See also Halliwell's Dict. threap, thripe; Jamieson's Dict. threpe. Cf. Al þet fortune may þreapny (threaten) an do, Ayenb. 84, 20.] v. þrípel, and next word.

þreápung, e; f. Rebuke, reproof :-- Ðæt geðreátade mód bið suíðe raðe gehwierfed tó fióunga gif him mon tó ungemetlíce mid ðære ðreápunga (ðreáwunga, Cott. MSS.) oferfylgð suíður ðonne mon ðyrfe correpti mens repente ad odium proruit, si hanc immoderata increpatio, plus quam debuit, affligit, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 14. [Þrepyng strife, Allit. Pms. 43, 183. Cf. Cheaste. Þes boʒ him todelþ ine .vij. oþre boʒes ... þe zixte þreapninge (threatening) ... Efterward comeþ þe þreapnynges and beginneþ þe medles and þe werres, Ayenb. 65-66.] v. two preceding words.

þreát, es; m. I. a troop, band, crowd, body of people, swarm, press, throng, (1) indefinite :-- Þreát turba, Wrt. Voc. ii. 137, 29. Ðreát (ðreátt, Rush.), Mk. Skt. Lind. 3, 32. Ðreót (ðæt folc ɫ ðreátas, Lind.) turbae, Lk. Skt. Rush. 3, 10. Menigo ðreád (monige ðreátas, Rush.) multa turba, Mk. Skt. Lind. 3, 7: 5, 21: Lk. Skt. Lind. 8, 40. Þreát chorus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 17, 33: i. 291, 13. Se ðreát (caterva) ðara Godes ðeówa, Bd. 4, 7; S. 574, 34. His ðegna ðreát ministri ejus, Ps. Th. 102, 20. Heofonengla þreát, Exon. Th. 57, 34; Cri. 928. Wítgena weorod, wífmonna þreát, 462, 7; Hö. 48. Þreátes classis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 24, 78. Þreáte examine; 33, 26. Gesomnadum ðreáte (coetu) bisceopa, Bd. 4, 17; S. 585, 12: Blickl. Homl. 95, 6. Se was on ðam ðreáte þreotteóða secg, Beo. Th. 4803; B. 2406. Cyning þreáte fór, herge tó hilde, Elen. Kmbl. 102; El. 51: Cd. Th. 288, 27; Sat. 388. Hió þrungon on þreáte they pressed in a crowd, Elen. Kmbl. 657; El. 329. In ðreáte in choro, Ps. Surt. 149, 3: 150, 4. Hí gesomnodan mycelne ðreát discipula congregata discipulorum caterva, Bd. 4, 2; S. 565, 25. Wyrma þreát, Cd. Th. 285, 12; Sat. 336. Gif hé on þreát cymeþ, Exon. Th. 380, 4; Rä. 1, 2. Ofer ðreótt, Mk. Skt. Rush. 8, 2. Menigo ɫ ðreátas turbae, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 13, 2. Engla þreátas, Blickl. Homl. 11, 12. Ealle ða mycclan þreátas ðe him mid férdon, 99, 35. Þurh þreáta geþræcu, Exon. Th. 417, 17; Rä. 36, 6. Mid engla ðreátum ducibus angelis, Bd. 4, 23; S. 596, 12. Þreátum festis choreis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 148, 14. Weras ðreátum and þrymmum þrungon and urnon, Judth. Thw. 23, 39; Jud. 164. Meara þreátum, Exon. Th. 119, 19; Gú. 257. Ðreáttum turbis, Rtl. 95, 6. (2) in a more definite sense :-- Ðreát turma .i. xxxii equites, Jn. Skt. Lind. 18, 12 margin. Ðes ðreát haec cohors, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 44; Zup. 64, 12. Cohors, d. milites vel þreát, Wrt. Voc. ii. 136, 1. Þreát falanx, multitudo militum, cohors, 147, 6. Of þreáte ex falange, 29, 66. Ðreóte, 107, 59. Ðæs déman cempan gegaderodon ealne ðone þreát (ðreád. Lind. cohortem), Mt. Kmbl. 27, 27. Þicfealdum þreátum eóroda spissis legionum cohortibus, Hpt. Gl. 413, 1. II. violence, compulsion, force, oppression, punishment, ill-treatment. v. þreátend :-- Is ðeós þrág ful strong, þreát ormǽte; ic sceal þinga gehwylc þolian, Exon. Th. 270, 14; Jul. 465. Hé was gebunden fýre and líge; ðæt was fæstlíc þreát (a punishment that pressed on him without remission), Cd. Th. 284, 22; Sat. 325. Gotan eástan sceldas lǽddon þreáte (by force or(?) with their army) geþrungon þeódlond monig, Met. 1, 3. Stódan him ábútan swearte gástas and mid micclum ðreáte (with great violence) him onsigon, Homl. Th. i. 454, 9. Ða ðe hæfdon sum þing lytles tó bigleofan, ðæt gelæhton reáferas and of ðam múðe him ábrudon unmǽðlíce mid þreáte, Homl. Ass. 68, 73. Mid swíðlícum þreáte, Ælfc. T. Grn. 21, 12: Homl. Skt. ii. 28, 105: 29, 217. Godes ǽ forgǽgan for his gramlícan ðreáte, 25, 220. Ne forhtige gé for ðæs fyrnfullan þreátum (cruelties, or(?) troops), 25, 260. Hié ealle worlde weán and ealle þreátas (all the woes of the world and all miseries) oferhogodan ... hié ealle worldlíce tintrega and ealle lichomlícu sár oforhogodan, Blickl. Homl. 119, 16. [Riden ut þritti þusend, þe þræt (throng) wes þa mare, Laym. 9791. Listeð wich þreat (punishment, trouble, cf. God wile his swerd dragen, 22), Dauid setted uppen us, O. E. Homl. ii. 61, 20. Þrat moste I þole and unþonk, Allit. Pms. 93. 55. 'Herekempen scullen þi lond wasten ...' þis iherde þe king, þræt (threat) þas kaiseres, Laym. 22582. For scrið ne ðret neither for entreaty nor threat, Gen. and Ex. 2021. Ne recche ich noht of þine þete, O. and N. 58. Grete wordis and moche grym þrete, Destr. Tr. 2595. Hire sire and hire dame þreteþ hire to bete, nule heo forgo Robin for al heore þrete, Misc. 190, 84. M. H. Ger. dróz annoyance, molestation. Cf. Icel. þraut; f. a struggle, labour, hard task.] v. á-, beadu-, beorn-, eóred-, ge-, gúð-, here-, heofon-, íren-, mægen-, mearc-, sige-, wǽg-þreát.

þreátend, es; m. A violent person, one using violence or compulsion :-- Ðæm ðreátende violenti, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 11, 12. Ðæm nédende ɫ ðæm ðreátende volenti (l. violenti), 5, 42. Ðæm ðreáddende angarianti, p. 14, 17. v. þreát, II.

þreátian; p. ode. I. to urge, press :-- Threátade urguet, Wrt. Voc. ii. 124, 21. (1) to oppress, afflict, vex, trouble, exercise, harass :-- Ðú ðreátt ða ðeóda ðe ús ðreátigeaþ, Ps. Th. 9, 5. Mec láðgeteónan þreátedon þearle my foes harassed me sorely, Beo. Th. 1124; B. 560. Wyrd ... for ðý cymþ tó ðæm gódan, ðæt hió óþer twéga dó, oððe hine þreátige tó ðon ðæt hé bet dó ðonne hé ǽr dyde, oððe him leánige ðæt hé ǽr tela dyde fortuna ... remunerandi exercendive bonos causa deferatur, Bt. 40, 1; Fox 236, 3. Þreátende maceratus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 113, 49: 55, 43. (2) to urge a person to something, press for something, force to do something :-- For ðí ic ðreátige ðé tó úra goda offrunge, ðæt ðis folc, ðe ðú bepǽhtest, forléton ða ídelnysse ðínre láre, Homl. Th. i. 592, 31. Seó wyrd ðe þreátaþ ða yflan tó wítnianne fortuna quae justo supplicio malos coercet, Bt. 40, 2; Fox 236, 25 note. Hé þreátode hine tó hǽþenscipe, Shrn. 33, 10. Ǽghwylc hine þreátode æfter ðám bócum every one tormented him for the books, 123, 29. Ða cempan hine ðreátodon ðæt hé his lác offrian sceolde the soldiers urged him to offer his sacrifice, Homl. Th. i. 416, 27. Men ðreátian and tihtan tó gódum ðeáwum for ðam ege ðæs wítes ad rectum supplicii terrore deducere, Bt. 38, 3; Fox 200, 7. Sceolan ða bisceopas men georne þreátigean, and him bebeódan, ðæt hí Godes dómas on riht healdan, Blickl. Homl. 47, 35. Ongan se cásere hine ðreátian tó hǽðengylde, Shrn. 121, 12. Ða fǽmnan Simfronius ongan þreátian his suna tó wífe that virgin (St. Agnes) Simfronius attempted to force to be wife to his son, 56, 7. Geneáded ɫ þreátod coacta, Hpt. Gl. 508, 22. II. to reprove, rebuke :-- On wuda ðú wildeór wordum þreátast increpa feras silvarum, Ps. Th. 67, 27. Geðence hé ðæt hé biþ self suíðe gelíc ðám ilcan monnum ðe hé ðǽr ðreátaþ and hénð aequales se ipsis fratribus, qui corriguntur, agnoscant, Past. 17; Swt, 117, 16. Se ðe brúne ýða þreátaþ he that rebukes the waves (cf. geðreádade tó sae increpavit mari, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 26), Andr. Kmbl. 1039; An. 520. God þreátode (arguit) ðé, Gen. 31, 42. Ðá þreátode (increpavit) se fæder hine, 37, 10. Ðonne se láreów sécð ðone tíman ðe hé his hiéremen on ðreátigean (ðreágean, Cott. MSS.) mæge cum tempus subditis ad correptionem quaeritur, Past. 21; Swt. 153, 6. Líðelíce tó ðreátianne (ðreátigeanne, Cott. MSS.) leniter arguenda, Swt. 151, 11. III. to threaten :-- Hé þreátaþ ðone earman mid his eágum oculi ejus in pauperem respiciunt, Ps. Th. 9, 29. Hí þreátiaþ eall moncynn mid hiora þrymme ore torvo comminantes, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 6: Met. 25, 13. [In later English the forms from þrétan, þriétan (e.g. p. þrette) occur, though in the earlier time this form seems very rare. v. þrítan. He gon þretien swiðe, þat al he wolde heom todrive, Laym. 17300. Mine þralles me þretiað (threaten), 493. þe king þræted Brutun, þat..., 504. Summe þrætteden heore ueond, 27131. Oluhnen oðer þreaten, A. R. 248, 8. He þrette us for to smiten, 366, 16. He bigon to þreatin hire vehementius adversus eam in vocem erupit, Kath. 2078. Þreatin minari, 626. To þrete to complain (cf. pleny, 548), Allit. Pms. 17, 560. Þat þretes (reproves) þe of þyn unþryfte, 89, 1728. Euereuch man me mid stone þreteþ (ill-treats), O. and N. 1609. Sho was adrad, for he so þrette (threatened), Havel. 1163: Gen. and Ex. 2023. An canticle ðæt ðreated (rebuked) ðo men, 4125. Ne threte (arguis) me, Ps. 6, 2. He watʒ þreted (abused) and þef called, Gaw. 1725. Of thralles y am thrat (ill-used?), P. S. 158, 17.] v. á-, ge-þreátian; þrítan; þreátnian; þreátung; þreótan.

þreát-mǽlum; adv. In troops, in crowds :-- Þreátmélum manipulatim, Wrt. Voc. ii. 113, 38.

þreátnian; p. ode To urge, force, compel :-- For hwilcum ðingum neádaþ se deófol eów ðæt gé cristene men tó his biggengum ðreátniaþ for what reasons does the devil compel you to force Christian men to his worship? Homl. Th. i. 424, 3. [Myd word he þretneþ muche, and lute deþ in dede, R. Glouc. 457, 14. Disciplis thretenyden (comminabantur) to men offringe, Wick. Mk. 10, 13.] v. þreátian.

þreátung, e; f. I. compulsion, force, violence, oppression, ill-treatment. v. þreátian, I :-- Hí bestungon him on múþ mid niycelre ðreátunge ðone fúlan mete, Homi. Skt. ii. 25, 34. Pilatus hé hæfde on þreátunge óþ hé hiene selfne ofstong Pilatus tantis angoribus coarctatus ert, ut sua se manu transverberaverit, Ors. 6, 3; Swt. 258. 10. Hié heora land tó bismere oferhergodan, and him ðæs nǽnige bóte dydon búton ofermódlíce wíg and þreátunge they harried their land, and for that they made them no amends, but in their arrogance made war on them and harassed them, Blickl. Homl. 201, 24. II. rebuke, reproof. v. þreátian, II :-- Mid ðreátunge correptionibus, Past. 21; Swt. 154, 5. Ðonne of ðære ðreátunga gáþ tó stíðlíco word cum de correptione sermo durior excidit, Swt. 167, 10. Ðurh ðæt ísern is getácnod ðæt mægen ðara ðreátunga per ferrum increpationis fortitado signatur, Swt. 163, 24. II a. correction :-- Tó ðam yflum cymþ réþu wyrd tó edleáne his yfla oððe tó þreátunge and tó láre ðæt hé eft swá ne dó fortuna aspera puniendi corrigendive improbos causa deferatur, Bt. 40, 1; Fox 236, 8. III. threatening :-- On ðam geáre gegaderade Eádward cyng mycele scypferde on Sandwíc þurh Magnus þreátunge on Norwegon (v. Saga Magnús góða, cc. 37, 38: Magnús konungr gerði sendimenn til Englands ... en þat stóð á bréfum ... 'Vil ek, at þú gefir upp ríkit fyrir mér; en at öðrum kosti mun ek sœkja til með styrk hers'), Chr. 1046; Erl. 171, 25. [Ihorde þe king of þisse herde þreting, Laym. 22582. Vre Louerd hefde ifuld him of his þreatunge comminatione tua replesti me, A. R. 156, 3. Þreting ne bene, Misc. 156, 17.]

þreáung. v. þreágung.

þreá-weorc, es; n. Pain inflicted as a punishment, used of the misery of hell, as in O. Sax. the phrase thrá-werk tholón :-- Wit hearmas, þreáweorc þoliaþ, and þýstre land, Cd. Th. 45, 35; Gen. 737.

þreáwian, þreáwung. v. þreátan, þreágung.

þreax, þreahs rottenness :-- Þreahs caries, Wrt. Voc. ii. 20, 56. Swá swá forrotod þreax, Basil admn. 7; Norm. 48, 20.

þrece, es; m. Force, oppression; the result of oppression, weariness, exhaustion :-- Ðǽr synt tó sorge ætsomne gemenged se þrosma (þrosmiga. Wulfst, 138, 26) líg and se þrece gicela there to their sorrow are mingled together the stifling flame and the violence of cold; frigora mista simul ferventibus algida flammis, Dom. L. 191. Hneppade sáwle mín for ðrece dormitavit anima men prae taedio, Ps. Lamb. 118, 28. [O. Sax. wápan-threki force of arms: Icel. þrekr; m.; þrek; n. strength, fortitude; þrekinn enduring; þrekaðr wearied, exhausted.] v. þracu.

þrecswald, þreiga, þremma, þreó, þreo-. v. þerscold, þreágan, þrymma, þrí, þri-.

þreodian, þridian; p. ode. I. to deliberate, take thought :-- Hé on his móde ðóhte and ðreodode ðæt hé wolde eall Angolcyn of Breotone gemǽrum áflýman totum genus Anglorum Brittaniae finibus erasurum se esse deliberans, Bd. 2, 20; S. 521, 28. Hé þreodode and smeáde on his móde, hwæt hé embe ðæt dyde, Homl. Ass. 124, 242. Ic fród þrágum þreodude, Elen. Kmbl. 2475; El. 1239. Weras þeahtedon, þrydedon and þóhton, 1094; El. 549. II. to deliberate, hesitate :-- Þrydaþ hesitat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 137, 35. Ne þreodode hé fore þrymme ðeódcyninges ǽniges on eorðan, ac him éce geceás líf he did not hesitate before the glory of any king on earth, but (at once) chose life eternal, Apstls. Kmbl. 35; Ap. 18. v. ymb-þreodiende, and next word.

þreodung, þridung, e; f. I. deliberation :-- Þridung discrepatio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 25, 63. Gif hé mid þancmetunge and ðreodunge (ðrydunge, MS. B.) geþafaþ si ex deliberatione consentit, Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, 23. II. hesitation :-- Geseah hé sume earme sáwle út fundigende of hyre líchaman, ac heó ne dorste út gán, for ðam ðe heó geseah ða áwyrgedan gástas beforan hyre standan. Ðá cwæð án ðæra deófla tó hyre: 'Hwæt is ðín þriding? hwí nelt ðú út gán?' Wulfst. 140, 13. Tweógendlícere tweónunge þrydunge ancipiti ambiguitatis scrupulo, Hpt. Gl. 422, 34. v. ymbþreodung.

þreohtig. v. þrohtig.

þreóhund-wintre; adj. Three hundred years old :-- Hé wæs on ðisum lífe þreóhundwintre and fíf-and-sixtigwintre, Gen. 5, 23.

þreó-niht; pl. Three days :-- He þreónihta (or? þreó nihta, þreó being undeclined after the manner of feówer, etc.) fæc swefeþ, Exon. Th. 357, 34; Pa. 38.

þreosel-líc. v. þrisel-líc.

þreótan; p. þreát; pp. þroten To weary :-- Ic ðé bydde ðæt ðé ne ðreóte, ne ðú ða spréce ðǽr ne forléte I pray thee that it may not weary thee, and that thou do not leave the conversation there, Shrn. 188, 20. [Goth. us-þriutan to trouble, be troublesome to: O. H. Ger. bi-, gi-, ir-driozan to weary, trouble: Ger. ver-driessen: Icel. þrjóta to lack, want.] v. á-þreótan, un-áþreótende, á-þrotennes, -þrotsum; þreát, þreátian.

þreó-teóða, þreotteóða thirteenth :-- Se þreotteóða (þriot-, þret-, þreó-) tertius decimus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 282, 20. Se wæs on ðam ðreáte þréotteóða secg, Beo. Th. 4804; B. 2406. Paulus is se ðreotteóða ðyses heápes, Homl. Th. ii. 520, 30. Seó ðreotteóðe mǽigð, i. 396, 4. On ðære þrytteóðan wucan, Mt. Kmbl. 11, 20 rubc. On ðæm þreóteóðon geáre, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 200, 33. Þrytteóðan, Homl. Skt. i. 6, 272.

þreó-tíne thirteen :-- Ðreóténo, Salm. Kmbl. 581; Sal. 290. Ðreótýne, Menol. Fox 229; Men. 116. Þreottýne tredecim, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 281, 11: Bd. 1, 23; S. 485, 23. Ðǽr syndon betweónan ðám twám mynstrum ðreottýne míla ámetene, 4, 23; S. 596, 26. Þreótiénum terdenis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 82, 38.

þreótíne-geáre; adj. Thirteen years old :-- Seó fǽmne wæs .xiii. geáre, Shrn. 153, 32.

þreoxwold, þrépel, þrescwald, þrexweald. v. þerscold, þrípel, þerscold.

þrí, þrý, þrié, þreó; m.: þreó, þrió, þré; f. n. (ðreá, ðriá, ðreó, ðrió in North.); gen. þreóra, þrióra (and ðreána in North.); dat. þrim (þrím? ðriim in North., but cf. Goth. þrim), later þreom. Three :-- Tres þrý gebyriaþ tó masculinum and femininum, tria þreó tó neutrum, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 281, 3, I. used adjectivally :-- Þrié Scottas cuómon, Chr. 891; Erl. 88, 5. Ða þreó clystru ðæt sind þrí dagas, Gen. 40, 12. Ða þrí windlas ðæt sind þrí dagas, 18. Ða bróðor þrý, Cd. Th. 122, 28; Gen. 2033. Þreó godas, Hy. 10, 44. Ða þré fǽmnan, Blickl. Homl. 145, 31. Nú synt þreó (ðrió, Lind., Rush.) gér, Lk, Skt. 13, 7. Tó ðara ðreóra burga ánre, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 17: Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 10, 4. Þrióra, Swt. 4, 10. On þrim (ðriim, Lind.: ðrim, Rush,) dagon, Mk. Skt. 15, 29: Jn. Skt. 2, 19, 20. Ðrím, Lk. Skt. Lind. 4, 25: Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 27, 63. On ðǽm þrim geárum on þrim folcgefeohtum, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 128, 21. Of ðám þrim sunum, Anglia xi. 2, 37. On þýs ylcum þrim dagum, Lchdm. iii. 76, 26. Þreom nihton ǽr Candelmæssan, Chr. 1078; Erl. 215, 28. Hié ða þrié dǽlas on þreó tónenldon, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 3: Swt. 10, 3. Míne þrié ða getreówestan frýnd, Nar. 29, 27. Hé gestrínde þrí suna, Gen. 6, 10: Ex. 2, 2. Lǽn me þrý (ðreó, Lind.: ðriá, Rush.) hláfas, Lk. Skt. 11, 5. Þrý (þreó, Rush.) dagas and þreó (þreó, Rush.) niht, Mt. Kmbl. 12, 40: Ymbe þreó mónað, Ors. 5, 11; Swt. 238, 11. On ðrió wísan, Past. 53; Swt. 417, 20. Þrió míla, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 194, 7. Ymb þreó niht, 3, 11; Swt. 152, 19: Elen. Kmbl. 1663; El. 833: Gen. 29, 2. Þreó earduugstówa (ðreá húso, Lind.: ðreó selescotu, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 17, 4. Ðreá húsa (ðriá hús, Rush.), Mk. Skt. Lind. 9, 5. Þrió mydd hringa, Ors. 4, 9; Swt. 190, 12. Ðrió gecynd, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 3: 35, 6; Fox 168, 19. Gif hé ðás þreó þing ne déð, Ex. 21, 11. Þreó gér, Lk. Skt. 4, 25. II. used substantivally, (1) absolutely :-- Ðǽr twégen oððe þrý (þreó, MS. A.: ðreó, Lind.: þreó, Rush.) synt gegaderode, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 20. Beóð fífe on ánum húse tódǽlede, þrý (ðrió, Lind.: ðriá, Rush.) on twégen and twégen on þrý (þreó, MS. A.: ðrió, Lind., Rush.), Lk. Skt. 12, 52. Ðæt ǽlc word stande on twégra oððe þreóra (ðreá, Lind.: þreó, Rush.) gewittnesse, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 16. Ðæt wé twá oððe ðreó gehýron, Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, 29. (1 a) distributively :-- Ða wuniaþ twám and þrim ætgædere, R. Ben. 9, 15. (2) with qualifying or defining words :-- Þa þrý cómon, Cd. Th. 221, 24; Dan. 93. Wé þrý, 242, 3; Dan. 413. Ða módhwatan þrý, 238, 21; Dan. 413. Cómon þrý gelǽrede weras ... hí ða ealle þrý tógædere grétton ðone cyngc, Ap. Th. 19, 22: Homl. Th. ii. 384, 4. Ða þreó ðé ne lǽtaþ geortréwan, Bt. 10; Fox 30, 8. Hwylc ðara þreóra (ðísra ðreána, Lind.), Lk. Skt. 10, 36: Homl. Th. i. 288, 27. Of ðisum þrim Noes sunum, Gen. 9, 19. Of him þrim, Anglia xi. 2, 45. Betwuh ðam þrim, Bt. 42; Fox 256, 20. Se ðe ðás ðreó hæfþ, 14, 2; Fox 44, 26. (3) in the phrase on þreó :-- On þreó tónemnan, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 3. On ðreó tódǽlan, Bd. 5, 12; S. 627, 21. III. in combination with other numerals, (1) with cardinals, (a) multiplicative :-- Þreó hund fæðma, Gen. 6, 15. Þreó hund wera, Jud. 7, 6. On þisum þrim hundrydum, 7. Wiþ þrim hundred (ðriim hundum, Lind.) penegon, Jn. Skt. 12, 5. (b) added to the decades :-- Þreó and twéntig, Ex. 32, 28. Þreo-and-hundeahtatig-wintre, 7, 7. (2) with ordinals :-- Se þreó-and-syxtigeða, R. Ben. 37, 16. Móna se þrí-and-twéntigoða, Lchdm. iii. 194, 21. [Goth. þrija; n.; gen. þrijé; dat. þrim; acc. þrins; m. f.; þrija; n.: O. Sax. thrie, threa; dat. thrim: O. L. Ger. thrie; m.; thriu; n.; dat. thrim: O. Frs. thré; m.; thria; f.; thriu; n.; gen. thríra; dat. thrium, thrim, threm: O. H. Ger. drí; m.; drío; f.; driu; n.; gen. drío; dat. drim, drin: Icel. þrír; m.; þrjár; f.; þrjú; n.; gen. þriggja; dat. þrim(r), þrem(r); acc. þrjá; m.; þrjár; f.; þrjú; n.]

þría. v. þriwa.

þri-beddod; adj. Having three beds or couches :-- Búr þrybeddod triclinium, Wrt. Voc. i. 58, 5.

þridæg-líc; adj. Lasting three days :-- Þreodæglíc fæsten jejunium triduanum, Bd. 4, 25; S. 600, 8.

þri-dǽled; adj. Divided into three parts, tripartite :-- Þreodǽledes tripertiti. Hpt. Gl. 511, 10. Þreodǽled tripartitam, 438, 27. Þreodǽlede tripertitas, in tribus parlibus divisas, 451, 15. [Icel. þrí-deildr.]

þridda, þirda (in North.) third :-- Se ðridda tertius, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 282, 16. I. as an ordinal :-- Se forma ... se óðer ... se þrydda (ðirda, Lind.: þridde, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 22, 26. Se þridda (ðirdda, Lind.: ðirda, Rush.), Mk. Skt. 12, 21. Twégen men ... mǽg wæs his ágen þridda, hé feórða sylf, Cd. Th. 173, 29; Gen. 2868: Elen. Kmbl. 1707; El. 855. Heofonwaru and eorðwaru, helwaru þridde, Hy. 7, 95. Ðære þriddan eá nama, Gen. 2, 14. On nánum heolstrum heofenan, oþþe eorþan, oþþe sǽ þriddan, Homl. Th. ii. 146, 32. Ðý þryddan dæge (ðe ðirda dæg, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 16, 21. On ðære þriddan (ða ðirdda, Lind.: ðirda, Rush.) wæccan, Lk. Skt. 12, 38. Æfter ðon ðridan dæge, Blickl. Homl. 181, 2. Nán þridde be him sylfum ne lét hé he admitted no third hypothesis about himself, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 633. I a. marking degrees of relationship :-- Þridde fæder proavus, þridde móder proavia, Wrt. Voc. i. 51, 55, 56. Þridde fæder abavus, 72, 21. Mínes fæderan þridda fæder abpatruus meus, ii. 8, 24. Þridda sunu pronepus, 62, 36. II. fractional. v. twǽde :-- Bewyl óþ þriddan dǽl, Lchdm. ii. 120, 15. Seóþe tó þriddan dǽle, i. 98, 7. [Goth. þridja: O. Sax. thriddio: O. Frs. thredda: O. H. Ger. dritto: Icel. þriþi (gen. þriþja).]

þridding (?), e; f. The doing of a thing for the third time (? Halliwell gives thirding with this meaning as a Suffolk word) :-- Ðirding (but the word has been altered to ðirde. v. Skeat's collation) scipdrincende tertio naufragantem, Rtl. 61, 31.

þridung, þrie-, þrielig, þriétan. v. þreodung, þri-, þrilig, þrítan.

þri-ex; n.? :-- On ðæt þri ex; of ðam þri exe, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 436, 28.

þri-feald; adj. Threefold, triple :-- Ic cwæþ ðæt sió sáwul wǽre þriofeald, Bt, 33, 4; Fox 132, 2. Þriefald, Met. 20, 183. Ðrifald trinus, Rtl. 111, 8: Mt. Kmbl. p. 14, 6. Ðryfeald, Homl. Th. ii. 606, 24. Ðryfeald triplex, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 61; Zup. 70, 2: 49; Zup. 284, 17. From ðæm þriefealdan (triplici) brægene, Wrt. Voc. ii. 80, 57. On þreofealdum húse in triclinio, 45, 80. Þreofealdum fæce terna intercapedine, Hpt. Gl. 462, 76. Mid þreofealdre lencge terna proceritate, 445, 7. Ðú þriefalde on ús sáwle gesettest, Met. 20, 176. Þryfealdne (þreo-, MS. B.) áð ... þryfealde (þri-, MS. B.) láde mid þryfealdan foráðe, L. C. S. 22; Th. i. 388, 12-15. Ða þriefealdan sáwla, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 39. Ðrifaldo ternos, Rtl. 193, 33. [O. Frs. thri-fald: O. H. Ger. dri-falt: Icel. þrí-faldr.]

þrifealdlíce; adv. Triply :-- Ðriof[e]ealdlíce tripliciter, Kent. Gl. 839. Þriefealdlíce (þry-, MS. B.: þri-, MS. H.), L. Alf. pol. 39; Th. i. 83, 3.

þri-feoðor; adj. Triangular :-- Ðrifeoðor, ðrifedor, trifoedur triquadrum, Txts. 103, 2052.

þri-féte; adj. Having three feet :-- Þryféte tripes, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 26; Zup. 51, 12: 49; Zup. 287, 20. Þrieféte rícelsfæt cythropodes, Wrt. Voc. ii. 15, 60. [Icel. þrí-fættr.]

þrifildan; p. de To triple :-- Ic þryfylde triplico, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 287, 4. [Icel. þrífalda.]

þri-fingre; adj. Three fingers thick :-- Æt þryfingrum (spic is added in MS. B.), L. In. 49; Th. i. 132, 18.

þri-fingre; adv. By a distance equal to the breadth of three fingers :-- Gif se ord sié þreofingre ufor ðonne hindeweard sceaft, L. Alf. pol. 36; Th. i. 84, 17. Cf. Grmm. R. A. l01.

þri-flére; adj. Having three floors, three-storied :-- Ðæt gyftlíce hús wæs ðryflére,for ðan ðe on Godes gelaðunge sind þrý stæpas gecorenra manna, Homl. Th. ii. 70, 17.

þri-fótede, -fótad; adj. Three-footed :-- Þrifótede tripes, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 287, 20 note. Þryfótad fæt trisilis, Wrt. Voc. i. 25, 30.

þri-fyrede; adj. Three-furrowed; the word renders Latin trisulcus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 288, 12 note.

þriga. v. þriwa.

þri-gǽrede; adj. Cloven into three parts, three-pronged :-- Þrygǽrede (þreo-, þrio-) trifidus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 288, 10. v. gár, gára.

þri-geáre; adj. Three years old :-- Se onféng fulwihte ðá hé wæs þrigeáre cniht, Shrn. 119, 19. [Icel. þrí-ærr.]

þri-geáre, es; n. A space of three years :-- Þrigeáre (þreóra geára ferst) triennio, Hpt. Gl. 519, 15. [Icel. þrí-æri; n.]

þri-gilde; adj. To be paid threefold :-- Cleroces feoh .iii. -gylde, L. Ethb. 1; Th. i, 2, 6. [Icel. þrí-gildr of threefold value; þrí-gilda to pay threefold.] v. twi-gilde; adj. and subst.

þri-gilde; adv. (or case of a noun þri-gilde. v. twi-gilde; subst. and adv.) With a treble payment :-- Gif matt inne feoh genimeþ, se man .iii. gelde gebéte, L. Ethb. 28; Th. i. 10, 1. Gylde hé hit þrygylde, L. A. G. 3; Th. i. 154, 11. Gauge hé tó ánfealdum ordále oþþe gilde .iii. gylde, L. Eth. iii. 4; Th. i. 294, 15.

þri-heáfdede; adj. Three-headed :-- Þryheáfdede triceps, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 55; Zup. 67, 11. [Icel. þrí-höfðaðr.]

þrihing for(?) þriþing. v. trehing.

þri-híwede; adj. Having three forms :-- Ðryhíwede triformis, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 287, 10.

þri-hlidede; adj. Three-lidded, having three openings :-- Ðryhlidede tripatens, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 288, 6.

þri-hyrne; adj. Three-cornered, triangular :-- Ðæt sǽd byþ þreo-hyrne, Lchdm. i. 316, 10.

þri-hyrnede; adj. Triangular :-- Þryhyrnede triangulus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 289, 4. [Icel. þrí-hyrndr.]

þri-leáfe, -léfe, an; f. Trefoil (cf. later, three-leaved grass, triple grass. v. E. D. S. Pub. Plant Names) :-- Geáces súre vel þriléfe trifolium, Wrt. Voc. i. 30, 24.

þrilen; adj. Woven with three threads :-- Þrylen hrægel trilicis vestis, Wrt. Voc. i. 40, 19.

þrili. This word has the form of an i-stem adjective in the glosses ðrili trilex, Txts. 35, 29; drili triplex, 115, 158; and that þril- is the main part of the word seems suggested by þrilen (q.v.), by þrielig in þrielig hrægil triligium, Wrt. Voc. i. 289, 53, and by later English þrile, e.g. An God, þrile in þreo hades, A. R. 26, note a; þrumnesse þreofald ant anfaldte, þrile i þreo hades, Marh. 11, 27. Þrille-hod trinity, C. L. 1239. Cf. too, O. H. Ger. drilero triplici (catena). On the other hand it might seem that the form is þri-li from comparison with aen-li simplex, Txts. 115, 156; cf. too, O. H. Ger. dri-lích drilex (tunica), dri-líha trilicem (tunicam): Ger. drillich ticking. Perhaps the word has been influenced by the Latin which it translates. v. twi-líc, and next word.

þri-líc; adj. Threefold :-- Án myhtylíce and þrylíc hádelíce unus potentialiter trinusque personaliter, Hymn. Suet. 29, 13: 55, 13: 105, 15. Eálá ðú ðrilíc godcundnyss, 133, 5. Ðé þrylícne and ǽnne, 146, 32. v. preceding word.

þrilig; adj. Woven with three threads :-- Þrielig hrægil triligium, Wrt. Voc. i. 289, 53. v. þrili.

þri-líðe (?); adj. Having three months named Líða, a term applied to the year in which a fourth summer month was intercalated; the passage in which the Latinized form of the word occurs is as follows: Quotiescunque communis esset annus, ternos menses solares singulis anni temporibus dabant, cum vero embolismus, hoc est xiii mensium lunarium annus occurreret, superfluum mensem aestati apponebant, ita ut tunc tres menses simul Lida nomine vocarentur, et ob id annus thrilidus cognominabatur habens quatuor menses aestatis, ternos, ut semper, temporum caeterorum. Beda de temporum ratione, c. 13. v. Grmm. Gesch. D. S. c. vi.

þrimen a third :-- Nim sealtes þrymen, Lchdm. ii. 124, 4. [O. Frs. thrimen (-in) amounting to a third; thrimenath a third part.]

þri-milce, es; m.(?) The early name for the month of May :-- Se fífta mónað is nemned on úre geðeóde Ðrymylce, for ðon swylc genihtsumnes wæs geó on Brytone and eác on Germania lande, of ðæm Ongla ðeód com on ðás Breotone, ðæt hí on ðæm mónðe þriwa on dæge mylcedon heora neát (Bede's Latin is: Thrimilci dicebatur, quod tribus vicibus in eo per diem pecora mulgebantur; talis enim erat quondam ubertas Britanniae vel Germaniae, e qua in Britanniam natio intravit Anglorum, De temp. rat. c. 13), Shrn. 77, 37. Ðonne Drymelces mónað bið geendod ðonne bið seó niht eahta tída lang, 87, 28. Ðrymylce mónað, Chr. Erl, Introd. xxxi, margin.

þrim-feald; adj. Threefold :-- On ðam þrimfealdan (þry-, MSS. B. L.) ordále, L. Ath. i. 4; Th. i, 202, 4. On ðam þrimfealdum (þry-) ordále, 6; Th. i. 202, 13. Æt þrimfealdre (þryfealdre, 17) sprǽce, L. Eth. ix. 19; Th. i. 344, 13. Be ánfealdum simplum, be twyfealdum duplum, be þrimfealdum triplum, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 286, 18. [Cf. Ileafan on þa halʒa þreomnesse, O. E. Homl. i. 99, 34. Þe heuenliche þremnesse was mid him, ii. 137, 7. Þrumnesse, A. R. 160, 10. Þrimmnesse, Orm. 11177. Cf. also O. Frs. thrim-dél (threm-) a third.]

þrimsa, þrindende, Exon. Th, 431, 23; Rä. 46, 5. v. trimes, þindan(?), þrintan(?).

þrinen; adj. Threefold; trinus :-- God ánfeald and samod þrynen (trinus), Hymn. Surt. 105, 3. God þrynen and án, 115, 37: 137, 31. Þrynenum gebede trina oratione ... Mid þrynum tódále trina partitione, Anglia xiii. 380, 214, 217. God ðæne ðrynenne on ánnesse and ǽnne on ðrynnesse wé andettaþ Deus quem trinum in unitate et unum in trinitate confitemur, Waal. Cat. 292, col. 1. [Cf. Icel. þrinnr.]

þring. I. a press, crowd. [Utforen al þan dringe (þringe, 2nd MS.), Laym. 14966. Amidden þan þrunge (þringe, 2nd MS.), 29524. Cf. Among þe prenge of sipmen, 2229 (2nd MS.). Myd wel muchel þrynge, Misc. 86, 72. Cf. No þring of folc, A. R. 162, 8.] v. eofor-, ge-þring. II. (or þryng?) what presses or confines :-- Þryng cannalis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 128, 5. [Cf. Icel. þröng a strait, a narrow place.]

þringan; p. þrang, pl. þrungon; pp. þrungen. I. trans. To press, crowd, throng :-- Ðás menegeo ðe ðringaþ turbae te comprimunt, Lk. Skt. 8, 45. Ðæt folc hine þrang, Homl. Th. ii. 394, 17. Þrungun torquent, Wrt. Voc, ii. 122, 56. Hí þrungon (geðringdon, Lind.: on ðrungun, Rush.) comprimebant illum, Mk. Skt. 5, 24. Ðú gesyxst ðás menigu ðé ðringende (ðringende on ðec, Rush.) uides turbam comprimentem te, 31. II. to throng, press round, upon, crowd together :-- Hý ymb þeódenstól þringaþ georne, Exon. Th. 25, 8; Cri. 397: 208, 30; Ph. 163. Fugla cynn on healfa gehwone heápum, þringaþ contrahit in coetum sese genus omne volantum, 221, 18; Ph. 336. Gelíc sumum ðara gumena ðe him geornost mid þegnungum þringaþ ymbe útan, Met. 25, 28. Wergendra tó lyt þrong ymbe þeóden, Beo. Th. 5758; B. 2883. Ðá him ðæt folc swíðost an þrang ubi se obrui a circumfusa multitudine persensit, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 134, 18. Duguð samnode, hildfrecan heápum þrungon, Andr. Kmbl. 252; An. 126. III. to press, move with violence, eagerness or hurry, press on, press forward, force a way :-- On hú grundleásum seáðe ðæt mód þringþ ... hit þringþ on ða fremdan þístro tendit in externas ire tenebras, Bt. 3, 2; Fox 6, 7-10: Met. 3, 7. Sum on oferhygdo þryme þringe (þrymme þringeþ? cf. below Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 781: Rä. 4, 61), Exon. Th. 314, 34; Mód. 24. Hé on ðæt weorod þrong for ðon ðe him wæs leófre ðæt hiene mon ofslóge ðonne hiene mon gebunde he pressed into the host (of the enemy), because he would rather be slain than made prisoner, Ors. 5, 12; Swt. 244, 12. Se ðe mid gebeóte and mid micclum þrymme þrang intó ðam temple, Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 781. Him arn on lást, þrang þýstre genip dark cloud made its resistless way, Cd. Th. 9, 9; Gen. 139: Exon. Th. 179; Gú. 1255. Wræccan þrungon (pressed forward), 461, 28; Hö. 42: Elen. Kmbl. 245; El. 123. Hí þrungon and urnon ongeán ða ðeódnes mægp, Judth. Thw. 23, 40; Jud. 164. Tó weallgeatum wígend þrungon, Andr. Kmbl. 2408; An. 1205: Beo. Th. 5913; B. 2960. Tó ðam swicce men on healfa gehwone heápum þrungon, Exon. Th. 359, 24; Pä. 67. Hé lǽteþ word út faran, þræfte þringan, 316, 1; Mód. 42. Ic gewíte þringan þrymme micle, 386, 13; Rä. 4, 61. Ne þurfon gé nó hogian on ðæm anwealde, ne him æfter þringan. Bt. 16, 1; Fox 50, 30. Hé lét willeburnan on woruld þringan, Cd. Th. 83, 2; Gen. 1373. Tó ðám wícum hí cwómun hlóþum þringan, Exón. Th. 156, 1; Gú. 868. Ðá ongan ic nýdwræclíce gemang ðam folce wið ðæs folces (temples?) þringan, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 405: Judth. Thw. 25, 8; Jud. 249. [(1) His sporis he gynneth in hors thryng, Alis. 2388. Cumpanyes thringen thee, Wick. Lk. 8, 45. Gif eiþer oþer faste þringe, O. and N. 756. To noght he thrange (redegit) Israele, Ps. 77, 59. Liknes of þa to noght thryng saltou (rediges), 72, 20. I am to noghte thrungen, 22. (2) Þe folc cumþ fastlice and elce deʒie þicce þringeð, O. E. Homl. i. 237, 29. A thousand of men thrungen togyderes, Piers P. 5, 517. (3) Iudas him com þrynge, Misc. 42, 177. Into þe deueleʒ þrote man þryngeʒ bylyue, Allit. Pms. 43, 180. Carrais him on þrong (Carais to þrong, 2nd MS.), Laym. 10652. Through her hert the swerd throng, Gow. iii. 262, 7. Þrungen euchan biuoren oðer forte beo bihefdet, Jul. 67, 11. Binnen heo þrungen (alle in þronge, and MS.), Laym. 9421. O. Sax. thringan (trans. and intrans.): O. H. Ger. dringan urgere, stipare: Icel. þryngva. Cf. Goth. þreihan,] v. á-, æt-, be-, for-, ge-, of-, on-, óþ-, tó-, ymb-þringan; út-áþrungen.

þri-nihte; adj. Three days old :-- Gif hé biþ ácenned on .iii. nihtne mónan, Lchdm. iii. 160, 20: 176, 22, and note 2. [Icel. þrí-nættr.] v. twi-nihte.

þrinna. This seems a Scandinavian form [cf. Icel. þrennar tylftir three twelves; e.g. þrennar tylftir eigu at dæma málit, Njála c. 144] :-- Ládige hé hine mid þrinna .xii., L. Eth. iii. 13; Th. i. 296, 29.

þrinness, þriness, e; f. Trinity, mostly in the special sense the Trinity :-- Ðæs mannes sáwl hæfð ðære hálgan þrynnysse anlícnysse; for ðan ðe heó hæfð on hire ðreó ðing ... Is hwæðere se man án man, and ná ðrynnys, God ... þurhwunaþ on ðrynnysse háda and on ánnysse ánre godcundnysse; nis ná se man on ðrynnysse wunigende, swá swá God, Homl. Th. i. 288, 17-35. Ðeós þrynnys is án God, l0, 7. Is seó hálige þrinnis on ðisum þrim mannum, Ælfc. T. Grn. 2, 8. For ði is gecweden 'uton wyrcan,' ðæt wǽre geswutelod ðære hálgan þrynnysse weorc on ánnysse. Seó hálige þrynnys is undergiten on ðam worde 'uton wyrcan,' Boutr. Scrd. 19, 12. Ðrines trinitas, Ps. Surt. ii. p. 202, 23. Þrynes, Exon. Th. 24, 4; Cri. 379. Þrynis, 286, 3; Jul. 726. Þrynysse þrym, 37, 26; Cri. 599. Of ðæm mægene ðære hálgan þrynesse, Blickl. Homl. 29, 12. On ðære hálgan þrynnysse, 249, 23. Mid þrym fingrum man sceall sénian for ðære hálgan þrynnysse (ðrymnysse, MS. U.; v. Middle English quoted under Þrim-feald), Homl. Skt. ii. 27, 156. Clypung tó ðære hálgan Ðrynnisse invocatio ad sanctam trinitatem, Hymn. Surt. 1, 1. Wé andettaþ ... ðrynnesse in ánnesse and ánnesse on ðære ðrynnesse, Bd. 4, 17; S. 585, 36. For ða háligan ðrinesse, Rtl. 114, 17. Þrynesse, Blickl. Homl. 205, 30. [O. H. Ger. drinissa.]

þrintan; p. þrant, pl. þrunton; pp. þrunten To swell :-- Þrinteþ, Exon. Th. 315, 1; Mód. 24. v. á-þrintan.

þrió, þrióstrig. v. þrí, þeóstrig.

þrípel, es; m. An instrument of punishment, a kind of cross :-- Eculeus vel þrýpel genus tormenti, Wrt. Voc. ii. 142, 25. Unhéh þrépel eculeus (equuleus patibulum, furca cui decollatorum martyrum cadavera affigebant, Migne), i. 21, 18. v. þreápian, and next word.

þrípel-úf (?) an instrument of punishment :-- Wæarhród vel þrýpelúf eculeus vel catasta, Wrt. Voc. i. 55, 52. v. þrípel.

þri-réðre; adj. Having three banks of oars; used substantively trireme :-- Ðá næfde hé má scipa ðonne án; ðæt wæs ðeáh þreréþre, Bt, 38, 1; Fox 194, 10. Þrieréþre ceól, Met. 26, 27. Án C. ðara miclena þrieréðrena centum triremes, Ors. 3, 1; Swt. 96, 27: 5, 13; Swt. 246, 6. [O. H. Ger. dri-ruodri.]

þrisce. v. þrysce.

þri-scíte; adj. Triangular, three-cornered :-- Ispania land is þryscýte Hispania trigona est, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 1. Sicilia is ðryscýte Sicilia tria habet promontoria, Swt. 28, 2. On ðone þryscýtan crundel, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 374, 26. [Cf. Icel. þrí-skeyta a triangle.]

þrisel; adj. Divided into three. v. twisel, and next word.

þrisel-líc; adj. Tripartite :-- Ðǽr beóþ men ácende þreosellíces híwes nascuntur homines tripartito colore, Nar. 35, 29. v. twisel.

þri-slite, -slitte(?); adj. Three-forked, three-pointed :-- Hæfdon ða wyrmas þriesli[ ]te (a letter has been erased before the t, see note, and Anglia i. 510, iv. 151) tungan cum trisulcis linguis, Nar. 14, 12. Cf. next word.

þri-snæcce, -snæce, -snece; adj. Three-pointed, cloven in three :-- Þrysnece (-suæcce, -snæce) tungan hæfþ seó næddre trisulcam linguam habet serpens, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 288, 12. v. twi-snæcce.

þríste and þríst; adj. Bold, (1) in a good sense :-- Móna se sixta ... se ðe bið ácenned, þríste, mǽre, Lchdm. iii. 186, 15. Ic ofstikode bár. Swíþe þrýste (audax) ðú wǽre ðá, Coll. Monast. Th. 22, 19. Þríste sceal mid cénum, Exon. Th. 337, 8; Gn. Ex. 61. Gewát hé (Andrew) þríste on geþance, Andr. Kmbl. 473; An. 237. Elene, þríste on geþance, Elen. Kmbl. 533; El. 267. Eorl unforcúð, elnes gemyndig, þríst and þrohtheard, Andr. Kmbl. 2529; An. 1266. Þríst, þonces gleáw, Exon. Th. 207, 19; Ph. 144. Geþinga ús þrístum wordum, 21, 30; Cri. 342: Cd. Th. 242, 27; Dan. 425. Ic ǽnig ne métte þrístran geþóhtes, mægþa cynnes, Exon. Th. 275, 14; Jul. 550. (2) in a bad sense, bold, presumptuous, audacious, shameless :-- Ðý læs hé tó ðríste sié for ðý underfenge his láreówdómes ne doctrinam praesumtio extollat, Past. proem.; Swt. 23, 23. Ðonne hé wilnaþ on his móde ðæt hé sciele rícsian hé bið swíðe forht and swíðe behealden; ðonne hé hæfð ðæt hé habban wolde, hé bið swíðe ðríste mens principari appetens fit ad hoc pavida, cum quaerit, audax cum pervenerit, 9; Swt. 57, 4. Mǽden ofermódig, þríste on líchaman mid manegum werum, Lchdm, iii. 190, 16. (Cf. mǽden módig, dyrstig, manega weras wilnigende, 25.) Ic (the devil) wénde þríste geþoncge, ðæt ic ðé meahte bútan earfeþum áhwyrfan from hálor, Exon. Th. 264, 2; Jul. 358. Forhwon beóð suǽ ðríste ða ungelǽredan ðæt hí underfón ða heorde ðæs láriówdómes ab imperitis pastorale magisterium qua temeritate suscipitur? Past. 1; Swt. 25, 16. Ða ðe tó ðam þríste sýn, ðæt hig God oferseóð, Wulfst. 270, 23. Hié wǽron womma ðríste, inwitfulle, Cd. Th. 77, 9; Gen. 1272. Tó frece, synna þríste, 155, 31; Gen. 2581. Wǽron Sodomisc cynn synnum þríste, 116, 13; Gen. 1935. Wed gesyllan eallra unsnyttro, þrístra geþonca, Elen. Kmbl. 2569; El. 1286. Ic þrísta sum þeófes cræfte, Exon. Th. 486, 24; Rä. 72, 20. [ʒif he were swa þriste, and he hit don durste, þ̄ he heom wolde leaden, Laym. 356. Þer þe dusie mon bið þriste, O. E. Homl. i. 117, 23. Ne helpþ noht þat þu beo so þriste, ich wolde fihte bet mid liste þan þu mid alle þine strengþe, O. and N. 171. To uvele we beoþ al to þriste, P. L. S. 8, 10. O. Sax. thrísti: Ger. dreist.] v. ellen-, gár-, un-, wíg-þríste(-þríst).

þriste; adv. Boldly, (1) in a good sense, confidently, without apprehension, fear, hesitation, reserve :-- Hé þríste genéðde on óðre dǽlas, Apstls. Kmbl. 100; Ap. 50. Hé þríste bebeád, ðæt hié his láre, lǽston, Andr. Kmbl. 3303; An. 1654: Elen. Kmbl. 818; El. 409. Ne wæs ǽnig ðæt né þus þríste hrínan dorste, Exon. Th. 273, 4; Jul. 511. Heó ne meahte þríste geþencan, hú ymb ðæt sceolde she could not think with confidence of the event, 378, 6; Deór. 12. Ic mundbyrd on ðé þríste hæfde in te confirmatus sum, Ps. Th. 70, 5. Ic ðín bebod þríste gelýfde, 118, 66. (2) in a bad sense, without sense of shame, presumptuously, audaciously :-- Heó þríste ongan wið Sarran swíðe winnan, Cd. Th. 135, 10; Gen. 2240. Gé him þríste oftugon ye had no misgivings when ye refused them help, Exon. Th. 92, 18; Cri. 1510. (3) in the Psalms þríste seems used several times with an intensive force, much as swíðe is used :-- Þa þearfendan þríste Drihten gehýreþ holdlíce hears attentively and graciously; exaudivit pauperes Dominus, Ps. Th. 68, 34. Hé þearfena bearn þríste hǽleþ completely saves; salvos faciet filios pauperum, 71, 4: 82, 4: 112, 6. Ealle hine þeóda þríste heriaþ greatly praise; magnificabunt, 18. Þríste ongunnon georne slépan ða ðe on horsum wǽron, 75, 5. Ðú míne geðóhtas þríste oncneówe thou didst thoroughly know my thoughts; intellexisti cogitationes meas, 138, 2. Hé þearfendra ðríste éhte he persecuted the poor exceedingly; persecutus est hominem pauperem, 108, 16.

þríst-full; adj. Presumptuous :-- Þrístfulle presumptuosi, Anglia xiii. 369, 55.

þríst-hycgende; adj. (ptcpl.) Thinking or intending boldly, firm of purpose, having bold resolve :-- Ðú geþóhtest þrísthycgende, ðæt ðú ðínne mægðhád Meotude sealdes bútan synnum, Exon. Th. 18, 24; Cri. 288. On þeóde geþeón, ðæt hé wese þrísthycgende, 336, 17; Gn. Ex. 50.

þríst-hygdig, -hýdig; adj. Bold-minded, courageous :-- Þióden þrísthýdig, Beo. Th. 5612; B. 2810. Nergend ðrísthýdigum Thómase forgeaf éce ríce, bealdum beornwigan bletsunga his, Menol. Fox 443; Men. 223. Sum biþ æt þearfe þrísthýdigra þegn mid his þeódne, Exon. Th. 298, 1; Crä. 78. [Cf. O. Sax. thríst-mód thegan (Peter).]

-þrístian. v. ge-þrístian.

þríst-lǽcan; p. -lǽhte; pp. -lǽht To become bold, to dare, presume :-- Wé þrístlǽcaþ biddan audemus rogare, Hymn. Surt. 111, 34. Hié sint tó manianne ðæt hié nó ðý swíður wið hié ne ðrístlǽcen (ðrisð-, Hatt. MS.) admonendi sunt, ne contra eos audaciores fiant, Past. 28; Swt. 196, 5. Be ðære árfæstan Godes cennestran mildheortnysse þrýstlǽcende, ic me of ðære stówe ástyrede, ðe ic ðis gebæd, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 457. [Awah þet he efre wulle þristelechen oðer biþenchen mid his fule heorte þe heo wulle underfon swa heʒ þing swa is Cristes licome in his sunfulle buke, O. E. Homl. i. 25, 30.] v. ge-þrístlǽcan.

þrístlǽcness, e; f. Boldness, audacity, temerity, presumption :-- Ic eom ondetta ... ðrístlǽcnesse mínra synna, Anglia xi. 98, 22. Gyf man þurh þrýstlǽcnysse man fullaþ si quis ex temeritate aliquem baptizaverit, L. Ecg. P. addit. 30; Th. ii. 236, 34.

þrístleásness (?), e; f. Want of boldness :-- Ic eom andetta ... þrístleásnyssa mínra synna, Anglia xi. 101, 34. v. preceding word.

þrístlíce, þrístelíce; adv. Boldly, confidently, (1) in a good sense :-- Hé spræc þrístlícor mid hine confidenter ait, Gen. 44, 18. (2) in a bad sense :-- Ða underðióddan sint tó manianne ðæt hié ðara unðeáwas ðe him ofergesette bióð tó swíðe and tó ðrístelíce (ðrísðlíce, Hatt. MS.) ne eahtigen admonendi sunt subditi, ne praepositorum suorum vitam temere judicent, Past. 28; Swt. 196, 1. Oft þeóf þrístlíce sorgleáse hæleð forféhð, Exon. Th. 54, 21; Cri. 872. Ðú (the devil) þrístlíce þeóde lǽrest, Andr., Kmbl. 2371; An. 1187.

þrístling (?), es; m. A bold person; found in the local name which occurs in the following passage :-- On þrístlinga dene; of þrístlinga dene ufeweardre, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 82, 28. v. þríste.

þrístness, e; f. Boldness, presumption, temerity :-- Ðrísnes praesumptio, Kent. Gl. 1169. Mid þrýstnesse dyrstigere praesumptione temeraria, Anglia xiii. 383, 262. On þrístnysse in temeritate, Scint. 139, 3. Hé yfel þurh þrístnysse gefremede malum per audaciam perpetravit, 40, 5.

þri-strenge; adj. Three-stringed :-- Þrystrenge (þreo-, þrio-) trifidus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 288, 10. v. twi-strenge.

þrítan; p. te. I. to weary :-- Ðæt folc wearð þrít and þearle geswenct mid ðam síðfæte taedere coepit populum itineris ac laboris, Num. 21, 4. II. to urge, press, force :-- Seó wyrd ðe þriétaþ (-eþ?) ða yflan tó wítnianne fortuna quae justo supplicio malos coercet, Bt. 40, 2; Fox 236, 25. [Icel. þreytask to be exhausted; þreyttr tried, exhausted: Dan. træt wearied.] v. á-, ǽ-þriétan (-þrítan); þreátian.

þrítig, þrittig; num. Thirty :-- Þrittig, þrítig triginta, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 281, 17. I. used substantivally as a neuter. (1) governing a noun in the genitive, when the inflections are gen. -es, dat. -um. (α) alone :-- Ðam sceal .xxx. sciɫɫ. tó bóte (cf. in next line: Ðam sculon .v. sciɫɫ. tó bóte), L. Alf. pol. 56; Th. i. 94, 28. Hwæt gif ðǽr beóð þrítig? God cwæð: Ne dó ic him ná láð, gif ðǽr beóþ þrítig rihtwísra, Gen. 18, 30. Þrittig fæðma biþ se arc on heáhnisse, 6, 15: Jn. Skt. 6, 19. Ymb þrittig wintra, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 25. Ymb þrítig wintergerímes, Met. 28, 25. Ymb þrítig geárgerímes, 29. Hé genam þrítig þegna, Beo. Th. 246; B. 123. Dó hí ealle tógæderc, ðæt þrítig seolforsticca, Anglia xi. 8, 19. Wintra ðrittih (ðrítig, Rush.), Lk. Skt. Lind. 3, 23. Hé wæs ðrítiges geára eald, Past. 49; Swt. 385, 15. Þrítiges míla brád, Chr. 893; Erl. 88, 29. Ðrittiges heáh elngemeta, Cd. Th. 79, 8; Gen. 1308. xxx.-tiges manna mægencræft, Beo. Th. 764; B. 379. Ða hǽþenan ðrittigum síþa máre weorud hæfdon, Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 22. (β) in combination with other numerals :-- Þreó and þrítig geára, Cd. Th. 296, 16; Sat. 503. Eahta and þrittig (ðrittih, Lind.: ðrítig, Rush.) wintra, Jn. Skt. 5, 5. Hé ríxode twá læs xxx geára, Chr. 641; Erl. 27, 26. Mid feówer hunde scipa and þrítigum, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 172, 31. (2) as a plural with gen. -a :-- Com se cyning þrítiga sum (þrittigum sum, MS. E.) ðara monna ðe in ðam here weorþuste wǽron, Chr. 878; Erl. 80, 20. II. used adjectivally, (1) alone :-- Þrítig þúsend wera, Jos. 8, 3. Þrítigon síðon tricies, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 286, 2. Cf. Þrittig síðon seofon beóð twá hundred and týn, Anglia viii. 303, 7. Þrittig síðon twelf, 29. Þrittigun sýþum hundteóntig þúsenda, Blickl. Homl. 79, 25, Ða þryttig scyllingas, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 3. (2) in combination with other numerals :-- Ðæt is ealles .xxx. and vi. peningas, Anglia xi. 8, 18. Mid þrym and ðrittigum mannum, Homl. Skt. i. 5, 128. Mid ðám áþelestum ceastrum ánes wana ðrittigum civitatibus viginti et octo nobilissimis, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 26. ¶ In the following passage the construction is unusual :-- On þrýtiges wintres ylde, Anglia xi. 2, 26. II a. of age, thirty (years old) :-- Se Hǽlend was þrittig ðá hine mann fullude, Anglia xi. 3, 77. III. used in forming ordinals :-- Se wæs fram Agusto ðridde eác ðrittigum tricesimus tertius ab Augusto, Bd. 1, 6; S. 476, 17. [Goth. þrins tiguns (acc.). O. Sax. thrítig: O. Frs. thrítich: O. H. Ger. drízug: Icel. þrír tigir.]

þrítig-feald; adj. Thirty-fold :-- Mid þrittifealdne héhnysse tricena altitudine, Hpt. Gl. 445, 8. Sum berð þrittigfealdne wæstm, Homl. Ass. 21, 175: Mt. Kmbl. 13, 8. Þrítigfealdne, Mk. Skt. 4, 20. Ða habbaþ þrittigfealde méde, Homl. Ass. 21, 179.

þrítigoða; num. adj. Thirtieth :-- Se þrittigoða (ðrítogoða, þritteogoða, þreotteogaþa) tricesimus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 283, 10. Ðý ðrittigoþan geáre, Bd. 5, 23; S. 647, 29.

þrítig-wintre, -wintra; adj. Thirty years old :-- Iósep wæs þrítigwintre triginta annorum erat Joseph, Gen. 41, 46: Lk. Skt. 3, 23: Homl. Th. i. 26, 3. Ðá ðá Crist wæs þrítigwintra (or þrítig wintra), Homl. Th. ii. 38, 25.

þriwa, þrywa, þreowa, þriowa, þriuwa, þriga, þrige, þría; adv. Thrice, three times :-- Þriwa (þreowa) ter, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 285, 14: 38; Zup. 232, 7: Exon. Th. 207, 20; Ph. 144. Þriwa on gére tribus vicibus per singulos annos, Ex. 23, 14: ter in anno, 17. Ne sint ðæt þreó godas þriwa genemned, ac is án God, Hy. 10, 44. Þriwa (ðriga, Lind.: þriowa, Rush.) ter, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 34. Þriuwa, Rush. 75. Þriwa (ðría, Lind.: ðrige, Rush.), Mk. Skt. 14, 30, 72. Þriwa (ðriga, Lind.: ðrige, Rush.), Lk. Skt. 22, 61. Þriwa (þrywa, MS. A.), Jn. Skt. 13, 38: 21, 14. Þriga, Wrt. Voc. ii. 126, 35. Ðriga, Bd. 1, 13; S. 481, 42. ¶ With numerals :-- Cweð þriwa nigon síþan, Lchdm. i. 202, 11. Þriwa seofon beóð án and twéntig, Anglia viii. 302, 43. Þriwa feówer beóð twelf, 328, 21. [Þrie twenti sixty, H. M. 23, 29. Þrie he eode abuten, Laym. 17432. Þreie (þries, 2nd MS.), 26066. Þrien, 14352: þreoien, 14338. Þries, A. R. 106, 18. Þri&yogh;ess, Orm. 1149. Þri&yogh;&yogh;ess, 5945. Thrie, Alis. 1263. Þrye, R. Glouc. 191, 14. Þries, Ayenb. 35, 11. O. Sax. thriwo, thriio: O. L. Ger. thrío: O. Frs. thria, thriia.]

þri-wintre, -wintra, -winter; adj. Of three years, three years old :-- Thriuuintri (ðriuuintri, Corpus Gl.) steór prifeta, Txts. 86, 780. Þry-wintre (-wintra) triennis, trimus, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 287, 13, 18. Þri-winter trimus, vel triennis, vel trimulus, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 59. Þrywinter triennis, 23, 53. Wæs cnihtcild sum ne wæs yldre ðonne ðrywintre erat puer trium circiter, non amplius, annorum, Bd. 4, 8; S. 575, 27. Geoffra mé án þriwintre hrýðer and ǽnne þriwintre ramm and ánne þriwintre gát sume mihi vaccam triennem et capram trimam et arietem annorum trium, Gen. 15, 9. Hé ásende him tó án ðrywintre cild, Homl. Th. ii. 134, 7. [Icel. þrí-vetr three years old.]

þroc, es; n. I. a throck (v. E. D. S. Pub., Cheshire Gloss., where is quoted: 'The Throck is the piece of Timber on which the suck (share) is fixed.' Academy of Armory by Randle Holmes. Also spelt thruck) :-- Dentale, s. est aratri pars prima in qua uomer inducitur quasi dens sule reóst vel þroc, Wrt. Voc. ii. 138, 72. (v. Wülck. Gl. 219, 4.) II. a table :-- Mynetera þrocu hé tóbræc mensas nummulariorum euertit, Mk. Skt. 11, 15. [Cf. O. H. Ger. druh; f. cippus, compes.]

ðrogan, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 196, 7. v. þreágan.

þróh glosses rancor :-- Rancor thróh (thróch, Erfurt Gl.) vel invidia, vel odium (tróh rancor, Corpus Gl.), Txts. 92, 874. v. next word.

þróh; adj. glosses rancidus :-- Of ðrón æfðancan rancida invidia, Anglia xiii. 33, 156. Swá ðrógum tam rancidis (v. Hpt. Gl. 472, 61: tam rancidis (fetidis, amaris, s. invisis, abominates) þrón, biterum, mid swá biterum), 148. v. preceding word.

þroht, es; m. Oppression, affliction, hardship :-- Ic hit leng ne mæg helan for hungre, is ðes hæft tó ðan strang, þreánýd ðæs þearl, and ðes þroht tó ðæs heard, Elen. Kmbl. 1405; El. 704. [Cf. Icel. þróttr fortitude.]

þroht; adj. Oppressive, grievous :-- Him sorgendum sár óðclífeþ, þroht þeódbealu, Exon. Th. 78, 2; Cri. 1268. Ellen biþ sélast ðam ðe oftost sceal dreógan dryhtenbealu, deópe behycgan þroht þeódengedál, 183, 8; Gú. 1324.

þroht-heard; adj. I. strong under afflictions, having fortitude or endurance in trouble :-- Ne geald hé (Stephen) yfel yfele, ac his ealdfeóndum þingode þrohtheard he requited not evil with evil, but strong to bear his sufferings he interceded for his foes, Elen. Kmbl. 985; El. 494. Blíðheort wunode eorl unforcúð elnes gemyndig, þríst and þrohtheard in þreánédum, Andr. Kmbl. 2529; An. 1266. Héton lǽdan út þrohtheardne þegn, woldon ellenrófes mód gemiltan; hit ne mihte swá, 2781; An. 1393. Þegnas þrohthearde þafigan ne woldon, ðæt hié forléton leófne láreów, 803; An. 402. II. grievously hard :-- Wæs se leódhete þrohtheard, Andr. Kmbl. 2279; An. 1141.

þrohtig (?); adj. Enduring, firm, persevering, laborious :-- Ðrohtig (in the MS. e is written over o) pervicax, Txts. 87, 1556. Ic eom swiftre ðonne hé, þrágum strengra, hé þreohtigra, Exon. Th. 494, 7; Rä. 82, 4. [Cf. Icel. þróttigr powerful.]

þrop, þrosle. v. þorp, þrostle.

þrosm, es; m. I. smoke, vapour :-- Se þeóstra þrosm, Wulfst. 186, 4. On forsworcennesse sweartes þrosmes and ðæs weallendan pices, 139, 1: Dóm. L. 199. Eft átogenum ðara fýra ðrosmum ... eác fúlnes wæs mid ðæs fýres ðrosme retractis ignium vaporibus ... et foetor cum eisdem vaporibus, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 24-26. Ða ðe þrosme beþeahte in þeóstrum sǽton, Exon. Th. 8, 11; Cri. 116: Elen. Kmbl. 2593; El. 1298. Ða biteran récas, þrosm and þýstro, Cd. Th. 21, 18; Gen. 326. Se þrosma (but see þrosmig) líg, Dóm. L. 191. II. darkness, a dark space :-- Sweart þrosm onáslít tetrum chaos inlabitur, Hymn. Surt. 13, 36. Betwux ús and eów is gefæstnod micel ðrosm (inter uos et nos chaos magnum firmatum est, Lk. 16, 26), Homl. Th. i. 332, 17. III. in Germ. 398, 230 þrosm glosses chautêrem. v. swefel-þrosm; þrysman.

þrosmig; adj. Smoky, vaporous :-- Ðær synd sorhlíce tósomne gemencged se þrosmiga líg and se þrece gycela (frigora mista simul ferventibus algida flammis, Dóm. L. 25, 95), Wulfst. 138, 26.

þrostle, þrosle, an; f. A throstle, singing-thrush :-- Ðrostle trita, Txts. 103, 2062: turdella, 2068. Þrostle, Wrt. Voc. i. 281, 16: merula, 62, 45: 77, 19. Ðrostle, ii. 55, 61. Þrosle merula vel plara, i. 29, 57. Án blác þrostle flicorode ymbe his neb, Homl. Th. ii. 156, 22. Of ðam leá on þrostlan wyl, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 345, 3. [M. H. Ger. drostel.] Cf. þrysce.

-þrot. v. ǽ-þrot, á-þrotsum.

þrot-bolla, an; m. The gullet, windpipe :-- Ðrotbolla gurgulio, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Zup. 35, 7: Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 15. Þrotbolla, i. 43, 41: 64, 62: 282, 82: ceutrum, ii. 131, 1. Eal þrotbolla chautrum, i. 43, 42: ii. 22, 59. Gif monnes þrotbolla biþ þyrel, gebéte mid .xii. sciɫɫ., L. Alf. pol. 51; Th. i. 94, 18. Ðrotbollan gurgilioni, Lchdm. i. lxx, 9. Þrotbollan gurguliones, Wrt. Voc. ii. 40, 45: Hpt. Gl. 490, 20. [Nu schal forrotien ... þi þrotebolle þat þu mide sunge, Misc. 178, 173. And by the throtebolle he caught Aleyn, Chauc. Reeve's T. 353. The throtebolle epyglotum, Wülck. Gl. 580, 21 (15th cent.). Throte bolle frumen hominis est, rumen animalis est, ipoglotum, Cath. Angl. 386.]

þrotu, an; f. The throat :-- Þrotu guttur, Wrt. Voc. i. 43, 39: Ps. Lamb. 5, 11: Scint. 97, 16: Lchdm. ii. 46, 22. Þeós ðrotu hoc guttur, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 22; Zup. 49, 3. On ðære ðrotan, Lchdm. ii. 2, 18. On ða þrotan, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 30. Hé (Judas) gewráð ða forwyrhtan ðrotan, seó ðe lytle ǽr belǽwde Drihten, Homl. Th. ii. 250, 16. Woruldcara forsmoriaþ ðæs módes ðrotan, 92, 11. Þrotan gurguliones, Wrt. Voc. ii. 82, 52. [O. H. Ger. droza, drozza gurgulio.] v. æsc-, eofor-þrotu(-e).

-þrowen in á-þrowen, read á-dropen.

þrowend, es; m. A scorpion :-- Hí habbaþ tæglas ðám wyrmum gelíce ðe men hátaþ þrowend, Wulfst. 200, 15. Scorpius, ðæt is þrowend, Lchdm. iii. 246, 1. Se wyrm ðrowend slihþ mid ðam tægle tó deáðe ... Ondrǽd ðé ðone ðrowend ... Bið hiht geǽttrod mid ðæs ðrowendes tægle, Homl. Th. i. 252, 4-11. Se ðe gegrípð þrowend (scorpionem), Scint. 86, 11: 225, 4. Þrowendra regulorum, serpentium, Hpt. Gl. 450, 17.

þrowende (-as?); pl. The Thronds(?), people in North Norway (Icel. Þrændir: Norw. Thrönder) :-- Mid Þyringum ic wæs and mid Þrowendum and mid Burgendum, Exon. Th. 322, 17; Víd. 64.

þrowere, es; m. I. a sufferer :-- Gif mann bið ákenned on .x. nihta ealdne mónan se bið þrowere, Lchdm. iii. 156, 27, v. lícþrowere. II. a sufferer for religion, a martyr :-- Ðe fruma ðrowere protomartyr, Rtl. 197, 9. Ðroweres ðínes martyris tui, 75, 41. Ðæs þroweres gemynd Sci Ypolyti, Shrn. 117, 8. Sce Ciricius tíd ðæs þroweres, Chr. 916; Th. i. 190, col. 2. Ðrowres, Rtl. 50, 15. Ðrowre martyrem, 2. Monge Godes þrowera, Exon. Th. 113, 5; Gú. 153: 111, 25; Gú. 132. Ðrowara ðínra martyrum tuorum, Rtl. 63, 16, 34. Ðrowerana, 44, 32. Wuldrigo ðrowras gloriosos martyres, 75, 34.

þrowian (þrówian?), þreowian (þreówian?); p. ode To suffer :-- Ic ðrowige patior, Ælfc. Gr. 29; Zup. 286, 9. I. to suffer as opposed to to act :-- Verbum ys word ... getácniende oððe sum ðing tó dónne oððe sum ðing tó þrowigenne oððe náðor, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Zup. 119, 10. II. to suffer what is painful. (1) with acc. :-- Mid gewyrhtum is ðás þrowige, Blickl. Homl. 89, 7. Ðú ne þrowast nǽnige þrowunge, 157, 14. Wíf ácenþ bearn and þrowaþ micel earfoþu, Bt. 31, 1; Fox 112, 2. Hungor hí þrowiaþ famem patientur, Ps. Spl. 58, 7: Andr. Kmbl. 562; An, 281: Exon. 98, 30; Cri. 1615. Hé ðæs gewinnes weorc þrowade, Beo. Th. 3447; B. 1721. Hé drepe þrowade, 3183; B. 1589: Exon. Th. 256, 10; Jul. 229. Hé for ælda lufan fela þrowade, 69, 10; Cri. 1118: Blickl. Homl. 23, 35. Hí ermða þrowodan, 17, 17. Ðrowedon, Menol. Fox 244; Men. 123. Hí heora scylde wíte ðrowedon poenas sui reatus luerent, Bd. 4, 26; S 602, 14. Swá oft swá wé óht uneáþes þrowian æt yfflum monnum, Blickl. Homl. 33, 22. Þǽh þe ealle ǽswice þrowige on þé ic nǽfræ þrowe si omnes scandalizati fuerint in te, ego numquam scandalizabor, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 26, 33. Híra untrymnesse hé sceal ðrowian on his heortan ex affectu cordis alienae infirmitati compalitur, Past. 10; Swt. 61, 16. Éce wíte ðrowian, Homl. Th. i. 66, 14. Sceame þrowian, Soul Kmbl. 98; Seel. 49. Sár þrowian synna tó wíte, Exon. Th. 77, 1; Cri. 1250. Wrace þrowian, biterne bryne, Andr. Kmbl. 1230; An. 615. Wóp ðrowian, heáf under heofonum, Salm. Kmbl. 934; Sal. 466. Torn þrowigean, Cd. Th. 146, 14; Gen. 2422. Þrowigean þreániéd micel, fýres wylm, 229, 6; Dan. 213. Manega earfoðnesse fram Iudéum ic wæs ðrowiende, Blickl. Homl. 237, 10. (2) without acc., generally to suffer martyrdom :-- Ic þrowode, Cd. Th. 296, 17; Sat. 503. Mín Drihten, áne tíd on róde ðú þrowodest, Blickl. Homl. 243, 28. Godes sunu on róde galgan þrowode, 27, 28: Elen. Kmbl. 841; E1. 421: Rood Kmbl. 165; Kr. 84. Ðrowode, Menol. Fox 167; Men. 85. Þrowode martyrizavit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 55, 14. His mæssepreóst þreowude mid him, Shrn. 124, 1. Þrowedon agonizarunt, Wrt. Voc. ii. 3, 6. Þreowedan, 81, 50. Hú Drihten wolde cuman tó ðære stówe ðe hé on þrowian wolde, Blickl. Homl. 15, 5. Hé wolde þrowian for ealra manna hǽle, 65, 32: 77, 13. Hiǽ lǽddun hine ðæt hé þrowigan salde duxerunt eum ut crucifigerent, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 31. Ys mannes sunu fram him tó þrowigenne (þrowende bið, Rush.) Filius hominis passurus est ab eis, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 12. Tó ðrowienne, Homl. Th. i. 82, 27. Ðrouande passurum, Lk. Skt, p. 6, 9. Þrowigende laturi, Wrt. Voc. ii. 86, 39: 52, 46. ¶ The past participle is used as if the verb were a causative = to make to suffer, to crucify :-- Æfter ðonne ðe hé þrowad wæs after he was crucified, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 44. Cf. Geðrowod under Pilate, Homl. Th. ii. 596, 15. Ðone geðrowodan Crist, 292, 13. (2 a) with gen. of instrument inflicting death :-- Hé sceolde deófolgeldum geldan, oððe sweordes þrowian suffer death by the sword, Shrn. 129, 3. III. to suffer for something, pay for, atone for :-- Ic ðrounio persolvio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 117, 16. Ðrowode expe[n]disset, throuadae expendisse[t], Txts. 61, 783. Þrowode expendisset, Wrt. Voc. ii. 29, 63. Hé þrowade ðæs þeówes sleacnysse he suffered for the slowness of the servant, Shrn, 43, 15. Þoledan and þrowedan luebant, Wrt. Voc. ii. 53, 29. Ðú scealt þrowian ðínes dǽda gedwild thou shalt expiate the error of thy deeds, Cd. Th. 57, 2; Gen. 921. Þrowgende luendi, Wrt. Voc. ii. 94, 51: 52, 65. [Crist þrouwede deð, O. E. Homl. i. 17, 29. Þrowede, ii. 101, 9. Hwi walde he þrowin as he dude, Kath. 1135. He ðrowede and ðolede, Gen, and Ex. 1180. O. H. Ger. dróen, druoen pati.] v. á-, efen-, ge-þrowian.

þrowiend-líc, þrowigend-líc; adj. I. capable of suffering :-- Ðá wearð hé (Christ) gesewenlíc on úrum gecynde and þrowigendlíc, Homl. Th. i. 120, 26: ii. 6, 32. Ðis is ðín gecynd ðus ðrowigendlíc, ðe ic of ðé genam, 256, 28. Hélias wæs ús mannum gelíc, ðrowiendlíc, swá swá wé, 330, 16. II. as a grammatical term, passive :-- Passiva verba, ðæt synd þrowiendlíce word, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Zup. 121, 1. Eal swá gáð ða óðre ðrowigendlícan word, 27; Zup. 161, 15. v. un-þrowi(g)endlíc.

þrowing, þreowing, e; f. I. suffering as opposed to doing :-- Verbum is word, and word getácnaþ weorc oððe ðrowunge oððe geþafunge, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Zup. 9, 3. Him (the verb) gelimpþ siginficatio, ðæt ys getácnung, hwæt ðæt word getácnige, dǽde oððe þrowunge oððe náðor, 19; Zup. 119, 14. II. suffering which is painful :-- Ic geteorode on ðære þrowunga, Ps. Th. 38, 11. Ðú ne þrowast nǽnige þrowunge on ðínum líchoman, Blickl. Homl. 157, 15. Wæs monigu ðrowunga from swíðe monigum lécum fuerat multa perpesa a compluribus medicis, Mk. Skt. Rush. 5, 26. Hé gehýrde heora þrowunga he heard of their sufferings (they had been struck blind), Blickl. Homl. 153, 35. II a. as a medical term, a painful symptom :-- Tácn ðæs ofercealdan magan, ðæt ða men ne þyrst, ne hí swól gefélaþ on magan, and ne biþ him ǽnig wearm þrowung getenge, Lchdm. ii. 194, 13. III. suffering that is undergone for the sake of religion, suffering of persecution, cross (in the phrase to take up one's cross) :-- Him God wolde æfter þrowinga þonc gegyldan, ðæt hé martyrhád móde gelufade, Exon. Th. 130, 22; Gú. 442. Lǽdæ ðróunc his and fylge meh tollat crucem suam et sequatur me, Mk. Skt. Lind. 8, 84. Ðrowung (ðrowunge, Rush.), Lk. Skt. Lind. 9, 23. Ðróung (ðrowunge, Rush.), 14, 27. Se ðe in þrowingum þeódnes willan dreógeþ, Exon. Th. 125, 18; Gú. 356: 148, 26; Gú. 750. Gehýran heora þrowunga to hear of the sufferings of St. Peter and St. Paul, Blickl. Homl. 173, 2. III a. suffering which ends in death, passion, martyrdom :-- Ðrouinges martyrii, Rtl. 64, 18. Ðróunges passionis, 50, 23. Ic, eówer emnðeówa and Cristes ðrowunge gewita, Past. 18; Swt. 137, 16. Se ðe biþ gemyndig Drihtnes þrowunge and his ǽriste, Blickl. Homl. 83, 14. Ða móddru on heora cildra martyrdóme þrowodon ... neód is ðæt hí beón efenhlyttan ðæs écan edleánes, ðonne hí wǽron geféran ðære ðrowunge, Homl. Th. i. 84, 20. On hwæs tíman hé ðrowunge underhnige in whose time he had submitted to martyrdom, ii. 506, 31. Ðæt hé tó ðrowunge becóme ad martyrium pervenire, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, 12. Be Cristes ðrowunge de passione dominica, 4, 24; S. 598, 13. Drihten ús mid his þrowunga álésde, ðá hé on róde galgan ástág, Blickl. Homl. 97, 10: 35, 7: 81, 31. Ðrowenge passione, Rtl. 50, 4. Hé ongan árweorþian ða ðrowunge háligra martyra honorem referre incipiens caedi sanctorum, Bd. 1, 7; S. 479, 1. Þurh his þrowinga, Exon. Th. 29, 29; Cri. 470: 69, 33; Cri. 1130. III b. the anniversary of a martyr's suffering :-- On ðone feówer and twéntygoðan dæg ðæs mónðes byð Sci. Crissoʒones týd and þrowung, Shrn. 151, 17, 31. Þreowung, 114, 21. [Vre drihtnes halie passiun, þet is his halie þrowunge, O. E. Homl. i. 119, 26. Inntill þrowwinnge and pine, Orm. 15205. Cheosen er licomes hurt þen soule þrowunge, A. R. 372, 6. Wiðuten ðhrowing and figt, Gen. and Ex. 1317. O. H. Ger. druuunga passio.] v. following words.

þrowing-rǽding, e; f. A martyrology :-- Sí rǽdd þrowungrǽding legatur martyrlogium, Anglia xiii. 385, 286.

þrowing-tíd, e; f. I. the time at which a person suffered martyrdom :-- Fram ðissere worulde fruman óþ Xpes þrowungtíd, ðæt is six þúsend geára and .c. geára and lviii geára, Anglia xi. 7, 18. Weorðian wé on ðissum andweardan dæge Sancte Petres þrowungtíde, Blickl. Homl. 171, 4. II. the anniversary of the time when some one suffered :-- Ðeós tíd fram ðisum andwerdan dæge (fifth Sunday in Lent) óð ða hálgan Eástertíde is gecweden Cristes ðrowungtíd, Homl. Th. ii. 224, 19. On ǽlces geáres ymbryne ymbe his ðrowungtíde, i. 564, 24.

þrowing-tíma, an; n. A time of suffering :-- Ðonne mín ðrowungtíma cymþ, ðonne geswutelaþ seó menniscnys hire untrumnysse, Homl. Th. ii. 56, 2.

þrúh (also þrýh, Bd. S. 580, 14); gen. dat. þrýh, and dat. þrúh; f.: dat. þrúge; m. n. Wood or stone hollowed out. I. a trough, pipe, conduit :-- Ðrúh, thruuch, thruch tubo, Txts. 103, 2067. Þrúh vel mylentroh canalis. Wrt. Voc. ii. 128, 16. Of þrýh ɫ þeótan tubo, Hpt. Gl. 418, 61. Of ðam bróce in ðæt þrúh; of ðam þrúge, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 380, 3. Ðá gesomnodon ða sticceo hí in ða þrúh, þurh ða ðe ðæt wæter fleów; ðá ne meahte ðæt wæter flówan, Shrn. 125, 12. II. a box, chest :-- Fiscella spyrte ɫ þrúh, Germ. 400, 492. III. a coffin, sarcophagus, tomb :-- Þrúh sarcofagum, Wrt. Voc, i. 49, 28. Ðúrh, 85, 78. Ðrúh oððe ofergeweorc mausoleum, 85, 76. Ðá gearwodan hí his líchoman tó bebyrigeanne on stǽnenre ðrúh (byrgenne stǽnenne ðrúh, MS. T.) ... ðá wæs se líchoma sponne lengra ðære ðrýh (ðonne seó ðrýh, MS. B.) ... Hí tóætýcton lengeo ðære ðrýh ... Ðá ðóhton hí ðæt hí óþre ðrýh (ðúrh, MS. B.) sóhton ... Ðá wæs seó ðrýh (þrúh, Bd. M. 296, 28) geméted gerisenlícre lengo ... seó ðrúh wæs ðam líchonian lengre cujus corpori tumulando praeparaveratit sarcofagum lapideum ... invenerunt hoc mensura palmi longius esse sarcofago ... addiderunt longitudini sarcofagi cogitabant aliud quaerere loculum ... Inventum est sarcofagum illud congruae longitudinis, Bd. 4, 11; S. 580, 3-14. Wæs him ðrúh (loculus) gegearwod, 5, 5; S. 617, 39. Ðá stód on ðære stówe sum stǽnen ðrúh ... Ðá lédon ða þegenas ðone Hǽlend ðǽron ... Hí ða ðrúh geinnsegelodon, Homl. Th. ii. 262, 1-11. Þréh sarcophagi, Hpt. Gl. 499, 58. Of þríh de tumba, 450, 73. Se engel áwylte ðæt hlid of ðære ðrýh... Crist mihte, belocenre ðríh, faran of niiddangearde, Homl. Th. i. 222, 8-13. Hí gemétton níwe ðrúh of marmanstáne on cyrcan wíson gesceapene ... Æt ðære hálgan þrýh sind getíðode heofonlíce lácnunga, 564, 19-31. On eallhwítre ðrýh of marmstáne geworht, Cod. Dip. Knibl. iii. 60, 21. Of ðære stǽnenan þrýh ðe stent wiðinnan, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 22. On treówene ðrúh ligneo in locello, Bd. 4,19; S. 588, 21, 25, 31, 34. On ða stǽnenan ðrúh in sarcophago, S. 589, 40. Ða ðúrh (loculum) be him gesett, 5, 5; S. 618, 6. Hí his líc gedydon on þrúh, Blickl. Homl. 191, 33: Guthl. 20; Gdwin. 84, 7, 14. Hé worhte áne ðrúh on hwítum seolfre tó ðæra apostola líce, Homl. Th. ii. 498, 3. ¶ The word seems left in local names, Thrubrook, Througham, v. Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 342. [Me leið þene licome in þere þruh, O. E. Homl. i. 51, 5. Strikeð a stream ut of &thorn-bar; stanene þruh (de sepulchro), Kath. 2480. Ine stonene þruh biclused ... þeos þruh, A. R. 378, 12: Misc. 51, 511. In throghes in sepulcris, Ps. 67, 7. Thurhwe stone, throwe or throwstone sarcofagus, Prompt. Parv. 493. A thrughe mauseolum, Cath. Angl. 386, and see note there. Icel. þró; f. a trough; stein-þró a stone coffin.] v. wæter-þrúh.

þrum. v. tunge-þrum. [Thrumm ofa clothe filamen, Prompt. Parv. 493. Throm licium, Wrt. Voc. 235, 5. O. H. Ger. drum, thrum meta, finis.]

þrust-fell, es; n. A cutaneous disease, leprosy :-- Blaec thrustfel bitiligo, Txts. 45, 296. [Goth. þruts-fill leprosy; þruts-fills leprous. Cf. Icel. þroti a tumour.]

þrútian; p. ode To swell with pride or anger :-- Hé ásende his swurdboran, Riggo geháten, gescrýdne mid his cynelícum gyrelum, swilce hé hit sylf wǽre. Ðá gesæt Benedictus forn ongeán ðam Riggon, ðe mid ðam leáslícum getote inn eode ðearle ðrútigende (he entered in a very pompous manner), Homl. Th. ii. 168, 16. Hé cwæþ hire þus tó mid þrútigendum móde (angrily, passionately), Homl. Skt. i. 10, 273. [Cf. Icel. þrútinn swoln; reiði-þrútinn swoln by anger; þrútna to swell.]

þrútung, e; f. A swelling of the mind from anger, etc., angry emotion :-- Hé befrán mid mycelre ðrútunge, hwæt se brýdguma wǽre, Homl. Skt. i. 7, 76.

þrý, þry-, þrýan. v. þrí, þri-, á-þrýan, ge-þrýde.

þryccan; p. þrycte, þryhte; pp. þrycced, þryht. I. trans. To press, crush, oppress, repress, trample :-- Sittaþ mánfulle on heáhsetlum and hálige under heora fótum þryccaþ perversi resident celso mores solio, sanctaque calcant colla, Bt. 4; Fox 8, 14: Met. 4, 38. Ðæt sió manung hié ne ðrycte ne admonitio eos concuteret, Past. 32; Swt. 213, 22. Ða gástas ðe mé swenctan and ðrycton qui me premebant spiritus, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 37. Ðrycce se magister ða belde reprimatur praecipitatio, Past. 61; Swt. 455, 21. Swá hié se stán and seó eorþe þrycce, Blickl. Homl. 75, 9. Hé mid wédenheortnesse módes ðrycced wæs mentis vesania premebatur, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 4. Untrumnesse ðrycced and hefigod infirmitate pressus, 4, 24; S. 598, 25. II. intrans. To press, force a way :-- Wé ðás wíc magun fótum áfyllan; folc in ðriceþ meara þreátum and monfarum, Exon. Th. 119, 18; Gú. 256. [He wænde mid his crucche us adun þrucche, Laym. 19483. Þre at þe fyrst þrast he þryʒt to þe erþe, Gaw. 1443. A þral þryʒt in þe þrong, Allit. Pms. 42, 135. To thrutch is still used in some dialects; see E. D. S. Pub. Lancashire and Cheshire Glossaries, where see also thrutchings = whey squeezed out whilst the cheese is under pressure. O. H. Ger. drucchen premere, comprimere.] v. bi-, ge-, of-, on-þryccan.

þrycness, e; f. Oppression, affliction, tribulation :-- Biþ ðrycnisse micelu erit tribulatio magna, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 24, 21. In ðrycnisse in tribulationem, 9. [O. H. Ger. thrucnessi pressure (Jn. 16, 33).] v, ge-, of-þrycness.

þrydian, þrýdge, þrydlíce, þrydung, þrýh. v. þreodian, þrýþig, þrýþlíce, þreodung, þrúh.

ðryhte, in Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 31, seems an error for ðý ryfte which glosses clamyde in the sane passage of the Lindisfarne Gloss.

þrylen, þryl-hús, þrym. v. þrilen, þyrl-hús, þrymm.

þrym-cyme, es; m. A glorious coming :-- Ic (Guthlac) on móde máð monna gehwylcne þeódnes þrymcyme (the coming of the angel (wuldres wilboda) each evening to Guthlac), Exon. Th. 177, 20; Gú. 1230.

þrym-cyning, es; m. The king of glory, the Deity :-- Ðú, sigora waldend, þeóda þrymcyning, Met. 20, 205. Þrymcyning rícne, Exon. Th. 317, 7; Mód. 62: Elen. Kmbl. 986; El. 494. Cf. wuldor-cyning.

þrym-dóm, es; m. Glory :-- Ðæt eorðlíce mægn ðe tó dóme (þrymdóme, MS. D.) cumen is, Wulfst. 254, 14. v. þrymness.

þrymen. v. þrimen.

þrym-fæst; adj. Glorious, majestic, illustrious, mighty, (1) as epithet of the Deity :-- Mægencyninga Meotod, þrymfæst þeóden, Exon. Th. 58, 31; Cri. 944. Se brego mǽra, þeóden þrymfæst (Christ), 29, 3; Cri. 457: Andr. Kmbl. 645; An. 323. (2) in other connections :-- Eorl unforcúð ... þeóden þrymfæst, Andr. Kmbl. 957; Au. 479. Þrymfæst þeóden (Noah), Cd. Th. 200, 27; Exod. 263. Ic (the cross) þrymfæst hlifige under heofonum, Rood Kmbl. 166; Kr. 84. Se wyrm (a book-worm) forswealg þrymfæstne cwide, Exon. Th. 432, 11; Rä. 48, 4. Þegnas þrymfæste (angels), Cd. Th. 2, 6; Gen. 15. Þeóda þrymfæste, 114, 22; Gen. 1908: 158, 10; Gen. 2615.

þrym-full; adj. Glorious, magnificent, illustrious, mighty :-- Nergendes þeówen ðrymfull (Judith), Judth. Thw. 22, 23; Jud. 74. Wǽre ðú (the body) ðé wiste wlonc..., þrymful, Exon. Th. 369, 12; Seel. 40. Ic (a storm) ástíge strong, stundum réþe, þrymful þunie, 380, 42; Rä. 2, 4: 386, 25; Rä. 4, 67. Ic bidde ðínne þrymfullan cynescype, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 793. Þeódnas þrymfulle, þegnas wlitige, Andr. Kmbl. 725; An. 363. Þegnas þrymfulle (the disciples), Exon. Th. 34, 12; Cri. 541.

þrym-líc; adj. Magnificent, splendid, glorious :-- Ða apostolas cwǽdon ðæt hit (the temple) wǽre þrymlíc geweore and fæger, Blickl. Homl. 77, 32. Swíðe mycel cyrice and þrymlíc, 125, 20. Þrecwudu þrymlíc, Beo. Th. 2496; B. 1246. Lidweardas þrymlíce, Andr. Kmbl. 489; An. 245. Ðrymlíc swǽsendo, Judth. Thw. 21, 7; Jud. 8. Swá hé ús mǽrlícor gifeþ, swá wé him mǽrlícor þancian scylon; swá þrymlícre ár, swá máre eádmódnes, Wulfst. 261, 21. Sceoldon hié ða menn beforan him drífan gebundene ðe gefongene wǽron, ðæt heora mǽrþa sceoldon ðý þrymlícran beón, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 70, 30.

þrymlíce; adv. Magnificently, splendidly, gloriously :-- Hú þrymlíce ðú (God) ðíne gife dǽlest, Andr. Kmbl. 1093; An. 547: Elen. Kmbl. 1558; El. 781: Exon. Th. 18, 23; Cri. 288. Cyning þrymlíce of his heáhsetle scíneþ, 232, 30; Ph. 514. Wæter wynsumu bearo geondfaraþ þrymlíce, 202, 11; Ph. 68: Menol. Fox 153; Men. 78. Án and þryttig geára hé ríxode þrymlíce on Hierusalem, Homl. Skt. i. 18, 470.

þrymm, es; m. I. a host, great body of people, a force, multitude :-- Eall heofonlíc þrym (cf. ðæt heofonlíce werod, 1. 9) hire tócymes fægnian wolde. Eác wé gelýfaþ ðæt Drihten sylf hire tógeánes cóme all the heavenly host would rejoice at her advent. We believe, too, that the Lord himself would come to meet her, Homl. Th. i. 442, 13. Ðé þanciaþ þúsenda fela, eal engla þrym ánre stefne, Hy. 7, 50: Cd. Th. 267, 11; Sat. 36. Ealle ábúgaþ tó ðé, ðínra engla þrym, Hy. 7, 11. Seó heá duguð and se engla þrym, Exon. Th. 65, 33; Cri. 1064. Glæd gumena weorud,... heofonduguða þrym, 101, 7; Cri. 1655. Hé wile cuman in wolcne and mid engla þrymme, Blickl. Homl. 121, 19. Hé ásende Rapsacen mid micclum ðrymme (with a great army, A.V. Is. 36, 2), Homl. Th. i. 568, 6: ii. 304, 6: Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 531. Se ðe mid micclum þrymme (cf. hé com mid werode, 763) þrang intó ðam temple, 781. Se hundredes ealdor com mid mycclum þrymme, 841. Heora godas ne mihton hí gescyldan wið mínne ðrymm (host or power?), Homl. Th. i. 568, 10. Hý forheówan Heaðobeardna þrym, Exon. Th. 321, 21; Víd. 49: 461, 14; Hö. 35. Cyning (God) on gemót cymeþ þrymma mǽste, 52, 15; Cri. 834. Ðú (Christ) ǽr wǽre eallum geworden worulde þrymmum, 14, 10; Cri. 217. Of ðǽm engelícum þrymmum from the angelic hosts (or glories?), Blickl. Homl. 5, 13: 21, 15. Weras and wíf, wornum and heápum, ðreátum and þrymmum þrungon and urnon, Judth. Thw. 23, 40; Jud. 164. Se ðe herga þrymmas on geweald gebræc, Cd. Th. 127, 14; Gen. 2110. I a. a great body of water :-- Flóda þrym (the host of waters) sealte sǽstreámas sǽlðe habbaþ commoveatur mare et plenitudo ejus, Ps. Th. 95, 11. Ýþa ðrym the host of waves, Beo. Th. 3841; B. 1918. Swá wætres þrym ealne middangeard mereflód þeahte cum diluvium mersisset fluctibus orbem, Exon. Th. 200, 16; Ph. 41: Andr. Kmbl. 3070; An. 1538. Wé þuruh flóda þrym faraþ transivimus per aquam, Ps. Th. 65, 11. Com æfter niht lagustreámas ( = es?) wreáh þrym mid þýstro night covered the great mass of water with darkness, Cd. Th. 148, 1; Gen. 2450. II. force, power, might :-- Ðǽr wæs módigra mægen forbéged, wígendra þrym, Andr. Kmbl. 3142; An. 1574: 6; An. 3. Clang wæteres þrym the water's might withered, i.e. the water was frozen, 2522; An. 1262. On ðære fyrde wǽron feówertig þúsenda and seofon þúsenda swýðe gewǽpnode, and cómon ðá mid þrymme tó Iudéiscum cynne, Homl. Skt. ii. 25, 334. Hié wið Drihtne dǽlan meahton wíc werodes þrymme by the might of their band, Cd. Th. 2, 31; Gen. 27. Eall ðæt ða þeódguman þrymme (by force or gloriously?) geeodon, Judth. Thw. 26, 17; Jud. 332. Se mec mæg écan meahtum, geþeón þrymme, Exon. Th. 427, 14; Rä. 41, 91. Bewyl þrimme (strongly, thoroughly) ðæt ealo on ðære wyrte, Lchdm. ii. 276, 14. Hé þrymmum (mightily, with power) cwehte mægenwudu mundum, Beo. Th. 476; B. 235. Seraphinnes cyan unáþreótendum þrymmum singaþ the seraphim with unwearying powers sing, Exon. Th. 24, 22; Cri. 388. III. glory, majesty, magnificence, greatness, grandeur :-- Mín þrym is from eastewearde middangearde óþ ðæt westanweardne majestas mea peruenit ab occidente usque in orientem, Nar. 25, 24. Drihtenes þrym the majesty of the Lord, 274, 34; Sat. 164: Exon. Th. 37, 26; Cri. 599: Judth. Thw. 22, 30; Jud. 86. Wæs him (the fallen angels) forbíged þrym, wlite gewemmed, Cd. Th. 5, 12; Gen. 70: 306, 11; Sat. 662. Lof wíde sprang, miht and mǽrðo, þrym unlytel, Apstls. Kmbl. 16; Ap. 8. Þín heáhsetl is þrymmes áfylled, Wulfst. 254, 18. Wuldres déma, ðrymmes hyrde, Judth. Thw. 22, 15; Jud. 60: Blickl. Homl. 65, 32. On ðone gefeán ðæs heofonlícan þrymmes, 63, 27. Þremmes, 73, 34. Gif him (a king) geberede, ðæt him wurde oftogen þrymmes and wǽda and þegnunga, Met. 25, 32. Mið ðý cymeþ in ðrymme his cum uenerit in majestate sua, Lk. Skt. Rush. 9, 26, 31: 21, 27: Bd. 3, 22; S. 552, 16: Exon. Th. 106, 22; Gú. 45: Hy. 8, 40. Babilon ðe ic self átimbrede tó kynestóle and tó ðrymme Babylon quam ego aedificavi in domum regni, Past. 4; Swt. 39, 17: Homl. Th. ii. 432, 32. Mín werod fóran ymb mé úton mid þrymme (with magnificent array), and herebeácen and segnas beforan mé lǽddon, Nar. 7, 16. Hé fór mid ðrymme and mid prasse, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 26: Elen. Kmbl. 658; El. 329: Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 7: Met. 25, 13. Ne þreodode hé fore þrymme ðeódcyninges ǽniges, Apstls. Kmbl. 35; Ap. 18: Exon. Th. 112, 7; Gú. 140. Hiá geségon ðrymm (ðrym, Rush.) his uiderunt majestatem ejus, Lk. Skt. Lind. 9, 32: Exon. Th. 63, 23; Cri. 1024: 234, 17; Ph. 541. Ðínes mihtes þrym potentiain tuam, Ps. Th. 70, 18: Exon. Th. 349, 19; Sch. 48, Þone þrym and þa fægernesse ðæs temples the magnificence and beauty of the temple, Blickl. Homl. 77, 30. Wé Gár-Dena in geárdagum þeódcyninga þrym gefrunon, hú ða æþelingas ellen fremedon, Beo. Th. 4; B. 2. Þrymmas weóxon duguða dreámhæbbendra, Cd. Th. 5, 32; Gen. 80: Menol. Fox 468; Gn. C. 4. Eallra þrymma God, Elen. Kmbl. 1036; El. 519. Cyninga setl þrymmum (magnificently) gefrætewad, Wulfst. 253, 22. Heágum þrymmum most gloriously, Cd. Th. 1, 16; Gen. 8. Hé hié álǽdde of helle grunde on ða heán þrymmas (the high glories) heofona ríces, Blickl. Homl. 67, 22. IV. denoting a glorious, magnificent person or object :-- Ealra cyninga þrym (the Deity), Hy. 7, 45: Elen. Kmbl. 1629; El. 816. Ealra þrymma þrym, Exon. Th. 45, 28; Cri. 726. Rodera þrim, heofona heáhfreá, 26, 28; Cri. 423. Wuldres þrym, 6, 13; Cri. 83. Ðú ðe sitst ofer engla ðrymm (qui sedes super cherubim, Is. 37, 16) (or(?) ðrymm = host), Homl. Th. i. 568, 15. Mec (a hurricane) þrymma sumne one of glorious things, Exon. Th. 383, 2; Rä. 4, 4. [Her throme fourti thousand men thai founde (quoted in Halliwell). A god man on þat throm, C. M. 7423. Cf. Heo folc funden feouwer þrumferden (fouruald ferde, 2nd MS.), Laym. 1356. O. Sax. heru-thrummi in mid heruthrummeon violently: Icel. þrymr an alarm, noise (poet. of battle); used, too, in cpds. denoting a warrior.] v. cyne-, éðel-, god-, heáh-, heofon-, here-, hilde-, hyge-, mægen-, ofer-, wuldor-þrymm.

þrymma, an; m. A strong or great man, a warrior :-- Þrymman sceócan, módige maguþegnas, morðres on luste, Andr. Kmbl. 2280; An. 1141. [Cf. Icel. þrymr glorious; and the poet. cpds. in þrym-, denoting a warrior.] v. hilde-þremma.

þrymness. v. heáh-, mægen-þrymness; and cf. þrym-dóm.

þrym-ríce, es; n. A glorious kingdom, heaven :-- Drihten wolde cuman of ðam cynestóle and of ðæm þrymríce hider on ðás world, Blickl. Homl. 105, 11.

þrymsa. v. trimes.

þrym-seld, es; n. A throne :-- Ofer ðrymseld super thronum, Ps. Surt. 9, 5: 88, 30. Þrymseld thronos, Lchdm. i. lxxiii, 22.

þrym-setl, es; n. A throne :-- Heofon ys Godes þrymsetl (thronus), Mt. Kmbl. 5, 34. On Godes þrymsetle, 23, 22. Se cásere feóll of his ðrymsetle, Shrn. 76, 31. Beforan þrymsetle Cristes ante tribunal Christi, Anglia xiii. 387, 311: Blickl. Homl. l01, 29. Throni sind þrymsetl, Homl. Th. i. 342, 34. Gé sitton ofer þrymsetl (thronos) démende twelf mǽgða Israhél, Lk. Skt. 22, 30: Blickl. Homl. 31, 8. [Þrimsetles troni, O. E. Homl. i. 219, 10.]

þrym-sittende; adj. (ptcpl.) Dwelling in glory, inhabiting heaven :-- Seó þrynis þrymsittende, Exon. Th. 286, 3; Jul. 726. Þegn þrym-sittendes wuldorcyninges, Andr. Kmbl. 834; An. 417: 1056; An. 528. Sié ðé þrymsittendum þanc, Elen. Kmbl. 1618; El. 811: Exon. Th. 239, 19; Ph. 623. Écne God þrymsittendne, 268, 20; Jul. 435.

þrym-wealdend; adj. Glory-ruling, ruling heaven :-- Seó Hálige Ðrynnys ðe is þrymwealdend God, Homl. Th. ii. 316, 4. Þrimwealdend, Homl. Skt. ii. 27, 156. Se ðrimwealdenda Scyppend, Homl. Th. i. 112, 10. We sceolon biddan ða hálgan ðæt hí ús þingion tó ðam þrymwealdendum Gode, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 288.

þrynen, þryness, þryng, þrýpel. v. þrinen, þrinness, þring, þrípel.

þryscan to press. v. ge-, of-þryscan.

þrysce, an; f. A thrush :-- Þryssce strutio, Wrt. Voc. i. 63, 2. Þrisce trutius, 281, 23. [Þrusche and þrostle, O. and N. 1659. Thryshe mauiscus, Wülck. Gl. 595, 20. O. H. Ger. drosca.] v. þræsce, þrostle.

ðrysceð, Salm. Kmbl. p. 148, 6. v. þerscan.

þrysman(-ian); p. de, ode To choke, stifle, suffocate; fig. to keep in subjection :-- Alexander .xii. geár ðisne middangeard under him þrysmde and egsade Alexander per duodecim annos trementem sub se orbem ferro pressit, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 142, 22. [O. Frs. thresma, tresma to choke, stifle, strangle.] v. á-, for-, of þrysman(-ian).

þrýste, þrystig, þrýstru, -þryt, -þrytness. v. þríste, þyrstig, þeóstru, ǽ-þryt, á-þrytness.

þrýþ, e; þrýþu (? indecl. v. mód-þrýþu); f. Force, power, strength; the word seems to occur only in the plural, forces, troops, hosts :-- Of ðam stáne wæter cwóman swýþe wynlíce wætera þrýþe (the waters' forces); eduxit aquam de petra, et eduxit tamquam flumina aquas, Ps. Th. 77, 18. Heofon weardiaþ ufan wætra ðrýðe the waters' forces guard heaven above, 103, 3. Sóna wǽrun geworht wætera ðrýþe, 148, 5. Wætra þrýþe stille stondaþ, Exon. Th. 210, 12; Ph. 184. Eorlas fornóman asca þrýþe, wǽpen wælgífru hosts of spears, weapons ravenous for slaughter, have swept off the men, 292, 15; Wand. 99. Þrýþa dǽl some forces(?), 481, 15; Rä. 65, 4. Eóredciestum hí faraþ, folca þrýþum, 220, 27; Ph. 326. Beornþreát monig faraþ folca þrýþum, eóredcystum, 358, 26; Pa. 51. Æfter him folca þrýðum sunu Simeones sweótum cómon, Cd. Th. 199, 18; Exod. 340. Wæteregsa stód þreáta þrýðum the terrible waves stood in battalions, Andr. Kmbl. 751; An. 376. Ecga þrýðum with hosts (or force?) of swords, 2298; An. 1150. ¶ Þrýþum vehemently, mightily, fiercely, greatly :-- Teónlég þrýþum bærneþ þreó eal on án, grimme tógædre, Exon. Th. 60, 15; Cri. 970. Ic seah wiht (a cask), wombe hæfde micle þrýþum geþrungne, 495, 3; Rä. 84, 2. Ic wiht (bellows) geseah, womb wæs þríþum áþrunten, 419, 7; Rä. 38, 2. Þrýðum dealle, Beo. Th. 992; B. 494. ¶ Þrýþ is used in the formation of many proper names. v. Txts. 638. [Icel. þrúðr the name of a daughter of Thor and Sif; it is used in the formation of proper names.] v. hilde-, hyge-, wæter-þrýþ; mód-þrýþu.

þrýþ-ærn, es; n. A splendid hoitse, a palace :-- Nǽfre ic ǽnegum men ǽr álýfde ðrýþærn (cf. heáhsele, 1298; B. 647) Dena. Hafa nú húsa sélest, Beo. Th. 1318; B. 657.

þrýþ-bearn, es; n. A mighty youth :-- Ic ǽfre ne geseah ǽnigne mann, þrýðbearn hæleð, ðé gelícne, steóran ofer stæfnan, Andr. Kmbl. 987; An. 494.

þrýþ-bord, es; n. A strong shield, Elen. Kmbl. 302; El. 151. [Cf. Icel. þrúð-hamarr the mighty hammer of Thor.]

þrýþ-cyning, es; m. A mighty king (the Deity), Andr. Kmbl. 872; An, 436. Cf. þrym-cyning.

þrýþ-full; adj. Mighty, strong, powerful :-- Fóron æfter burgum þegnas þrýðfulle, oft hí þræce rǽrdon, Exon. Th, 243, 17; Jul. 12. Ic (the devil) bebeóde bearnum mínum, þegnum þrýðfullum, ðæt hié ðé hnǽgon, Andr. Kmbl. 2659; An. 1331.

þrýþ-gesteald, es; n. A splendid abode :-- Þeódnes þrýðgesteald (heaven), Exon. Th. 22, 19; Cri. 354. Cf. wuldor-gesteald.

þrýþian. v. ge-þrýþian.

þrýþig (?); adj. Mighty, powerful, strong :-- Hæleð onetton módum þrydge (þrýðge?), Cd. Th. 119, 28; Gen. 1986. [Icel. þrúðigr doughty; and cf. þrúð-móðigr heroic of mood.] v. þrýþlíce for d instead of d, and next word.

þrýþ-líc; adj. Mighty, powerful :-- Rinc manig, þrýðlíc þegna heáp, Beo. Th. 805; B. 400. Ðrýðlíc, 3258; B. 1627.

þrýþlíce (?); adv. Mightily :-- Bissextus ðe on gewunan hæfþ ðæt hé binnan ðam feórðan geáre ealle ðære wucan dagas þrydlíce (þrýþlíce?) æthríne, Anglia viii. 302, 14. Hé oft gesealde healsittendum helm and byrnan swylce hé þrydlícost (þrýþlícost?) óhwǽr feor oððe neáh findan meahte he often gave to his followers helm and corslet such as for greatest strength anywhere far or near he could find (cf. for similar use of the adverb: He sóhte, hú hé sárlícast meahte feorhcwale findan, Exon. Th. 276, 25; Jul. 571), Beo. Th. 5731; B. 2869. [Or, perhaps, þrydlíce = deliberately, might be read. v. þreodian.]

þrýþ-swíþ; adj. Exceedingly powerful :-- Mǽre þeóden unblíðe sæt, þolode ðrýðswýð, þegnsorge dreáh the great prince sat cheerless, he, mighty, suffered, grief for his thanes' loss he endured, Beo. Th. 262; B. 131. Þrýðswýð beheóld, mǽg Higeláces, hú se mánscaða gefaran wolde, 1477; B. 736. [Cf. the proper names Æþel-swíþ, Beorht-swíþ.]

þrýþ-weorc, es; n. A splendid, mighty work :-- Þrýðweorc (a statue; v. the description: Wrætlíce wundorágræfen anlícnes engla ... torhte gefrætwed, wlitige geworht ... anlícnes engelcynna ðæs brémestan, 1423-35; An. 712-8), Andr. Kmbl. 1546; An. 774.

þrýþ-word, es; n. A brave word, noble speech :-- Ðá wæs eft swá ǽr (cf. word wǽron wynsume, 1228; B. 612) inne on healle þrýðword sprecen, ðeód on sǽlum, sigefolca swég, Beo. Th. 1290; 643.

þú; pers. pron. Thou. I. alone :-- Ðis land ðe þú gesihst, Gen. 13, 15. Hwæt eart þú þe þýn ansýn is swylce ánes sceaþan, and hwæt ys ðæt tácen þe þú on uppan þínum exlum byrst? Nicod. 32; Thw. 18, 19. Gewít þú, Abraham, féran ... þú scealt Isaac mé onsecgan, Cd. Th. 172, 24; Gen. 2849: Andr. Kmbl. 1899; An. 952. Ic áscige ðé, ðú Boetius, hwí þú swá manigfeald yfel hæfdest? Bt. 27, 2; Fox 96, 12. Eá lá þú mín Drihten God, hwæt gifst þú mé? Ger. 15, 2. Westú gearo, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 44. Scealtú ceól gestígan, Andr. Kmbl. 439; An. 220. Hié woldon þín onbídan, Blickl. Homl. 233, 27. Se ðe mid þé (ðec mið, Lind. Rush.) wæs qui erat tecum, Jn. Skt. 3, 26. Ne biþ þec mǽlmete, nymþe móres græs, ne rest witod, Cd. Th. 252, 7; Dan. 575. Þú gesyxst þás menigu þé (ðec, Lind.: on ðec, Rush.) ðringende, Mk. Skt. 5, 31. Se hálga gást on þé (ðeh, Lind.: ðec, Rush.) becymþ, Lk. Skt. 1, 35. Þec Sarre áh, Cd. Th. 137, 8; Gen. 2270. Ne forlǽte ic þé, 136, 10; Gen. 2256. I a. used reflexively :-- Ne ondrǽd þú þé, Gen. 15, 1: Lk. Skt. 1, 30. Ðú hafast þé on fyrhðe eorles ondsware, Andr. Kmbl. 1013: An. 507. Nim þé þis ofæt on hand, Cd. Th. 33, 11; Gen. 518. Ásend þé (ðeh, Lind.: þec, Rush.) nyþer, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 6. Þonne þú þé gebidde, 6, 6. II. strengthened with self or ána :-- Þú sylf ne gesyhst þæne beám on þínum ágenum eágan, Lk. Skt. 6, 42. Þú (Juliana) sylfa meaht gecnáwan, Exon. Th. 262, 32; Jul. 341: Cd. Th. 36, 12; Gen. 570. Ðú eart seolfa geong, Andr. Kmbl. 10101; An. 505. Þú meaht þé self geseón, Cd. Th. 38, 23; Gen. 611. Þæt þú þa beorhtan ús sunnan onsende, and þé sylf cyme, Exon. Th. 8, 8; Cri. 114. Hwí swingst þú ána? ... Ne miht þú ána hit ácuman, Ex. 18, 14, 18. Þú ána canst ealra gehygdo, Andr. Kmbl. 135; An. 68. Þé wæs leófra his hyldo, þonne Þín sylfes bearn, Cd. Th. 176, 34; Gen. 2921. Lufa þínne néhstan swá þé sylfne (ðec seolfne, Lind.), Mt. Kmbl. 19, 19. III. combined with þe to express the relative :-- Fæder úre þú þe eart on heofenum Pater noster, qui es in coelis, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 9. Drihten þú þe míne fæderas on þínre gesihþe eodon, God þú þe mé féddest Deus, in cujus conspectu ambulaverunt patres mei, Deus, qui pascit me, Gen. 48, 15: Elen. Kmbl. 1448; El. 726. Wé þé þanciaþ, þe þú hafest on gewealdum hiofen and eorþan, Hy. 8, 12. Eálá þú Hǽlend þurh þíne þrowunga þe þú getuge tó þé ealle ða sáwla, H. R. 15, 3. [Goth. þu; gen. þeina; dat. þus; acc. þuk: O. Sax. thu; gen. thín; dat. thi; acc. thik: O. Frs. thu; gen. thín; dat. acc. thi: O. H. Ger. dú; gen. dín; dat. dir; acc. dih: Icel. þú; gen. þín; dat. þér; acc. þik.] v. gé, git.

þúf, es; m. A tuft. I. applied to foliage :-- Þúfum crinibus (the passage is: Dum virgas steriles atque superfluas flammis de fidei palmite concremant, ut concreta vagis vinea crinibus silvosi inluviem poneret idoli), Germ, 402, 71. v. þúf-bǽre, and following words. II. the crest of a helmet(?). v. Lydus de magistrat. :-- καλoυσι δέ αύτάs oί μέν 'Pωμαιoι ίoύβαs oί δέ βάρβαρoι τoυφάs. v. next section. III. a kind of standard, made with tufts of feathers :-- Illud genus vexilli, quod Romani Tufam (tufa genus vexilli ex confertis plumarum globis, v. Du Cange s. v.), Angli vero Tuuf (v. ll. thuuf, thuf, Txts. 137, 1), ante eum ferri solebat (the A.-S. version has only :-- Him mon symle ðær tácen beforan bær), Bd. 2, 16. Ðá wæs þúf hafen, segen for sweótum, Elen. Kmbl. 246; El. 123. Sunu Simeones sweótum cómon, þúfas wundon ofer gárfare, Cd. Th. 199, 22; Exod. 342. Hié gesáwon þúfas þunian, 187, 32; Exod. 158. v. sige-þúf.

þúf-bǽre; adj. Bearing foliage, leafy :-- Bóh þúfbǽres píntreówes frondentis pini stipitem, Hpt. Gl. 458, 67.

þúfe; adj. Tufted, having leaves in tufts(?), bushy :-- Þúfe þistel sow thistle, Lchdm. ii, 312, 20. v. ge-þúf, þífe-þorn, and preceding and following words.

þúfian; p. ode To become leafy or bushy :-- Þúfaþ and wridaþ frutescit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 38, 13.

þúfig; adj. Full of leaves, with thick foliage :-- Þúfigum frondosis, Wrt. Voc, ii. 38, 14.

þúft, es; m. A place full of bushes :-- Gewrid oþþe þúftas frutecta, Wrt. Voc. ii. 38, 25. v. þýfel.

þuhsian, þux[s]ian; p. ode To make misty, dark :-- Eall upheofon biþ sweart and gesworcen and swýðe geþuhsod (cf. Dóm. L. 8, 105, which has geþuxsað), deorc and dimhíw and dwolma sweart, Wulfst. 137, 9. [Cf. Icel. þoka fog, mist.]

þullíc. v. þus-líc.

þúma, an; m. The thumb :-- Ðúma, thúma, thúmo pollux, Txts. 89, 1617. Swá greáte swá ðín þúma, Lchdm. iii. 18, 25. Ic com mid handa on ðone stán drífan, and se ðúma gebrocen wæs, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 24. Gif se þúma biþ of áslægen, ðam sceal .xxx. sciɫɫ. tó bóte. Gif se nægl biþ of áslegen, ðam sculon .v. sciɫɫ. tó bóte, L. Alf. pol. 56; Th. i. 94, 28. Gif man þúman of áslæhþ, .xx. sciɫɫ. Gif þúman nægl of weorðeþ, .iii. sciɫɫ. gebéte, L. Ethb. 54; Th. i. 16, 9. Hé æthrán his swíðran þúman (pollicem manus ejus dextrae), Lev. 8, 23. Þúman pollices, Wrt. Voc. ii. 82, 48: Ex. 29, 20. [Mid te þume, A. R. 18, 14. Þe nayle of þe þoume, Ayenb. 43, 14. To the thowme, Rel. Ant. i. 190, 22 (end of 14th cent.). Thombe, Chauc., Piers P. Thowmbe, Prompt. Parv. 492. In other glossaries of 15th cent. it is spelt thome, Wit. Voc. i. 184 (where also thombe): 207, col. 2: thowme, 186, col. 1: thombe, 179: 247, col. 2: (in same glossary also) thumb, 246, col. 1. O. Frs. thúma: O. L. Ger. thúmo: O. H. Ger. dúmo: Dan. tomme: Swed. tumme.] v. þýmel.

þumle entrails :-- Tharme, thumle viscera, Wrt. Voc. ii. 123, 72.

-þunca, -þuncan, þundende, þune-líc, þuner. v. æf-þunca, be-þuncan, þunian, þunor-líc, þunor.

þung, es; m. A poisonous plant, (vegetable) poison; the word is used to translate aconitum, eleborus, mandragina, as well as the more general term toxa (cf. letali toxa = mortali veneno, Hpt. Gl. 427, 54) :-- Þung, woedeberge eleborus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 107, 12: 29, 21. Þung mandragina, 59, 42: aconita, i. 31, 58: aconitum, 67, 16: toxa, 68, 26: coxa (r. toxa), 67, 15. Þung toxa or toxicum (printed toxi pang), 289, 52. Gif mon þung ete, áþege buteran and drince; se þung gewít on ða buteran. Eft wiþ ðon, ásleá him mon fela scearpena on ðam scancan, ðonne gewít út ðæt áttor þurh ða scearpan, Lchdm. ii. 154, 1-4. Sealf wiþ ðam miclan líce ... þung..., 78, 25. Ámber fulne holenrinda and æscrinda and þunges, 332, 16. Nim ðone miclan þung, 154, 14. Thungas, þungas aconita, Txts. 36, 23. Þungas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 4, 20. v. cluf-þung; f.

þunge, -þungen. v. þeón, ful-, ge-, heáh-þungen.

þungenness, e; f. Excellence, virtue :-- Mid hú monigum médum mín fæder and mín móder mé [wǽron] biddende, ðæt ic forléte míne (ge-?) þungenesse (the speaker wished to become a monk), Shrn. 36, 26. v. ge-þungenness.

þunian; p. ode. I. to stand out, be prominent, be lifted up, stick up :-- On ðam forman dæge on ðam middangeard þunaþ gesceapen primo dierum quo mundus extat conditus, Hymn. Surt. 4, 4. Þunie (þu me, Th.) him gewinnes wearn ofer wealles hróf may much strife be lifted up for it above the top of its wall; circumdabit eam super muros ejus iniquitas, Ps. Th. 54, 9. Hié gesáwon fyrd wegan ... þúfas þunian they saw the host march ... saw the standards lift their tops above the ranks, Cd. Th. 187, 32; Exod, 158. Þindan and þunian, þecene hebban, Exon. Th. 431, 17; Rä. 46, 2. I a. fig to be lifted up, be proud, cf. colloquial to be stuck up :-- Wǽre ðú (the body) ðé wiste wlanc, þrymful ðunedest, Soul Kmbl. 79; Seel. 40. v. on-þunian, and cf. þennan. II. to make a noise, to sound, resound, creak :-- Ic (a storm) ástíge strong, þrymful þunie, Exon. Th. 380, 42; Rä. 2, 4. Sundwudu þunede the ship's timbers creaked, Beo. Th. 3817; B. 1906. Þunode oððe hleóþrede increpuerit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 44, 14. Dynedan and þunedan crepitabant, 21, 17. Mere thundendan (thuniendan? but cf.(?) Icel. Þundr a name of Odin; Þund the name of a mythical river) bombosae (vocis mugitum), Wrt. Voc. ii. 77, 59. v. tó-þuniende, þunung, ge-þun, þunor, and cf. Lat. tonare, tonitrus.

þunor (-ar, -er, -ur), es; m. I. thunder (implying not only sound but also striking); tonitrus, fulmen :-- Þunor tonitruum vel tonitrus, Wrt. Voc, i. 52, 45: 76, 34: Blickl. Homl. 91, 34. Ðuner (ðunor, Rush.), Jn. Skt. Lind. 12, 29. Ðunar byð hlúdast, Menol. Fox 467; Gn. C. 4. Ðunor cymð of hǽtan and of wǽtan ... seó hǽte and se wǽta winnaþ him betweónan mid egeslícum swége, and ðæt fýr ábyrst ús ðurh lígett ... Swá háttra sumor, swá mára ðunor and líget on geáre. Ða þuneras (þunras, MS. R.) ... on Apocalipsin ... ne belimpaþ tó ðam ðunere (þunre, MS. R.) ðe on ðyssere lyfte oft egeslíce brastlaþ. Se byp hlúd for ðære lyfte brádnysse, and frecenfull for ðæs fýres sceótungum, Lchdm. iii. 290, 2-15. Þunor tóslóg heora godes hús aedes Salutis ictu fulminis dissoluta est, Ors. 4, 2; Swt. 160, 18. Án þonor tóslóg hiora Capitoliam fulmine Capitolium ictum, 6, 14; Swt. 268, 29. Hiene ofslóg in þunor fulmine ictus interiit, 6, 29; Swt. 278, 17. Ðunres bearn filii tonitrui, Mk. Skt. 3, 17. Þunres slege a clap of thunder. Nicod. 23; Thw. 13, 3. Þunres slege fulgura, Ps. Spl. T. 96, 4. Stefne ðunures micles, Rtl. 47, 22. God ásende rén mid ðunore, and manega mean mid ðam ðunore swulton, Homl. Skt. i. 15, 93. Beóþ myccle þuneras on heofnum, Blickl. Homl. 93, 15. Ðá sceolde hé sendan ðunras and lýgetu, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 13. II. one of the Teutonic gods, to whom, among the Roman, Jupiter seems to have been considered most nearly to correspond; hence Jupiter is translated by Þunor :-- Þunor oððe Ðúr Joppiter, Wrt. Voc. ii. 47, 33. Þunor, 93, 59. Þuner Jovem, 112, 5. II a. it is mostly in connection with the fifth day of the week that the word occurs :-- On ðam fíftan dæge ðe gé Ðunres hátaþ, Hontl. Th. ii. 242, 23. Ðunres-dæges nama is of Iove, Anglia viii. 321, 16. On ðone Hálgan Ðunres-dæg, L. Alf. 5; Th. i. 64, 24. Tó ðam hálgan Þurres-dæge, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 621. Gang on Þunres-ǽfen (Wednesday evening), Lchdm. ii. 346, 10. It is found also in local names, e.g. Ðunres-feld. Ðunres-leáh, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 342. [Þa Þunre heo ʒiuen þunres dæi (þoris dai, and MS.), Laym. 13929.] III. a thane of king Egbert of Kent :-- Ermenréd gestrýnde twégen sunu ða syððan wurðan gemartirode of Ðunore, Chr. 640; Erl. 26, 4. See for more details of the event thus recorded, Lchdm. iii. 422 sqq., and the Latin charter, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 236. [O. L. Ger. Thuner :-- Ec forsacho Thuner ende Uuóden: O. Frs. thuner, tonger; Thunres-dei: O. H. Ger. donar; Toniris tac: Icel. Þórr. See Grmm. D. M. c. 8.] v. þór, þúr.

þunor-bodu a gilthead (a kind of fish) :-- Ðunorbodu sparus, Wrt. Voc. i. 55, 71 (in a list 'nomina piscium').

þunor-cláfre, -clǽfre, an; f. Bugle; ajuga reptans (cf. Þundre clovere consolida media, Wrt. Voc. i. 140, 68, and consound in E. D. S. Pub. Plant Names) :-- Þis is seó æðeleste eáhsealf ... Genim ... ðunor-clǽfran blósman, Lchdm. iii. 4, 7. Ðunorcláfran, i. 374. 4.

þunor-líc; adj. Thunderous, of thunder :-- Þune[r]lícum cirme tonitruali fragore, Hpt. Gl. 451, 47.

þunor-rád, e; f. Thunder, a peal of thunder :-- Ne bip þǽr líget ... ne þunerrád (þunor, Wulfst. 139, 31) non fulmina, ... tonitru, Dóm. L. 16, 263. Ðá com þunerrád and légetsleht and ofslóh ðone mǽstan dǽl, Shrn. 57, 35. Ðá wæs geworden mycel þunorrád, Blickl. Hornl. 145, 29. Ðonne þunorrád biþ, ne sceþeð ðam men ðe ðone stán (agate) mid him hæfð, Lchdtn. ii. 296, 30: iii. 374, col. 2. From stefne ðunurráde (þunuráde, Spl.) a voce tonitrui, Ps. Surt. 103, 7: 76, 19. Þunur-ráda ðínre tonitrris tui, Ps. Spl. 76, 17. Hió áhóf ðæt heáfod of ðære mýsan somod mid ðære þunoráde, Lchdm. iii. 374, col. 2. Biddaþ Drihten, ðæt his þunorráda (tonitrua) geswícon, Ex. 9, 28, 33, 34. Gif lígette and ðunorráde (tonitrua) eorþan and lyfte brégdon, Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 12. Þuneráda, Hpt. Gl. 509, 22. Ðunorráda hlynn, Wulfst. 186, 3. Mycel mægen liégetslyhta and þuneráda, Lchdm. iii. 374, col. 2. Gód wið lígetta and wið þunorráda, ii. 290, 16. Hé worhte þunorráda on heofonum intonuit de caelum Dominus, Ps. Th. 17, 13: Ex. 9, 23. [Cf. Icel. reið a clap of thunder, from the notion of Thor driving through the air. See Grmm. D. M. c. 8.]

þunorrád-líc; adj. Thunderous, of thunder :-- Of þunerádlícan cerme tonitruali fragore, Hpt. Gl. 451, 46.

þunorrád-stefn, e; f. A voice of thunder :-- Wæs þunurrádstefn strang on hweóle vox tonitrui tui in rota, Ps. Th. 76, 14.

þunor-wyrt, e; f. Thunder-plant (v. E. D. S. Pub. Plant Names), house-leek; sempervivum tectorum :-- Nime þunorwyrt, Lchdm. ii. 118, 2. [On plants that were a protection against thunder, see Grmm. D. M. pp. 167, 1147.]

þunres dæg. v. þunor, II a.

þunrian; p. ode To thunder :-- Hé is mægenþrymmes God and hé þunraþ ofer manegum wætertnn Deus majestatis intonuit, Dominus super multas aquas, Ps. Th. 28, 3. Hit ðunraþ tonat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Zup. 128, 17. Hit hwílum þunraþ, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 44, 34: Met. 28, 55. Seó menio sǽdon ðæt hyt þunrode (tonitruum factum esse), Jn. Skt. 12, 29. Þunerode of heofonum Drihten intonuit de coelo Dominus, Ps. Spl. T. 17, 15. [O. H. Ger. donarón.]

þunring, e; f. Thundering, thunder :-- Swá stór þunring and lǽgt wes, swá ðæt hit ácwealde manige men, Chr. 1085; Erl. 219, 22.

þunring, e; f. A creaking, a rattle :-- Þununge crepitum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 25. Þununga crepundiorum, 23, 64.

þun-wang, e: -wange, -wenge, an; f. (and n.? Wange, wenge are both found neuter, though also the plurals wangas, wangan occur) A temple :-- Þunwang timpus, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 50. Þunwange tempus, 64, 32. Þunwencge (-wenge, -wange) timþus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 32; Zup. 59, 5: 298, 2. Gif ic on þunwange gereste si dedero requiem temporibus meis, Ps. Th. 131, 4. Bufan his þunwengan supra tempus capitis ejus, Jud. 4, 21. Þunwonge tympora, Wrt. Voc. i. 282, 44. Þunwonga sár dolor timporum, ii. 143, 34: Lchdm. i. 156, 22. Þunwongena timporum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 87, 61. Þunwangena, Anglia xiii. 37, 291. Þunwængum (-wengum, Spl. C.) timporibus, Ps. Lamb. 131, 5. Ðunwoengum, Rtl. 181, 13. Þunwange malas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 57, 30. Smire ðone man mid on þa þunwonge, Lchdm. ii. 334, 15. Smyre ða ðunwonga, i. 216, 8. Gníd on ða þunwunge, 380, 15. Smire ða þunwangan mid, ii. 20, 8. Þunwongan, 306, 2. [Þungana, Lchdm. iii. 292, 22. Lay on the forheyd and on the thunwanges, Rel. Ant. i. 54, 26, 43 (quoted in Halliwell's Dict.). Thunwonge of mannys heede tempus, Prompt. Parv. 493. Thunwange tempus, Cath. Angl. 387, and see note. Thonwangnes, Wrt. Voc, i. 185, col. 2 (15th cent.). O. H. Ger. dun-wengi: Icel. þunn-wangi; m.; þunn-wengi; n.] v. (?) þynne and wange.

þúr, es; m. Thor, the god who most nearly corresponded to Jupiter; hence Jupiter is translated by Þúr :-- Þunor oððe Ðúr Joppiter, Wrt. Voc. ii. 47, 33. Þúres módur Latona, 53, 4. On Galienus dagum ðæs káseres hét Necetius Róme burge geréfa hí lǽdan tó Þúres deófulgeldum, Shrn. 128, 9. Ðys godspel sceal on Þúres-dæg, Rubc. Jn. 7, 40. On Þúrs-dæg, Rubc. Jn. 5, 30. The word is found also in local names, e.g. Ðúres-leáh, Ðúrgártún, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. vi. 342. [A. R. þurs-dei.] v. Þunor, Þór.

þuren. v. ge-þuren.

[þurfan;] prs. ic, he þearf, ðú þearft, pl. wé þurfon; p. þorfte; subj. prs. is þurfe, þyrfe, pl. þurfen, þyrfen; prs. ptcpl. þurfende, þyrfende To need. I. to be in need, have need of something, (1) absolute :-- Gif ðú cláþa þe má on hæfst, þonne ðú þurfe, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 15. Ðú gæderast máre, þonne ðú þurfe (þyrfe, Cott. MS.), 14, 2; Fox 44, 8. Nis hit gód, ðæt hié sién on ðam láðe leng, þonne ðú þurfe, Cd. Th. 243, 3; Dan. 430. Sam hí þyrfon, sam hí ne þurfon, hí willaþ þeáh, Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92, 30. Ða þurfende pauperes, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 5, 3. Þyrfendra egentum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 142, 69. (2) with gen. of thing needed :-- Beó ðé be ðínum, and lǽt mé be mínum; ne gyrne ic ðínes, ne ðú mínes ne þearft (dærft, Lchdm. iii. 288, 9), L. O. 13; Th. i. 184, 16. Ne ðearf hé nánes þinges búton ðæs, ðe hé on him selfum hæfþ, Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 8: Cd. Th. 204, 27; Exod. 425. Hwæt ðurfe (ðurfu, Lind.) wé leng gewitnisse quid adhuc egemus testibus, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 26, 65. Ða þurfon swíþe lytles, ðe máran ne willniaþ þonne genóges, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 13. Ne ðorfte hé ná máran fultumes, 26, 2; Fox 92, 22. Hí his sume ðorfton, Past. pref.; Swt. 9, 16. Ðǽm ðe micles ðorfton ... ðæm ðe lytles ðyrfe, 44; Swt. 325, 5-7. Swá welig ðæt hé nánes þinges máran ne þurfe, Bt. 24, 2; Fox 82, 4. (3) with acc. :-- Múþa gehwylc mete þearf, Exon. Th. 341, 12; Gn. Ex. 125. Mete bygeþ, gif hé máran (or gen.?) þearf, 340, 14; Gn. Ex. 111. II. to need to do something. (1) where a want has to be satisfied, a purpose to be accomplished, or the like :-- Ðú meaht ðé self geseón, swá ic hit ðé secgan ne þearf, Cd. Th. 38, 24; Gen. 611. Gif hit sié sumor, dó wermódes sǽdes dust tó; gif hit sié winter, ne heath ðú ðone wermód tó dón, Lchdm. ii. 180, 29. Hé ne ðearf ná faran fram stówe tó stówe, Homl. Th. i. 158, 4. Hwæt ðurfon (þurfe, Bod. MS.) wé nú má sprecan? Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 22. Hí witan, hwǽr hí eáfiscas sécan þurfan (where they must seek them, if they are to find them), Met. 19, 25. Syle mé ðæt wæter, ðæt mé ne þyrste, ne ic ne ðurfe hér feccan, Jn. Skt. 4, 15. Ðý læs wé leng sprecen ymbe ðonne wé þyrfon (wé ne þyrfen, Cott. MS.), Bt. 34, 2; Fox 136, 14. (2) where the need is based on grounds of right, fitness, law, morality, etc., to be bound to do something because it is right, etc. :-- Nó ðú mínne þearft hafelan hýdan the duty of burying me will not fall upon you, Beo. Th. 895; B. 445. Gif hé gewitnesse hæbbe, ne þearf hé ðæt geldan (he is not bound by law to pay), L. Alf. 28; Th. i. 52, 3. Ne þearf hé him onfón, L. In. 67; Th. i. 146, 4. Mé ðæt riht ne þinceþ, ðæt ic óleccan þurfe Gode, Cd. Th. 19, 13; Gen. 290. Ðæt ðú ne wéne, ðæt ðú Iudéa leásungum gelýfan þurfe that you may not think, that you are bound to believe the Jews' false tales, Blickl. Homl. 177, 35. Hé suiðor his mód gebint tó ðǽm unnyttran weorcum, ðonne hé ðyrfe (more than is fitting for him), Past, 4; Swt. 37, 21. Ðonne mon má fæst, ðonne hé ðyrfe (more than religion requires), 43; Swt. 313, 2. Gif ða gyltas tó ðam hefelíce beón, ðæt hé tó bisceopes dóme tǽcan þurfe (he must do it because the church has prescribed such a course), L. Ecg. P. i. 11; Th. ii. 176, 30. Gedón hí ðæt hira synna ne ðyrfen (need not, because of the divine ordinance) bión gesewene æt ðæm nearwan dóme, Past. 53; Swt. 413, 16. (3) with the idea of compulsion, or where the inevitability of a consequence is expressed; in some cases the word might be taken almost as an auxiliary, of much the same force as shall; to be obliged, be compelled by destiny :-- Gé ne þurfon hér leng wunian you shall not be obliged to stop here longer, Ex. 9, 28. Nis ðæt þonne nǽnig man, ðæt þurfe ðone deópan grund ðæs hátan léges gesécean, Blickl. Homl. 103, 14. Næs him ǽnig þearf, ðæt hé sécean þurfe there was no need to force him to seek, Beo. Th. 4984; B. 2495. Feallaþ ofor ús, ðæt wé ne þurfon ðysne ege leng þrowian, Blickl. Homl. 93, 34. Þý læs gyt láð Gode weorðan þyrfen lest the inevitable consequence, your becoming hateful to God, follow, Cd. Th. 36, 26; Gen. 577. Þý læs ða týdran mód ða gewitnesse wendan þurfe, Exon. Th. 147, 21; Gú. 730. Náuht ðæs ðe hé ondréde, ðæt hé forleósan þorfte (should be obliged to lose), Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92, 22. Hwý him on hige þorfte (should necessarily follow) á þý sǽl wesan, Met. 15, 9. Hú hé ðisse worulde wynna þorfte læsast brúcan how he should be least under the necessity of enjoying the delights of this world, Exon.Th. 122, 20; Gú. 308. Ðæt ðæt micle morð menn ne þorfton þolian that men would not necessarily have to suffer that great perdition, Cd. Th. 40, 17; Gen. 640. (4) to have good cause or reason for doing something :-- Ðú sorge ne þearft beran on ðínum breóstum, Cd. Th. 45, 28; Gen. 733. Ic ðé scylde, ne þearft ðú forht wesan, 131, 5; Gen. 2171: Blickl. Homl. 191, 18: Beo. Th. 3353: B. 1674. Ðú ðec sylfne ne þearft swíþor swencan, gif ðú God lufast, Exon. Th. 245, 18; Jul. 46. Ðæt is genóg sweotol, ðætte nánne mon ðæs tweógean ne þearf, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 34, 34: Blickl. Homl. 41, 36: 83, 9. Ne þearf ðæs nán mon wénan, 101, 13: 109, 30. Ne ðarf mon ná ðone medwísan lǽran, ðæt hé ða lotwrencas forlǽte, forðonðe hé hié næfþ, Past. 30; Swt. 203, 15. Ne þearf hé gefeón he will have no cause to rejoice, Cd. Th. 92, 4; Gen. 1523: Exon. Th. 449, 9; Dóm. 68: Beo. Th. 4016; B. 2006. Mé wítan ne ðearf Waldend, 5475; B. 2741: Cd. Th. 165, 7; Gen. 2728. Ne ðurfe wé ceorian, Homl. Th. ii. 438, 27. Ne þurfan gé nóht besorgian, hwæt gé sprecan, Blickl. Homl. 171, 18. Ne þurfe gé beón unróte, 135, 24. Ne þurfon gé wénan, Exon. Th. 142, 16; Gú. 645. Ne þurfon mé hæleð ætwítan, Byrht. Th. 139, 4; By. 249. Ic eów secgan mæg, ðæt gé ne ðyrfen leng murnan, Judth. Thw. 23, 33; Jud. 153. Sume him ondrǽdaþ earfoþu swíþor þonne hý þyrfen, Bt. 39, 11; Fox 228, 24. Gif hé náne ǽhta næfde, ne þorfte hé nánne feónd ondrǽdan ... Gif ðú swelces nánuuht næfdest ne þorftest ðú ðé nánwuht ondrǽdan, 14, 3; Fox 46, 23-28. Nö hé ðære feohgyfte scamigan þorfte, Beo. Th. 2057; B. 1026: 2147; B. 1071. Hwǽr hé ðara nægla swíðast wénan þorfte where he had most reason to expect that he should find the nails, Elen. Kmbl. 2206; El. 1104. Nó wé þus swíðe swencan þorftan, þǽr ðú freónda lárum hýran wolde, Exon. Th. 129, 19; Gú. 423. Ne þorfton hí hlúde hlihhan, Cd. Th. 5, 17; Gen. 73. Hí gearowe wǽron deáðe sweltan, gif hí ðorfton (if the occasion demanded it), Homl. Th. ii. 130, 5. (5) where the need arises from an advantage to be gained, or purpose to be served, to be use, to be good for a person to do something :-- Ne þearf ic yrfestól bytlian it is no good or use for me to build an hereditary seat, Cd. Th. 131, 14; Gen. 2176. Ne þearft ðú sæce rǽran, Elen. Kmbl. 1876; El. 940. III. to owe, cf. sculan, I :-- Ne þearf ic N. sceatt ne scilling, ne pænig ne pæniges weorð; ac eal ic him gelǽste ðæt ðæt ic him scolde, L. O. 11; Th. i. 182, 9. [Goth. þarf, pl. þaurbum; prs.; þaurfta; p.; þaurbands; prs. ptcpl.: O. Sax. tharf, pl. thurƀun; prs.; thorfta; p.: O. Frs. thurf, thorf, pl. thurvon; prs.: O. H. Ger. darf tharf, pl. durfun, thurfun; prs.; dorfta; p.: Icel. þurfa; þarf, pl. þurfum; prs. þurfti; p.; þurfandi; prs. ptcpl.] v. be-þurfan; þearfan, þearfian, þorfan.

þurh, þurg, þuruh, þorh, þorch, þerh, þerih, þærh; prep. Through. A. with acc. v. also C. I. local, (1) marking motion into and out at the opposite side :-- Þorh (dorh, ðorh) ludgaet per seudoterum, Txts. 84, 741. Ðurh ða duru wé gáð in per hostium intramus, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Zup. 269, 18: Cd. Th. 29, 8; Gen. 447. Gangaþ inn þurh (ðerh, Lind.) ðæt nearwe geat, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 13: Lk. Skt. 18, 25. Syllan drincan þurh þyrel, Exon. Th. 485, 1; Rä. 71, 7. Ðá férde hé þurh (ðerh, Lind.) hyra mydlen, Lk. Skt. 4, 30. Wé þuruh fýr faraþ and þuruh flóda þrym transivimus per ignem et aquam, Ps. Th. 65, 11. Hé wæs on breóstum wund þurh ða hringlocan, Byrht. Th. 136, 2; By. 145. (1 a) where the preposition follows the governed word :-- Duru, ðe is wæs þurh hider onsended, Blickl. Homl. 9, 1. (2) marking motion over or in, cf. geónd :-- Hé férde þurh ða ceastre and ðæt castel bodiende, Lk. Skt. 8, 1. Hé ástyraþ ðis folc, lǽrende þurh ealle ludéam, 23, 5. Hé hleóþrede þurh hátne líg, Exon. Th. 185, 4; Az. 2. Ic þurh ðín hús middan eode perambulabam in medio domus meae, Ps. Th. 100, 2. Ðæt fýr nimeþ þurh foldan gehwæt, Exon. Th. 62, 18; Cri. 1003. II. temporal, marking continuity, through, for, during :-- Ðurh twégen dagas per biduum, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 2. Þurh ealne dæg tota die, Ps. Th. 73, 21. Þuruh, 87, 9. Ðorh syndrie neht per singulas noctes, Ps. Surt. 6, 7. Þurh scírne dæg Exon. Th. 439, 15; Rä. 59, 4. Þurh lytel fæc, 115, 6; Gú. 185. Þurh ælða tíd, 152, 11; Gú. 807. Þurh ealra worulda woruld, Ps. Th. 71, 5. III. other relations, (1) marking the agent, through, by :-- Þorch (dorh, ðorh) byrgeras per vispelliones, Txts. 86, 760. Ðerih, 151, 6: Wá ðam menn þurh ðone ðe (ðe ðorh hine, Lind.) byð mannes Sunu belǽwed, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 24: Chr. 1014; Erl. 151, 8. Hié hié, wendon ealla ðurh wíse wealhstódas on hiora ágen geðióde, Past. pref.; Swt. 7, 4. Seó hergung wæs ðurh Alaricum geworden, Bd. 1, 11; S. 480, 11. Hé ða bisceopðéninge ðurh hine sylfne (per se) ðénian ne mihte, 4, 23; S. 594, 27. Wiste Cúðberhtus eal be ðam wífe, and wolde þurh hine sylfne hí geneósian (would visit her in person, the visit should be made by himself,) Homl. Th. ii. 142, 11. Gif hwá ymb cyninges feorh sierwie þurh hine oþþe þurh wreccena feormunge (by his own direct acts or by the harbouring of criminals), L. Alf. pol. 4; Th. i. 62, 15. (1 a) preposition following case :-- Wá ðam ðe hig þurh (ðerh, Lind. Rush.) cumaþ uae illi per quem ueniunt, Lk. Skt. 17, 1. (2) marking the means or instrument, through, by, by means of, by use of :-- Swá he spræc þurh hys hálegra wítegena múð (per os sanctorum), Lk. Skt. 1, 70. Hé ðurh ðæra wealhstóda múð ðam cyninge bodade, Homl. Th. ii. 128, 21: 148, 12. Ic þurh múþ sprece mongum reordum, Exon. Th. 390, 13; Rä. 9, 1. Þurh his sylfes múð, 464, 6; Hö. 83: Andr. Kmbl. 1301; An. 651. Tódæl þurh seofon divide by seven, Anglia viii. 304, 41. Cnuca hý þurh hý selfe pound it by itself (per se), Lchdm, i. 130, 4: 192, 17. Wé ðæt gehýrdon þurg hálige béc, Apstls. Kmbl. 126; Ap. 63. Þurg wítgena wordgerýno, Elen. Kmbl. 577; El. 289. Hié lufodon wísdóm and ðurh ðone hié begeáton welan, Past. pref.; Swt. 5, 14. Hé geférde þurh feóndes cræft, Cd. Th. 29, 21; Gen. 453: 1, 21; Gen. 11: Blickl. Homl. 17, 11. Þuruh, Ps. Th. 70, 1. Hé hié tó heofona ríce laþode þurh his wundorgeweorc and þurh ða godspellícan láre, Blickl. Homl. 7, 9: Andr. Kmbl. 1949; An. 977. Ðæt hí heora synna wítnade and bétte ðurh fæsten and ðurh wópas and ðurh gebedo. Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 25. Wé witon unrím ðara monna ðe ða écan gesǽlða gesóhtan nallas ðurh ðæt án ðæt hí wilnodon ðæs líchomlícan deáðes ac eác manegra sárlícra wíta hié gewilnodon wið ðan écan lífe multos scimus beatitudinis fructum non morte solum, verum etiam doloribus suppliciisque quaesisse, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 36, 3. Gif hine mon geyflige mid slege oþþe mid bende oþþe þurh wunde, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 4. (3) marking the efficient cause or reason, through, in consequence of, as the result of, by reason of, on account of :-- Heofonríces duru belocen standeþ þurh ða ǽrestan men, Blickl. Homl. 9, 2. Wæs micel unfrið þurh sciphere, Chr. 1001; Erl. 136, 2. Gif seó hringe nele up þurh his ánes tige, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 47: Ps. Th. 64, 11. Ðurh Æþelrédes hǽse (jubente Ædilredo) Wilfriþ hine tó biscope gehálgode, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 29: Andr. Kmbl. 3038; An. 1522. Ic þurh his willan ásend wæs Dei voluntate missus sum, Gen. 45, 8: Exon. Th. 194, 3; Az. 133. Þurh clǽne gecynd in consequence of a pure nature, Hy. 9, 11: 7, 24. Ðá mihte heó wíde geseón þurh (in consequence of) ðæs láðan lǽn, Cd. Th. 38, 3; Gen. 601: 39, 25-27; Gen. 631-2. Þurg, Apstls. Kmbl. 25; Ap. 13. Hé ðurh his gylt on ðám inrum þeóstrum befeóll, Homl. Th. ii. 556, 20: Cd. Th. 21, 29, 30; Gen. 331-2. Þurh ða eáðmódnesse mid geleáfullum hé gefylde ðysne middangeard, Blickl. Homl. 11, 7. Hine mǽtte, and hé rehte ðæt his bróðrum; þurh ðæt hig hine hatedon ðe swíðor (quae causa majoris odii seminarium fuit), Gen. 37, 5. Hit wearð gelet þurh ðæt ðe Magnus hæfde micelne scypcræft, Chr. 1048; Erl. 173, 7: Wulfst. 161, 1. Wearð ðær ǽfre ðuruh sum þing fleám ástiht, Chr. 998; Erl. 134, 19. Þurh hwæt ðú ðus hearde ús eorre wurde, Elen. Kmbl. 799; El. 400. Man þurh ǽlc þingc rihtwísnesse lufige. Wulfst. 266, 18. (4) marking motive or feeling that prompts action, through, from :-- Ðurh (ðerh, Lind.: ðærh, Rush.) andan hine sealdon ða heáhsacerdas, Mk. Skt. 15, 10. Se forhátena spræc þurh feóndscipe, Cd. Th. 38, 21; Gen. 610. Ic Gode þegnode þurh holdne hyge, 37, 7; Gen. 586: Ps. Th. 77, 38. Hyre þurh yrre ágeaf andsware fæder feóndlíce, Exon. Th. 249, 25; Jul. 117. Gif wé þurh eáþmódnesse eall áræfnaþ, Blickl. Homl. 13, 91. Hí fricgaþ þurh fyrwet, Exon. Th. 6, 30; Cri. 92. (5) marking the circumstance which renders state or action possible or right, through, in virtue of, by right of :-- Ðæt Martinus wǽre wyrðe ðæs hádes, and ðæt folc gesǽlig ðurh swelcne biscop that Martin was worthy of the office, and the people happy in such a bishop, Homl. Th. ii. 506, 9. His blód ágeát God on galgan þurh his gástes mægen in virtue of his spirit's strength, Cd. Th. 299, 16; Sat. 550. Hé fæste feówertig daga þurh his mildsa spéd, 306, 23; Sat. 668. Heó hit þurh monnes geþeaht ne sceáwode, 38, 12; Gen. 605. Him bearn Godes déman wille þurh his dǽda spéd, 304, 2; Sat. 623: 301, 30; Sat. 589. (6) marking manner, state, in, by, in the character of, by way of :-- Þorch (dorh, ðorh) óbst per anticipationem, Txts. 84, 757. Ðurh endebyrdnesse singan per ordinem cantare, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 6. Ðæt fýr ábyrst út ðurh lígett in the shape of lightning, Lchdm. iii. 280, 6: Elen. Kmbl. 2210; El. 1106. Ácenned in middangeard þurh mennisc heó born into the world in human shape, 12; El. 6. Onsýne þurh cnihtes hád visible in the form of a youth, Andr. Kmbl. 1824; An. 914. Hnígan mid heáfdum þurh geongordóm to bow the head as vassals, Cd. Th. 46, 12; Gen. 743. Ne can ðara idesa ówðer þarh gebedscipe beorna neáwest, 148, 35; Gen. 2467. Hé ðolode ðurh wíte (as punishment) ða ýttran blindnysse ... Hé ðolaþ þeóstra ðurh wrace, Homl. Th. ii. 556, 19-21. Wundorgiefe þurh goldsmiþe wondrous gifts in the goldsmith's art, Exon. Th. 331, 24; Vy. 73. Stód him sum man æt ðurh swefen (per somnium), Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 11: Cd. Th. 159, 16; Gen. 2635: 160, 21; Gen. 2653. Him synna brytta þurh slǽp (in sleep) oncwæð, 159, 28; Gen. 2641. (7) marking accompanying circumstances of an action, in, with :-- Ðú scealt þurh wóp and heáf on woruld cennan, þurh sár micel, sunu and dohtor, Cd. Th. 57, 4-7; Gen. 923-4. Líg þurh lust geslóh micle máre ðonne gemet wǽre, 231, 19; Dan. 249. Ðara ðe hyra lífes þurh lust brúcan, Exon. Th. 127, 19; Gú. 388. Ða wácran ðás woruld healdaþ, brúcaþ þurh bisgo, 311, 6; Seef. 88. (8) marking aim, with a view to :-- Hé Drihten mid hondum genom þurh edwít (with a view to disgrace him), Cd. Th. 307, 17; Sat. 681. Heó his láre geceás ðurh þeódscipe (with a view to instruction(?), in order to be instructed; or on account of his learning(?)), Elen. Kmbl. 2331; El. 1167. (9) with verbs of swearing, adjuring, etc., through, by, in :-- Sume synd jurativa, ðæt synd swerigendlíce, per ðurh: juro per Deum ic swerige ðurh God, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 227, 3. Ic swerige þurh mé sylfne per memetipsum juravi, Gen. 22, 16. Ðæt gé ne swerion ne þurh heofon ... ne þurh eorðan . . . ne ðú ne swere þurh ðín heáfod, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 34-36: Cd. Th. 205, 10; Exod. 433: Elen. Kmbl. 1369; El. 686. Ðú deópe áðe þurh ðínes sylfes sóð benemdest, Ps. Th. 88, 42. Ic ðec hálsige þurh gǽsta weard, Exon. Th. 174, 14; Gú. 1177. Hý þurh mínne noman bǽdan, 92, 12; Cri. 1507. Eallum ðǽm ðé mé gecégaþ þorh ðínne noman, Shrn. 105, 6. Ic ðé háte þurh ða héhstan miht, Cd. Th. 308, 18; Sat. 694. (10) marking extent :-- Hwí is ðis fæsten þus geteald þurh feówertig daga why is this fast reckoned at forty days? Homl. Th. i. 178, 19. B. with dat. v. also C. I. local, (1) marking motion into and out at the opposite side :-- Englas flugon swilce ðurh ánre dúna intó ðære heofenan, Homl. Th. ii. 342, 6. Gif ðǽr biþ in hwem open forlǽten, ðæt se here þurh ðam infær hæbbe, 432, 5. Ðerh middum, Lk. Skt. Lind. 4, 30. (2) marking motion over or in :-- Ic wæs getogen þurh ðisse ceastre lanum, Blickl. Homl. 243, 29. II. in other relations, (1) marking means or instrument :-- Geufered þurh láréwlícum basincge exaltatus melote, Hpt. Gl. 440, 71. Heó wolde þurh his mynegungum hire mód getrymman, Homl. Th. ii. 146, 10: 448, 27. Ðurh ðínum drýcræftum, 414, 4. Þurh ðam eárplættum, 248, 25. Þurh twám gewritum, Wulfst. 230, 3. Ðerh múðe háligwara, Lk. Skt. Lind. 1, 70. (2) marking cause :-- Hé næs ácweald ðurh ðam heálícan fylle, Homl. Th. ii. 300, 19. Seó gelaðung ys weaxende þurh ácennedum cildum and waniende þurh forðfarenum, Lchdm. iii. 238, 2. (3) marking manner, state :-- Hé ðæt weorc ðæs godspelles má ðurh his fóta gange fremede ðonne on his horsa ráde (more on foot than on horseback), Bd. 4, 3; S. 566, 32. Ðá com úre Drihten þurh wolcnum (in clouds), Blickl. Homl. 145, 35. C. in the following passages both acc. and dat. are used :-- Ðá áxode se ealdorman ðone hæftling, hwæðer hé ðurh drýcræft oððe ðurh rúnstafum his bendas tóbrǽce, Homl. Th. ii. 358, 10-11. Hí sume þurh freónda fultum and ælmesdǽdum, and swíðost þurh hálige mæssan beóð álýsede, 352, 25-27. Ðurh ða treówu and ðam streáwe and ðam ceafe sind getácnode leóhtlíce synna, 590, 12-14. D. with gen. :-- Wé beóð geclǽnsode þurh ðæs hálgan húselganges, Homl. Th. ii. 266, 23. E. as adverb; see also the following compounds :-- Hé sǽ tóslát and hí fóran þurh, Ps. Th. 77, 15. Ðǽr wæs fleóhnet ymbe ðæs folctogan bed áhongen, ðæt se bealofulla mihte wlítan ðurh, and on hyne nǽnig monna cynnes, Judth. Thw. 22, 5; Jud. 49. [O. E. Homl. þurh, þurch, þuregh: Laym. þurh, þorh: Orm. þurrh: A. R. þurh, þuruh: Gen. and Ex. ðurg: Havel. þoru: R. Glouc. þoru, þorw: Chauc. thurgh: Piers P. þorowʒ, thorw: Goth. þairh: O. Sax. thurh, thuru: O. L. Ger. thurh, thuru(-o): O. Frs. thruch: O. H. Ger. durh, duruh (-ah, -eh).]

þurh-. With words expressing motion the prefix signifies through, over; in other cases it implies thoroughness, completeness, continuity; with adjectives of quality it has an intensive force. It is often a rendering of the Latin prefix per-; sometimes of trans-.

þurh-beorht; adj. Very bright, splendid, (1) lit. :-- Heora nebwlite ongann tó scínenne swilce seó þurhbeorhte sunne, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 820. (2) fig. :-- Swá micele máran eádmódnysse ðú sý þurhbeorht (perspicuus), swá micele swá máran wurþnysse foresett ðú eart, Scittt. 22, 17. Yrfweardnes mín þurhscínendlíc ɫ þurhbeorht (praeclara) is, Ps. Lamb. 15, 6.

þurh-bitter; adj. Very bitter, exasperating :-- Þweor mǽgþ and tyrwiende ɫ þurhbitter generatio prava et exasperans, Ps. Lamb. 77, 8.

þurh-bláwen; adj. (ptcpl.) Inspired :-- Mid forewitigum þurhbláwen gáste presago afflatus spiritu, Anglia xiii. 370, 65.

þurh-borian to bore through, perforate :-- Ðá wolde ic witan hwæðer ða gelícnissa wǽron gegotene ealle swá hé sǽde; hét hié ðá þurhborian simulacra quae an solida essent scire ego cupiens omnia perforavi, Nar. 20, 1. [O. H. Ger. durh-porón perforare, terebrare.]

þurh-brecan to break through :-- Wordes ord breósthord þurhbræc, Beo. Th. 5577; B. 2792. [O. H. Ger. durh-brehhan dissecare.]

þurh-brengan to bring through :-- Hé tóslát sǽ and hé þurhbróhte (perduxit) hig, Ps. Lamb. 77, 13. [O. H. Ger. durh-bringan perferre.]

þurh-brogden; adj. (ptcpl.) Transported :-- Ðorhbrogden trajectus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 63.

þurh-brúcan to enjoy thoroughly :-- Hwylc manna þurhbrýcþ (perfruitur) mettum búton swæcce sealtes, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 15.

þurh-burnen; adj. (ptcpl.) Thoroughly burnt, burnt through :-- Bærn swá ðæt hit sí þurhburnen, Lchdm. iii. 40, 11.

þurh-clǽnsian to cleanse thoroughly :-- Þurhclǽnsaþ (ðerhclǽnsade, Lind. permundavit) he will throughly purge, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 3, 12.

þurh-creópan to creep through :-- Swá swá mon melo sift, ðæt melo ðurhcrýpþ (þurg-, Cott. MS.) ǽlc þyrl], Bt. 34, 11; Fox 152, 2.

þurh-delfan to dig through, bore through, pierce :-- Ic ðurhdelfe perfodio, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 6; Zup. 179, 10. Þurhdelfeþ, Ps. Th. 79, 15. Hý þurhdulfon (foderunt) míne handa and míne fét, 21, 15. Þurhdol[fen] confossa, transfixa, Hpt. Gl. 501, 29.

þurh-dreógan to carry through, perform, pass time :-- Árísende óþre þurhdreógan surgentes cetera peragant, Anglia xiii. 423, 825. Nihte þurhdreógan noctem peragere, 394, 420.

þurh-drífan. I. to drive through, pierce, transfix :-- Him man ǽgðer þurhdráf mid ísenum næglum ge fét ge handa, Wulfst. 22, 21. Þurhdrifon hí mé mid næglum, Rood Kmbl. 91; Kr. 46. Hé lét hine sylfne bindan and him ǽgðer þurhdrífan mid næglum ge fét ge handa, Wulfst. 110, 15: Exon. Th. 68, 27; Cri. 1110. Dolgbennum þurh-drifen, Andr. Kmbl. 2793; An. 1399. Míne handa mid næglum þurhdrifene, Homl. Th. i. 220, 17. Þurhdryfene, L. E. I. 21; Th. ii. 416, 30. I a. fig. to penetrate, permeate, imbue :-- Ðeáh ic ǽr mid dysige þurhdrifen wǽre, Elen. Kmbl. 1410; El. 707. II. to drive violently; perpellere :-- Word spearcum fleáh, ðonne hé út þurhdráf (when he sent out his words vehemently, exclaimed vehemently), Cd. Th. 274, 33; Sat. 163. [He let þurhdriuen þe spaken mid gadien, Kath. 1920. Wes mon þurhdriuen upon þe rode homo cruci affixsus est, 1198.]

þurh-dúfan to dive through :-- Hé wæter up þurhdeáf, Beo. Th. 3243; B. 1619.

þurh-etan to eat through, eat out :-- Se wyrm ða eágan þurheteþ, Soul Kmbl. 236; Seel. 122. Áholad, þurhetan (-en?) exesum vel comessum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 144, 76. Swyrd ómige, þurhetene, Beo. Th. 6090; B. 3049.

þurh-fær, es; n. An inner, secret place :-- Ǽlc synful on his þurh-færum (penetrabilibus) byð bedíglod, Scint. 39, 2. v. þurh-fére, -farenness, -faran, IV.

þurh-fæstnian to transfix :-- Ðorhfæstnadon transfixerunt, Jn. Skt. Lind. Rush. 19, 37.

þurh-faran. I. to go through or over, to traverse; pertransire, (1) trans. :-- Burnan þurhfór (ɫ -færþ) sáwla úre wénunga þurhfór sáwla úre wæter torrentem pertransivit anima nostra, forsitan pertransisset anima nostra aquam, Ps. Spl. 123, 4. Hé ðæt land eall þurhfór, Chr. 1095; Erl. 232, 8: 1097; Erl. 233, 38. (2) intrans. To pass :-- Mid ðí ðe ðú þurhfærst (pertransires) on wéstene, Ps. Spl. 67, 8. On anlícnysse þurhfærþ man in imagine pertransit homo, 38, 9: 102, 15. Ðǽr scipu þurhfaraþ (ðorhfearaþ, Surt.) illic naves pertransibunt, 103, 26. II. of a weapon, to pierce, pass through :-- His swurd ðíne sáwle þurhfærþ, Lk. Skt. 2, 35. Ísen þurhfór sáwla his, Ps. Spl. 104, 17. III. to pass beyond, transcend :-- Hefonas hé ðurhfór (transcendit), Past. 16; Swt. 99, 23. IV. to penetrate :-- Sió stefn ðæs láriówes ðurhfærþ ða heortats ðæs gehírendes illa vox auditorum cor penetrat, Past. 14; Swt. 81, 9: 21; Swt. 155, 11: Bt. 13; Fox 38, 27. Ðeáh ðú ðæt héhste ðurhfare cum summa penetras, Past. 65; Swt. 467, 1. Þurhfare penetret, Anglia xiii. 378, 192. Ðæt word ðære láre ne mæg ðurhfaran ðæs wædlan heortan egentis mentem doctrinae sermo non penetrat, Past. 18; Swt. 137, 6. Þurhfarende penetrans, Hymn. Surt. 84, 9. [O. H. Ger. durh-faran transire, permeare, penetrare.] v. þurh-féran.

þurh-farenness, e; f. An inner, secret place; penetrale :-- On þurhfarennyssum cyninga heora in penetralibus regum ipsorum, Ps. Spl. 104, 28. v. þurh-fær, -fére, -faran, IV.

þurh-féran. I. to pass through or over :-- Ðæt geðyld ðurhférde ðara leahtra truman patientia medias acies transit, Gl. Prud. 26 b. Hé þurhférde hǽðenre þeóde eard, Shrn. 155, 34. Hí þurhférdon ealle ða land ... óððæt hí cómon ðǽr hé wunode, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 231. Þurhférende (humida cum siccis) pervadens (caerula plantis), Wrt. Voc. ii. 96, 38. II. to penetrate, get into :-- Hér Rodla ðurhférde (penetravit) Normandi mid his here, Chr. 876; Th. i. 145, col. 3. [He þe þurhferde deað, Kath. 1142.] v. þurh-faran.

þurh-fére; adj. That may be passed through or over, passable, pervious :-- Geat þurhfére porta pervia, Hymn. Surt. 112, 9. The neuter used substantivally translates penetrale :-- On þurhférun in penetralibus, Mt. Kmbl. 24, 26. v. þurh-fær.

þurh-fleón to fly through :-- Cume án spearwa and hrædlíce ðæt hús þurhfleó adveniens unus passerum domum citissime pervolaverit, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 18.

þurh-fón to get through, penetrate :-- Heó ðone fyrdhom þurhfón ne mihte láþan fingrum, Beo. Th. 3013; B. 1504.

þurh-gán. I. to go over or through :-- Fixas þurhgáð (perambulant) paðas sǽs, Ps. Spl. 8, 8. Ic wille ðurhgán orsorh ðone here, Homl. Th. ii. 502, 11. II. of a weapon, to pass through, pierce :-- Hé sette his swurdes ord tógeánes his innoðe, and feól him on uppon, ðæt him ðurheode (or him ðurh eode, under þurh, B. I (1) ), Homl. Th. ii. 480, 15. His swurd sceal ðurhgán ðíne sáwle, i. 146, 8. III. to penetrate, permeate, pervade :-- Seó eorðe byð mid ðam winterlícan cyle þurhgán, Lchdm. iii. 252, 7. [Heo þurheoden Francene þeode, Laym. 5217. Læten heom þurhgon al þa duʒeðe, 19645. Þeʒʒ sholldenn all þurrhgan þiss middellærd, Orm. 12860. Goth. þairh-iddja; p.: O. H. Ger. durh-gán pertransire, penetrare.] v. next word.

þurh-gangan. I. to go over or through, perambulate :-- Þurh-gangende perambulante, Ps. Spl. 90, 6. II. to pierce :-- Ne forhtast ðú ðé on dæge flán on lyfte, ðæt ðé þuruhgangan gáras on ðeóstrum, Ps. Th. 90, 6. [Goth. þairh-gaggan: O. H. Ger. durh-gangan.]

þurh-gefeoht, es; n. War :-- Þorhgefeht, þorgifect perduellium, Txts. 85, 738.

þurh-geótan. I. to pour over, cover by pouring (lit. and fig.) :-- Ðú þurhgute hine gedréfednysse perfudisti eum confusione, Ps. Spl. 88, 44. Ic mid ða líffæstan ýþe ðurhgoten wæs vitali unda perfusus sum, Bd. 5, 6; S. 620, 18. II. to fill, saturate :-- Ðonne se sacerd gehálgodne tapor in ðæt wæter déð, ðone wyrð ðæt wæter mid ðam hálgan gáste ðurhgoten, Wulfst. 36, 6. II a. to fill, imbue, inspire :-- Gleáwnysse þurhgoten, Elen. Kmbl. 1920; El. 962. [O. H. Ger. durh-giozan perfundere.]

þurh-gléded; adj. (ptcpl.) Thoroughly furnished with burning coals :-- Wæs se ofen onhǽted, ísen eall ðurhgléded, Cd. Th. 231, 8; Dan. 244.

þurh-hǽlan to heal thoroughly; persanare :-- Ealle ða þincg, ðe on ðæs mannes líchoman tó láðe ácennede beóþ, heó ðurhhǽleþ (þur-, MS. O.), Lchdm. i. 124, 22.

þurh-hǽlig; adj. Very holy :-- Þurhháligere gerde sacrosancti viminis (Moses' rod), Hpt. Gl. 409, 70. Þuthháliges blódes sacrosancti cruoris, 503, 46. Tó ðam þurhháligum háligdóme Drihtnes líchaman and blódes ad sacrosanctum sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Domini, Wanl. Cat. 79, 4.

þurh-hefig; adj. Very heavy; praegravis, Dial. 2, 3 (Lye).

þurh-hwít; adj. Very white :-- Þurhhwít candidus, Wülck. Gl. 163, 6 (omitted in Wrt. Voc. i. 46, 30).

þurh-irnan to run through :-- Þurharn cucurrit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 137, 60. Ðæt swurd ðe ðæra cildra lima þurharn, Homl. Th. i. 84, 18.

þurh-lǽran to persuade :-- Nele God wrecan yfelnysse se andettan gyltas þurhlǽrþ non uult Deus ulcisci malitiam, qui confiteri delicta persuadet, Scint. 38, 12.

þurh-lǽred; adj Very learned :-- Þurhlǽred vel gleáw expertus, i. multum peritus, Wrt. Voc. i. 22, 35.

þurh-láð; adj. Very hateful, odious :-- Þurhláð odiosus, Wrt. Voc. i. 28, 66.

þurh-leóran to pass through :-- Ðorhleórdun pertransierunt, Ps. Surt. 76, 18.

þurh-lócung, e; f. A looking through or over, a preliminary examination(?) of a book; but the word glosses prohemium :-- Ðurhlócung prohemium, forespǽc praefatio, Wrt. Voc. i. 51, 38. [Cf. Illc an ferrs to þurrhlokenu offte, Orm. dedic. 68.]

þurh-rǽsan to rush through :-- Hwílum ic þurhrǽse, Exon. Th. 384, 31; Rä. 4, 36.

þurh-sceótan to shoot through, transfix, pierce :-- Þurhscét transfigat, Hpt. Gl. 526, 3. Hé his byrnsweord getýhþ, and ða líchoman þurh-sceóteþ, Blickl. Homl. 109, 35. Ðǽr wearð Alexander þurhscoten mid ánre flán ... hé þurh ðæt folc geþrang ðæt hé ðone ilcan ofslóg ðe hiene ǽr þurhsceát in eo praelio sagitta trajectus eatenus pugnavit, donec eum, a quo vulneratus esset, occideret, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 134, 22-27. Besyrian ðone earman and þurhsceótan ða unscæðfullan heortan, Ps. Th. 36, 13. Ðá wurdon hí mid deófles flán þurhscotene, Homl. Th. i. 62, 28. [O. Frs. thruch-skiata: O. H. Ger. durh-sciozan.]

þurh-scíne; adj. Transparent :-- Þurhscýne stán specularis, Wrt. Voc. i. 38, 30. [Cf. O. Frs. thruch-skínich.]

þurh-scínendlíc; adj. Splendid; praeclarus, Ps. Lamb. 15, 6. v. þurh-beorht.

þurh-scríþan. I. of physical movement, to pass through, glide through :-- Synd twelf tácna on ðam foresprecenan circule ðe seó sunne þurhscríð, Anglia viii. 298, 18. II. to go through a subject, examine, consider; perlustrare :-- Ǽlc ðæra ðe wyle ða eásterlícan blisse mǽrsian, ne sceal hé náðer ne ðæs lambes flǽsc hreáw etan, ne gesoden, ac gebrǽd; ðæt ys, ðæt hé ne sceal þurh menniscnysse wísdóm þurhscríðan ða hálgan flǽscennysse úres Drihtnes (he shall not by the aid of human wisdom examine(?) our Lord's nature according to the flesh), ne on him gelýfan swylce hé sý ánfeald man búton his godcundnysse, ac wé sceolon gelýfan ðæt hé ys sóð man and sóðlíce God, Anglia viii. 324, 1. [Al þa londes ic scal þurhscriðen (þorhride, 2nd MS.), Laym. 10887.]

þurh-scyldig; adj. Very guilty :-- Hí (the Jews who plotted against Christ) synd þurhscyldige for heora syrwunge, Homl. Skt. i. 11, 321.

þurh-sécan. I. to make search for, seek out :-- Þurhsécende conquirens, Scint. 209, 3. [II. to search through, examine(?), as in later English :-- He þurhsecheð al þe soule, O. E. Homl. ii. 191, 28. Twa Goddspelless uss birrþ þurrhsekenn, Orm. 242. He hefde al þ̄ lond ouergan and þurhsoht peragratis provincie finibus, Kath. 519. Þe poyson þe veynes so þorwsouʒte, R. Glouc. 151, 11. O. H. Ger. durh-suohhan to search through.]

þurh-seón to see through, see into, penetrate with the sight (lit. or fig.) :-- God geseóþ and þurhseóþ ealle his gesceafta, Bt. 41, 1; Fox 244, 11. Þurhsyhþ. Met. 30, 16. Gif hwá biþ swá scearpséne, ðæt hé mæge hine (Alcibiades) ðurhseón, swá swá Aristoteles sǽde ðæt deór wǽre, ðæt mihte ǽlc wuht þurhseón ... gif ðonne hwá wǽre swá scearpséne, ðæt hé mihte ðone cniht ðurhseón, ðonne ne þúhte hé him nó innon swá fæger, swá hé útan þúhte si, ut Aristoteles ait, lynceis oculis homines uterentur, ut eorum visus obstantia penetraret, nonne introspectis visceribus, illud Alcibiadis superficie pulcerrimum corpus, turpissimum videretur, Bt. 32, 2; Fox 116, 19-25. Wé sceolon gleáwlíce þurhseón ússe hreþercofan heortan eágum, Exon. Th. 81, 24; Cri. 1328. [He þurhsihð elches mannes þanc, O. E. Homl. ii. 222, 90: i. 165, 90. Þe blake cloð is wurse to þurhseon, A. R. 50, 16. O. H. Ger. durh-sehan visu penetrare.]

þurh-seón to strain through, penetrate :-- Ealle ða fúllnessa ðæs fúllan ofnes and ðæs þeóstran ðe mec ǽr ðurhseáh omnem foetorem tenebrosae fornacis, qui me pervaserat, Bd. 5, 12; M. 430, 6.

þurh-sleán. I. to smite through, strike through (lit. and fig.) :-- Hé his byrnsweord getýhþ and ðás world ealle þurhslyhþ, Blickl. Homl. 109, 34. Hire swiora næs þurhslagen, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 235. Ðá wearð heó mid micelre sárnysse ðurhslegen, Homl. Th. ii. 30, 21. II. to smite :-- Ic ðerhslǽ ɫ hríno ðone hiorde percutiam pastorem, Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 14, 27. [O. Frs. thruch-slá: O. H. Ger. durh-slahan percutere, pulsare.]

þurh-smeágan, -smeán to search through, inquire into, examine into, investigate :-- Ða ðe mid carfulre gýmene gástlíce bebodu þurhsmeágeaþ qui solerti cura spiritalia precepta perscrutantur. Ðá hé ða seofon cræftas ealle hæfde þurhsmeáde, Shrn. 152, 18. Hé ríxade ofer Englæland, and hit mid his geápscipe swá þurhsmeáde (made such a thorough inquisition), ðæt næs án híd landes innan Englælande, ðæt hé nyste hwá heó hæfðe, oððe hwæs heó wurð wæs, Chr. 1086; Erl. 222, l0. Þurhsmeágean perscrutari, Scint. 32, 11.

þurh-smúgan. I. of movement (lit. or fig.), to creep through, move slowly through :-- Se wyrm ða tungan tótýhþ, and ða téd þurhsmýhþ, Soul Kmbl. 235; Seel. 121. Ðæt gér, ðe man hǽt solaris, þurhsmíhþ Zodiacum ðone circul on þrim hund dagum and fíf and syxtigum, Anglia viii. 303, 22. II. to go carefully through a subject, go over the details :-- Hé sceal snotorlíce smeágean and georne þurhsmúgan ealle ða ðing ðe hláforde magan tó rǽde he must prudently consider and diligently go over in his mind all those matters which may be to his lord's advantage, Anglia ix. 259, 18. Nú wille wé úre sprǽce áwendan tó ðam iungum munecum ðe heora cildhád habbaþ ábisgod on cræftigum bócum ... Hig habbaþ áscrutnod Serium and Priscianum, and þurhsmogun Catus cwydas they have gone carefully through Cato's Disticha, Anglia viii. 321, 28.

þurh-spédig; adj. Very wealthy :-- Ðǽr eardode sum þurhspédig mann (cf. of the same person sum ríce man and for worlde ǽhtspédig, Blickl. Homl. 197, 27), Homl. Th. i. 502, 8.

þurh-stician to stick through, pierce, transfix :-- Ðorhsticadun transfixerunt, Jn. Skt. Lind. 19, 37. [Cf. Heo þuruhstihten Isboset adun into þe schere (percusserunt eum in inguine, 2 Sam. 4, 6), A. R. 272, 12. O. Frs. thruch-steka: O. H. Ger. durh-stehhan confodere, transfigere.]

þurh-stingan to stab through, pierce, thrust through :-- Gif man þeóh þurhstingð if the thigh is thrust through, L. Ethb. 67; Th. i. 18, 16. Þurhstinð, 32; Th. i. 12, 1. Hé ðurhstong ðone cyninges ðeng and ðone cyning gewundade tanta vi hostis ferrum infixit, ut per corpus militis occisi etiam regem vulneraret, Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 24. Þurhsting his eáre perforabis aurem ejus, Deut. 15, 17. Ðæt hé hine selfne ne ðurhstinge mid ðý sweorde unryhthǽmedes ne luxuriae se mucrone transfigant, Past. 43; Swt. 313, 8. Hé hét hine mid sweorde þurstingan, Shru. 131, 33. Þurhstungen confosa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 24, 42. [Weren his fet mid irnene neiles þurhstungen, O. E. Homl. i. 147, 32.]

þurh-swimman to swim through or over, pass by swimming :-- Ðorhsuimmaþ tranant, Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 74.

þurh-swíðan to prove very strong :-- Hé þurhswíðde on ídelnesse praeualuit in vanitate, Ps. Lamb. 51, 9.

þurh-swógan to press through, penetrate, pervade :-- Ealle ða fúllnessa ðæs ðýstran ofnes ðe mé ǽr ðurhsweógh(-swég, Bd. M. 430, 6 note) omnem foetorem tenebrosae fornacis, qui me pervaserat, Bd. 5, 12; S. 629, 21.

þurh-teón. I. to carry through, get a proposal accepted, a request granted :-- Ðá hé ðæt (his proposal) uneáþe ðurhteáh quod dum aegre impetraret ab ea, Bd. 4, 11; S. 579, 17. Lucius bæd ðæt hé cristen gedón wǽre, and hé þurhteáh ðæt hé bæd (by a later hand this is turned into him wærð tíþod ðæt hé bæd), Chr. 167; Erl. 8, 15. II. to carry out a plan, orders, etc., give effect to an intention :-- Bið oft synleás yfel geðóht ðǽm gódum, ðonne hí hit mid weorcum ne ðorhtióð, Past. 54; Swt. 423, 4. Hé nóhwæþer ðyssa (neither of these plans) gefremede ne ðurhteáh ne aliquid horum perficeret, Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 23. Mennisclíc is ðæt mon on his móde costunga ðrowige on ðæm luste yfles weorces, ac ðæt is deófullíc ðæt hé ðone willan ður[h]teó, Past. 11; Swt. 71, 15. Gif hé ðæt þurhtió, ðæt hé getihhod hæfþ, Bt. 34, 7; Fox 144, 4. Cweþan ðæt sió godcunde foretiohhung getiohhod hæfde ðæs ðe hió ne þurhtuge, 41, 3; Fox 248, 21. Hí nóhwæþere heora willnunge habban ne ðurhteón magan in neutro cupitum passunt obtinere propositum, Bd. 5, 23; S. 647, 3: Ors. 1, 2; Swt. 30, 22. Ðæt ne ðæt mihte mid ðý máran ealdorlícnesse ðurhteón and gefremman, Bd. 5, 21; S. 642, 30. III. where continuous action is implied, to carry through, carry on to a (successful) end, to accomplish, perform; of evil actions, to perpetrate :-- Se cwyrnstán ðe tyrnð singallíce and nǽnne færeld ne ðurhtíhþ, Homl. Th. i. 514, 20. Micel tósceád is betwuh ðære synne, ðe mon longe ymbsireð, and ðære ðe mon fǽrlíce ðurhtiéhð, Past. 56; Swt. 435, 6. Hí ðæt yfel þurhtióþ (þurgtióð, Cott. MS.) scelus perficiunt, Bt. 38, 2; Fox 196, 34. Ðurhteáh patraverat, Wrt. Voc. ii. 67, 51. Ða scylde ðe se him self ǽr nyste se hié þurhteáh culpam, quam nescit ipse etiam, qui perpetravit, Past. 15; Swt. 91, 14. Silla wið Marius heardlíce gefeaht þurhteáh (fought and won) and hiene gefliémde Sulla Marium gravissimo praelio tandem vicit, Ors. 5, 11; Swt. 236, 21. Ðonne gé ymb ðæt án gefeoht alneg ceoriað ðe eów Gotan gedydon, hwý nyllaþ gé geþencan ða monegan ǽrran ðe eów Gallie oftrædlíce bismerlíce þurhtugon the many former fights that the Gauls often fought and won against you to your disgrace, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 142, 9. Hí lǽrdan hine ðæt hé ða fore ðurhtuge they persuaded him to perform (perficere) the journey, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 27. Ðæt ðæt mód ðurhtuge swelce synne, Past. 56; Swt. 435, 4. Ne mæg se ælmihtiga Wealdend þurhteón ðæt hé dó his ðeówan ríce cannot the almighty Ruler accomplish the enriching of his servants? Homl. Th. i. 64, 17. Wé ne magan for úre tyddernysse þyllíc fæsten þurhteón we cannot on account of our weakness accomplish such a fast, Wulfst. 285, 27. Þurhtión (þurg-, Cott. MS.) ðæt yfel ðæt hí lyst cupita perficere, Bt. 38, 2; Fox 196, 28, 32. Þurhtión náwuht goodes (cf. nán gód dón, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 27), Met. 25, 59. Ðæt hié náne mildheortnesse þurhteón ne mehtan, Ors. 2, 1; Swt. 64, 17. Ðá wearð eft Ianes duru andón, þéh ðǽr nán gefeoht þurhtogen ne wurde though no battle had actually been fought; nulla bella sonuerunt, 6, 1; Swt. 254, 19. Ne biþ ðǽr sin ðurhtogen peccatum perpetratum non est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, 21: Exon. Th. 128, 1; Gú. 397: 270, 1; Jul. 458. Þurhtogen conlatum (v. þurhtogenness), Wrt. Voc. ii. 134, 41. Mid ðý ðurhtogenan weorce, Past. 48; Swt. 367, 12. Ða ðe ða ðurhtogenan (cf. geworhtan, 53; Swt. 413, 3) synna wépaþ qui peccata deplorant operum, 23; Swt. 176, 22. III a. of continuous but uncompleted action, to carry on, continue :-- Hé swá six and twéntig daga ðæt færeld þurhteáh swilce hé tó sumum menn mid gewisse fóre so for six and twenty days he continued the journey, as if he were with certainty travelling to some one, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 159. IV. where a result is marked, to bring to a successful issue, to achieve, bring about, bring to pass :-- Gif hé torngemót þurhteán mihte if he could bring about a meeting, Beo. Th. 2284; B. 1140. His sige tó tácne ðe hé ðurhteón þóhte as a monument of the victory that he thought to achieve, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 84, 5. On Criste ánum is ealles siges fylnes þurhtogen in Christ alone does the fullness of all victory come to pass, Blickl. Homl. 179, 7. V. to afford :-- Hit wæs geset on ðære ealdan ǽ, ðæt ða ðe mihton ðurhteón sceoldon bringan ánes geáres lamb, and áne culfran ... Gif hwylc wíf tó ðam unspédig wǽre, ðæt heó ðás ðing begytan ne mihte..., Homl. Th. i. 138, 35. Áne feorme swá góde swá hí bezte þurhteón magon a refection as good as ever they can afford, Chart. Th. 531, 15. Gif hwá ne mage ðurhteón ða spéda ðæt hé gesewenlíc lác Gode offrige if any man cannot afford such means, that he may offer a visible gift to God, Homl. Th. i. 584, 2. Sý him gefultumad and frófor þurhtogen solacia accomodentur eis, R. Ben. 85, 18. VI. to go through, undergo :-- Swá swá wíf ácenþ beam and þrowaþ micel earfoþu æfter ðam ðe heó ǽr micelne lust þurhteáh, Bt. 31, 1; Fox 112, 3. Hefige geswincu wé þurhteón, ðæt wé tó heofenan ástígan magan, Scint. 101, 11. Gif hé ða beþinge þurhteón ne mæge, Lchdm. ii. 340, 10. VII. to draw, drag :-- On wítu helle mann gálnys þurhtýhð in poenas tartari hominem libido pertrahat, Scint. 89, 5. Ða ðe óþre tó unrihtwísnysse lǽrende þurhteóð (pertrahunt), 192, 4.

þurh-þeówan, -þían, -þýgan, -þýn to thrust through, pierce through, transfix :-- Ic ðurhðý (-þýge, MS. J.) perfodio, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 6; Zup. 179, l0. Seó clǽnnys ðurhðýð (transfigit) ða gálnysse mid swurde, Gl. Prud. 13 b. Hé siwode scós and ðurhþíde his hand, Homl. Skt. i. 15. 24. Ðurhðýde, Homl. Th. i. 452, 14. Hí þurhðýdon (ðurhðýgdon, Ps. Lamb. 21, 17) míne handa foderunt manus meas, ii, 16, 23. Dauides þegnas hine (Absalom) þurhðýdon, Homl. Skt. i. 19, 223. Ðá wolde hé þurhþýn hí mid swurde, 12, 225. Þurhþíende transverberans, transfigens, Hpt. Gl. 411, 66. Þurhþéd confossa, transfixa, 501, 29. Mín bán bið mid sárnysse þurhðýd os meum perforatur doloribus (Job 30, 17), Homl. Th. ii. 456, 12. Óþre wǽron mid stengum þurhðýde, i. 542, 28. v. þeówan, and þurh-þyddan.

þurh-þráwan to twist through [ :-- Se wǽte of húse dropaþ on stán ... and ðane stán þurhþurleþ and þurhþreáwþ, Lchdm. iii. 104, 11].

þurh-þyddan to thrust through, pierce through :-- Ðá com sum cempa swíþe gewǽpnod, and hyne sóna þurhþydde, Homl. Skt. i. 3, 273. v. þyddan, and þurh-þeówan.

þurh-þýn. v. þurh-þeówan.

þurh-þyrel; adj. Pierced through, perforated :-- Gif hrif wund weorðeþ, .xii. sciɫɫ. gebéte. Gif hé þurhþirel weorðeþ, .xx. sciɫɫ. gebéte, L. Ethb. 61; Th. i. 18, 7. Gif sió lendenbrǽde biþ on bestungen, geselle .xv. sciɫɫ. tó bóte; gif hió biþ þurhþyrel (-þyrl, MS. B.), ðonne sceal ðǽr .xxx. sciɫɫ. tó bóte, L. Alf. pol. 67; Th. i. 98, 3. Cf. þurh-wund.

þurh-þyrelian, -þyrlian to pierce through, make a hole through, perforate :-- [Se wǽte of húse dropaþ on stáne ... and ðane stán þurhþurleþ, Lchdm. iii. 104, 11.] 'Ðurhðyrela ðone wág.' Ðá ic ðone wáh ðurhðyreludne hæfde 'fode parietem.' Cum fodissem parietem, Past. 21; Swt. 153, 17. Ðæt mon ðurhðyrelige ðone weall ... Hé cuæð: 'Ðá ic hæfde ðone weall ðurhðyrelod, Swt. 155, 1-3. Þurhþyrlige his hláford his eáre dominus perforabit aurem ejus (Ex. 21, 6), L. Alf. 11; Th. i. 46, 10. Wǽron ða eáran him þurhþyrelode perforatis auribus, Nar. 26, 30.

þurhtogenness, e; f. A religious reading in monasteries, especially after meals; collatio :-- Þurhtogenessa and gesetnessa heora lífes conlationes patrum et instituta vile eorum, R. Ben. Interl. 118, 7. Cf. þurh-togen conlatum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 134, 41.

þurh-trymman to confirm thoroughly, corroborate :-- Werc cýðnisse ðerhtrymmaþ of mé opera testimonium perhibent de me, Jn. Skt. Rush. Lind. 10, 25.

þurh-út; prep. adv. Throughout, quite through :-- Ðæt spere him eode þurhút, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 55. Hé fór þuthút Eoferwíc, Chr. 1066; Erl. 200, 33. [Mid helle sweordes al snesien ham þuruhut, A. R. 212, 23. He sahede hire þurhut, Marh. 22, 11. Ðis lond ðurgut he charen, Gen. and Ex. 3704. Ane stræte þurhut al þis kinelond, Laym. 4826. Sunne þurhut forleten, O. E. Homl. i. 23, 10. Þurhut gode and þurhut clene on mode, O. and N. 879. Ger. durch-aus.]

þurh-wacol; adj. Very watchful, vigilant :-- Wacul vigil vel vigilans, ðurhwacul pervigil, Wrt. Voc. i.46, 3. Þurhwacol, 75, 66. Þurhwacol pernox, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 65; Zup. 71, 15. (1) in reference to persons:Þurhwacol emhídignys pervigil sollicitudo, Hpt. Gl. 426, 51. Hé ábád on ðam legere ... Þurhwacol on gebedum, Homl. Th. ii. 516, 30. Wé hálsiaþ eów ðæt gé beón on gebedum þurhwacule hortamur vos orationibus pervigiles existere, Cod. Dip. B. i. 154, 36. Hí on heora gebedum wunodon þurhwacole óð midde niht, Homl. Skt. i. 11, 44. Hí ealle ða niht mid hálgum sprǽcum ðæs gástlícan lífes ðurhwacole áspendon, Homl. Th. ii. 184, 14. Hí heom weardas setton, þurhwacole menn, Homl. Skt. i. 11, 147. (2) in reference to time, very wakeful, quite sleepless :-- Hine gedrehte singal slǽpleást, swá ðæt hé þurhwacole niht búton slǽpe ádreáh, Homl. Th. i. 86, 17. [Cf. Goth. þairh-wakan pernoctare, vigilare: O. H. Ger. durh-wahhén; durh-wacha pervigilium.]

þurh-wadan. I. to pass through :-- Ða hyssas þrý wylm þurhwódon, Cd. Th. 245, 16; Dan. 464. II. of a weapon (lit. or fig.), to pierce through, penetrate :-- Ðæt swurd þurhwód wyrm, ðæt hit on wealle ætstód, Beo. Th. 1785; B. 890: 3139; B. 1567: Byrht. Th. 140, 31; By. 296. For ðám næglum ðe ðæs Nergendes fét þurhwódon, Elen. Kmbl. 2139; El. 1066. Swylce hit seaxes ecg þurhwóde, Exon. Th. 70, 21; Cri. 1142. Ða syngan flǽsc, scandum þurhwaden, 78, 32; Cri. 1283. [O. H. Ger. durh-watan pertransire.]

þurh-wæccendlíc; adj. Very vigilant :-- Mid þurhwæccendlícan móde, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 43.

þurh-werod (?); adj. Very sweet :-- Hwylc manna þurhwerodum (dulcibus; perhaps þurh is an error of the scribe brought about by the þurh of the following word) þurhbrýcþ mettum búton swæcce sealtes, Wrt. Voc. i. 9, 21.

þurh-wlítan to look through, penetrate with the sight :-- Glæs ðæt mon mæg eall þurhwlítan, Exon. Th. 79, 2; Cri. 1284. Wé ne magun hygeþonces ferð eágum þurhwlítan, 82, 1; Cri. 1332.

þurh-wrecan to thrust through :-- Sumne heó mid sweorde ofslógen, sumne mid spiten betweón felle and flǽsce þurhwrǽcon, Homl. Ass. 171, 39. Óð hielt þurhwrecen (ense) capulo tenus (per utraque latera) adacto, Wrt. Voc. ii. 86, 69.

þurh-wund; adj. Wounded by a weapon which has passed quite through :-- Gif mon biþ on hrif wund, geselle him mon .xxx. sciɫɫ. tó bóte; gif hé þurhwund biþ, æt gehweðerum múðe .xx. sciɫɫ., L. Alf. pol. 61; Th. i. 96, 11. [Cf. Sinness þatt stinngenn and þurrhwundenn all þatt bodig and tatt sawle, Orm. 17443.] Cf. þurh-þyrel.

þurh-wunian. I. to continue, last, not to come to an end, not to pass away :-- Godes ege þurhwunaþ á worlda world timor Domini permanens in seculum seculi, Ps. Th. 58, 8. His ríce þurhwunaþ on écnesse, Blickl. Homl. 65, 16. Hús rihtwísra þurhwunaþ (permanebit), Scint. 73, 2, 16. Heora gemyud þurhwunaþ á tó worulde, Ælfc. T. Grn. 1, 11. God, se ðe ǽfre þurhwunode búton ǽlcum anginne, 2, 3. Þurhwunedan duraverunt, Wrt. Voc. ii. 28, 58: Wülck. Gl. 256, 2. Úre ná þurh-wunedun fæderas nostri non mansere parentes, 6. Þa leornian on eorþan ðæra ús cýþ þurhwunige on heofenum illa discere in terris quorum nobis notitia perseueret in coelis, Scint. 218, 13. Lang mid þingum úrum þurhwunian (durare) wé ná magan, 183, 4. Ádl þurhwunigende languor perseuerans, 153, 17. II. to continue in a place, with a person, to remain, not to leave :-- Ic þurhwunode (perseveravi) on ðam munte feówertig daga and feówertig nihta, Deut. 9, 9. Gé synt ðe mid mé þurhwunedon (ðerhwunadon(-un) permansistis, Lind., Rush.) on mínum geswincum, Lk. Skt. 22, 28. Þurhwunedan munecas on Xpes cyrican monks have continued to live (permanserunt) in Christchurch, Chr. 995; Th. 1. 244, 29. Ðæt hé symle on ús eardige, and wé on him þurhwunian (permaneamus), Scint. 16, 11. Ðæt gé þuthwunion lange on ðam lande, Deut. 4, 40. Eálá wǽran ða ancras swá trume and swá þurhwuniende, ðonne mihte wé ðý éþ geþolian swá hwæt earfoþnessa swá ús on becóme haereant ancorae, precor; illis namque manentibus, utcumque se res habeant, enatabimus, Bt. 10; Fox 30, 10. III. to continue in a condition, not to change; where purpose or effort is implied, to persevere, persist, hold out, (1) absolute :-- Se þurhwunaþ (ðerhwunes ɫ ðerhwunia wælla, Lind.) óð ende, se byþ hál qui perseveraverit usque in finem, hic salvus erit, Mt. Knbl. 10, 22: Scint. 90, 2: Blickl. Homl. 21, 36. Se ðe óð ende þurhwunaþ (sustenuerit), Mk. Skt. 13, 13. Ná ongynnendum méd ys beháten ac þurhwunigendum (perseverantibus) ys geseald, Scint. 91, 3, 1. (2) where the condition is given by a complementary noun or adjective :-- Ǽfre hé biþ ánes módes, and glæd þurhwunaþ, Homl. Th. i. 456, 25. Heó þurhwunode mǽden, 24, 27. Heó onwealg on hiere onwalde æfter þurhwunade manet adhuc et regnat incolumis, Ors. 2, 1; Swt. 62, 24. Heó á clǽne þurhwunode, Blickl. Homl. 3, 18. Hé þurhwunode unspecende and mihteleás forð óð ðone Ðunresdæg, Chr. 1053; Erl. 186, 23. Is rihtost ðæt hé ðananforð wydewa þurhwunige, L. I. P. 22; Th. ii. 332, 32. (3) where the condition is given in a phrase :-- On góde on ðam hé ongan óþ ende hé þurhwunaþ in bono quo coepit usque in finem perdurat, Scint. 227, 55. Gyt git þurhwuniaþ on incre ánwilnesse ye still persist in your obstinacy, Blickl. Homl. 187, 33. His (Adam's) bendas wǽron onlýsde ... Eua ðágyt on bendum þurhwunode, 89, 6. Hié þurhwunian on rihtum geleáfan, 77, 19. Hé nolde þurhwunian on ðære sóðfæstnisse ðæs sóðfæstan Godes sunu, Ælfc. T. Grn. 2, 41. Se ðe on ðám gesǽlþum ðurhwunian ne mót, Bt. 2; Fox 4, 15. IV. to continue an action, persevere with or in, not to desist from, not to leave off :-- Eua ðágyt on wópe þurhwunode, Blickl. Homl. 89, 6. Hié forþ on heora yfelum þurhwunedon, 79, 8. Ðá hig þurhwunedon (perseuerarent) hine áxsiende, Jn. Skt. 8, 7. On ðam gewinne þurhwunian, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 31: Met. 25, 70. Þurhwunian on fulfremedlícum weorcum, Blickl. Homl. 77, 19. Þurhwunian his béne persistere petitioni sue, R. Ben. Interl. 95, 16. Hé þurhwunigende mid gebedum wæs Drihtnes lóf singende, Blickl. Homl. 231, 9. Drihten eallum mannum þurhwuniggendum on sóþre andetnesse cwæþ, 171, 15. [An lond þer he mihte þurhwunian (wonie, 2nd MS.), Laym. 5384. Þu wið Godd þurhwunest in alre worlde world, Kath. 663. Cf. Goth. þairh-wisan manere, permanere.]

þurhwunigendlíce; adv. Perseveringly, persistently, continuously :-- Þurhwunigendlíce begýman hit gedafenaþ mód úre perseveranter intendere oportet animum nostrum, Scint. 33, 18.

þurh-wunung, e; f. I. continued dwelling, residence :-- Óþer cyn is muneca, ðæt is wéstensetlan, ðe feor fram mannum gewítaþ ... geefenlǽcende Élian and Ióhannem, ða þurhwununge on wéstenes innoþe heóldon, R. Ben. 134, 14. II. perseverance, persistence, constancy :-- Be þurhwununge ... Mægen gódes weorces þurhwunung ys de perseverantia ... Virtus boni operis persenerantia est, Scint. 90, 1-14. Gif hé behǽt staðolfæste þurhwununge si promiserit de stabilitate sua perseuerantiam, R. Ben. 97, 20.

þurruc. I. a small ship :-- Þurruc cumba vel caupolus (the word occurs in a list of names for different kinds of ships), Wrt. Voc. i. 56, 30. II. the bottom part of a ship(?) :-- Se æften-stemn puppis, þurruc cumba (cf. scipes botm cimba vel carina, 56, 32), bytme carina, scipes flór tabulata navium, Wrt. Voc. i. 63, 37-40. In this instance the word seems to mean rather part of a ship than the whole, and in this sense it is used later. It occurs in the Persones Tale: 'Smal dropes of water, that enteren thurgh a litel crevis in the thurrok, and in the botonr of a ship.' Tyrwhitt in explanation quotes the following: 'Ye shall understande that there ys a place in the bottome of a shyppe, wherin ys gathered all the fylthe that cometh into the shyppe, and it is called in some contre of thys londe a thorrocke ... Some calle yt the bulcke of the shyppe.' See also thurrok of a shyppe sentina, Prompt. Parv. 493.

þúrs-dæg. v. Þúr.

þurst, es; m. Thirst (lit. and fig.) :-- Ne biþ ðǽr hungor ne þurst, Blickl. Homl. 65, 19: Exon. 101, 20; Cri. 5661. Beóð ðé hungor and þurst hearde gewinnan, 118, 27; Gú. 246. Hungorse háta ne se hearde þurst, 238, 33; Ph. 613. Se háta þurst, 430, 6; Rä. 44, 3. Ne biþ se ðurst gefýlled heora gítsunga, Bt. 7, 4; Fox 22, 31. Ðú woldest ús ofsleán mid þurste (siti), Ex. 17, 3. On ðurste mínum hí drencton mé mid ecede, Ps. Spl. 68, 26: 103, 12. On hungre and on þurste hé biþ áféded, Blickl. Homl. 59, 35: Homl. Th. i. 392, 7. Drihten ásent hungor on eów and þurst and næcede, Deut. 28, 48. Ðeós wyrt þyrstendon ðone þurst gelíþigaþ, Lchdnt. i. 268, 12. [Goth. þaurstei; f.: O. Sax. O. L. Ger. thurst: O. H. Ger. durst: Icel. þorsti.] v. ungemet-þurst, þyrst.

þurstig; adj. Thirsty (lit. and fig.) :-- Hé sylfa þursti wæs ipse sitiens, Nar. 8, 4. Þurstig wyll bibulus fons, Scint. 13, 12. Swá swylgþ seó gítsung ða dreósendan welan, for ðam hió hiora simle biþ ðurstegu, Bt. 12; Fox 36, 14. Swá hwá swá sylþ ceald wæter drincan ánum þurstigan menn, Homl. Th. i. 582, 24: ii. 106, 15: Wulfst. 287, 20. Hwænne gesáwe wé ðé þurstine? 288, 21. Þurstige múðe, Ps. Th. 61, 4. Þurstige þræcwíges, Cd. Th. 189, 9; Exod. 182. Heolfres þurstge, Exon. Th. 373, 24; Seel. 114. [O. H. Ger. durstig.] v. þyrstig.

þuruh. v. þurh.

þus; adv. Thus, in this manner, degree, etc. I. where the manner, etc., is determined by what precedes, (1) with verbs :-- 'Mín Drihten, gestranga míne heortan. Ðus gebiddende ðam hálgan Andrea Drihtnes stefn wæs geworden, Blickl. Homl. 245, 3: Exon. Th. 236, 6; Ph. 570: 43, 9; Cri. 686. Ðus (sic) unc gedafnaþ ealle rihtwísness gefyllan, Mt. Kmbl. 3, 15: Lk. Skt. 24, 46. Hú mæg ðis ðus geweorþan? Blickl. Homl. 7, 21. Ðás dǽda þus gedóne from Drihtne, 31, 20. Cucler fulne þus geworhtes drincan, Lchdm. ii. 182, 23. Lǽtaþ þus sinite usque huc, Lk. Skt. 22, 51. (2) with adjectives :-- Ðis wíf wæs áfundyn on unrihton hǽmede. Moyses ús bebeád ðæt wé sceoldon þus geráde mid stánum oftorfian, Jn. Skt. 8, 5: Deut. 4, 32. Þuss gerádum ádle, Anglia xiii. 434, 995. Þus manige men, Beo. Th. 679; B, 337. Ic nǽfre ðé gemétte þus méðne, Exon. Th. 163, 3; Gú. 988: 376, 19; Seel. 376: 447, 4; Dóm. 34. (3) with adverbs :-- Nó wé ðé þus swíðe swencan þorftan, Exon. Th. 129, 58; Gú. 423: 268, 16; Jul. 433: Judth. Thw. 22, 36; Jud. 93. II. where the manner, etc., is determined by what follows, (1) with verbs :-- God spræc þus: 'Ic eom Drihten þín God,' Ex. 20, 1. Se engel þus cwæþ: 'Wes ðú hál,' Blickl. Homl. 5, 3: Andr. Kmbl. 124; An. 62: Mt. Kmbl. 2, 5. Þus sindon háten fæder and módur, ðæs wé gefrægen habbaþ ... Maria and Ióseph, 1371; An. 686. Sóðlíce þus wæs Cristes cneóres now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise, Mt. Kmbl. 1, 18. Ic wéne þus, ðæt..., Exon. Th. 468, 8; Phar. 4. Ðú ða sáwle þus gesceópe, ðæt hió hwearfode on hire selfre (cf. swá ðú gesceópe ða saúle, ðæt hió sceolde hwearfian on hire selfre, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 11), Met. 20, 205. Þuss, Gen. 2, 16. (2) with adjectives :-- Ic wéne ðæt ðú nǽfre tó ðus mycles mægnes lǽcedómum becóme swylcum swá ic gefregn ða ðe fram Æscolapio férdon, Lchdm. i. 326, 5. III. used in place of a definite expression :-- Ðá cwæð Petrus: 'Beceápode gé ðus micel landes?' Heó andwyrde: 'Geá, leóf, swá micel' Peter answered unto her, Tell me whether ye sold the land for so much? And she said, Yea, for so much (Acts 5, 8), Homl. Th. i. 316, 32. [O. Sax. O. Frs. thus.]

þúsend. I. as a numeral noun, neuter and fem. (v. Ps. Th. 118, 72, and cf. cognates), a thousand; gen. þúsendes, pl. þúsendu (-o, -a,-e); also þúsend sometimes in the multiples, though, perhaps, in these cases the whole number is to be considered as singular, e.g. Tele ða lenge ðære hwíle wið tén þúsend wintra ... Tele nú ðæt tén þúsend geára wið ðæt éce líf, Bt. 18, 3: Fox 66, 6-10. Wæs þreó þúsend ðæra leóda álesen, Elect. Kmbl. 569; El. 285: Blickl. Homl. 119, 3. v. under (2) other examples. (1) without other numerals, (a) governing a genitive :-- Þúsend wintra biþ swá geostran dæg mille anni sicut dies hesterna, Ps. Th. 89, 4: Exon. Th. 223, 23; Ph. 364. Fealleþ ðé on ða wynstran wergra þúsend, Ps. Th. 90, 7. Mænigfeald þúsend módblissiendra millia laetantitium, 67, 17. Án þúsend manna, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 34. Ðeáh hé erige his land mid ðúsend sula, Bt. 26, 3; Fox 94, 14. Erigan æcera þúsend, Met. 14, 5. Óð ðæt hé þúsende ðisses lífes wintra gebídeþ postquam vitae jam mille peregerit annos, Exon. Th. 208, 5; Ph. 151. Hé ofslóg fela þúsend monna, 6, 13; Swt. 268, 17. Hé heora monig ðúsend ofslóg, Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 110, 33, Ðurh ðás bodunge gelýfdon fela ðúsend manna, Homl. Th. ii. 296, 22. Manega ðúsenda engla, 334, 16. Heora fela ðúsenda gefongen wæs, Ors. 3, 4; Swt. 104, 11. Ic ðé þúsenda þegna bringe, Beo. Th. 3662; B. 1829. (b) where the genitive of the objects numbered is not given :-- Hwæþer ðis þúsend sceole beón scyrtre ðe lengre, Blickl. Homl. 119, 6. Ðæt forme þúsend, ðæt ys seó forme yld, Anglia viii. 335, 45. Þúsendes ealdor ciliarcus, Wrt. Voc. i. 18, 10. Æfter ðam þúsende biþ se deófol unburden, Wulfst. 243, 23. On þúsende ðære cneórisse in mille generationes, Ps. Th. 104, 8. Hié ðone here gefliémdon and his fela þúsenda ofslógon, Chr. 911; Erl. 100, 28: Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 118, 8: Cd. Th. 289, 23; Sat. 402: 290, 26; Sat. 421. Hé fór mid monegum þúsendum, Ors. 5, 4; Swt. 224, 19. Ic me ná ondrǽde þúsendu folces non timebo millia populi, Ps. Th. 3, 5. Betere ðonne mon mé geofe ðúsende goldes and seolfres super millia auri et argenti, 118, 72. (2) with other numerals as multipliers, (a) alone :-- Twá þúsend, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Zup. 282, 12: Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 76, 30. iiii þúsend monna, 2, 5; Swt. 80, 13. v þúsend wera, Chr. 508; Erl. 15, 18. Syx þúsend olfenda, Homl. Th. ii. 458, 18. Wæs Rómána eahta þúsend ofslagen, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 158, 11: 4, 9; Swt. 192, 24. Týn þúsend punda, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 24. Tén ðúsend, Ps. Surt. 90, 7. Endlefan þúsend monna, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 78, 24. Feówertýne þúsend sceápa, Homl. Th. ii. 458, 17. xvi þúsend punda, Chr. 994; Erl. 133, 27. Ðæt wǽre þrítig þúsend wintra, Exon. Th. 369, 5; Seel. 36: Salm. Kmbl. 544; Sel. 271. cxi þúsend, Chr. 71; Erl. 9, 2. Án hund þúsend manna and hundeahtatig ðúsend, Homl. Skt. i. 18, 403. Ðæt wǽron fiéftiéne hund þúsend monna, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 128, 22. Twá þúsendo, Mk. Skt. 5, 13: Cd. Th. 189, 14; Exod. 184. Twá ðúsendu swína, Chart. Th. 481, 5. Twá þúsenda, 471, 22: Jos. 7, 3. Ðá férdon þreó þúsenda feohtendra wera, 7, 4. iii þúsendo (-a, MS. E.) londes, Chr. 648; Erl. 26, 16. Ágefe hé feówer ðúsendo, Chart. Th. 471, 24. v þúsendu wera, Chr. 508; Erl. 14, 17. Fíf þúsendo. Andr. Kmbl. 1181; An. 591. Hé him gesealde seofon þúsendo, Beo. Th. 4397; B. 2195. Týn þúsendo, Ps. Th. 90, 7: 67, 17. Téno ðúsendo (þúsende, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 18, 24. Geselle et ðem londe .x. ðúsenda, Chart. Th. 465, 30. Cantwara him gesealdon xxx þúsenda, Chr. 694; Erl. 43, 21. Ðǽr wæs ofslagen eahtatig þúsenda, Ors. 5, 8; Swt. 232, 2. Hundeahtatig þúsenda, 2, 5; Swt. 78, 17. Án hund þúsenda gehorsedra, 3, 9; Swt. 124, 34: Cd. Th. 310, 9; Sat. 723. Hund þúsenda landes and locenra beága, Beo. Th. 5981; B. 2994, cxi þúsenda, Chr. 71; Erl. 8, 2. Ðone sang ðe nán mon elles singan ne mæg, búton ðæt hundteóntig and feówertig and feówer ðúsendo, Past. 52; Swt. 409, 10. Wearð ðú hund þúsenda ofslægen, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 78, 28. Ðá com him ongeán twá hund þúsenda monna, 3, 9; Swt. 132, 30. His heres wæs seofon hund þúsenda, 2, 5; Swt. 78, 10. viii c þúsenda, Swt. 80, 4. Ðæt wæs nigon x hund þúsenda, Swt. 84, 29. Þúsend ðúsenda ðénodon him, Homl. Th. i. 348, 2. Tó twǽm ðúsendum, Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 5, 13. Tén ðúsendum, Ps. Surt. 67, 18. Mid týn þúsendum cuman ágén ðone ðe him ágén cymþ mid twéntigum þúsendum, Lk. Skt. 14, 31. Fíf hund þúsendum quinquagenis milibus, Hpt. Gl. 426, 11. (b) in combination with hundreds, tens, units :-- Twá þúsend wintra and twá hund and twá and feówertig geára gerímes, Anglia viii. 336, 1. Feówer þúsend wintra and feówer hand and twá and hundeahtatig, Ors. 1, 14; Swt. 58, 9. Wǽron ágán .v. þúsend wintra and .cc. wintra, Chr. 11; Erl. 7, 2. v. þúsend wintra and cc. and xxvi, 33; Erl. 7, 10. Gersones hírédes wǽron seofon þúsenda and fíf hundredu ... Gaathes hírédes wæron eahta þúsendo and six hundredu ... Meraries hírédes wǽron six þúsendo and twá hundrydo ... ðá wǽron hira twá and twéntig þúsenda, Num. 3, 21-39. Rómána wæs án C and án M ofslagen Romanorum mille centum periere milites, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 176, 14. Ðæt wæs v hund monna and án M, 5, 12; Swt. 240, 34. II. as an adjective indecl. :-- Þúsénd getýme oxena and þúsend assan, Homl. Th. ii. 458, 18. Mid þúsend gemetum mille modis, Wülck. Gl. 254, 44. On hund þúsend wintrum ... on syx þúsend wintrum, Anglia viii. 335, 46-336, 20. Ott six þúsend wintrum, Wulfst. 244, 2. Tén ðúsend síðan hundfealde ðúsenda, Homl. Th. i. 348, 3. III. the word is sometimes used of value without expressing the unit (cf. the Icelandic use of hundrað); see the passages (quoted above), Chr. 648; Erl. 26, 16: 694; Erl. 43, 21: Beo. Th. 4397; B. 2195: 5981; B. 2994: Chart. Th. 465, 30: 471, 22, 24: Ps. Th. 118, 72. [Goth. þúsundi; f. n.: O. Frs. thúsend: O. L. Ger. thúsint: O. Sax. thúsundig: O. H. Ger. dúsunt, túsunt; f. n.: Icel. þúsund; f. (later f. and n.)]

þúsend-ealdormann, es; m. A captain of a thousand men :-- Þúsend-ealdermen chiliarcho, Hpt. Gl. 515, 76.

þúsend-feald; adj.Thousand-fold, a thousand :-- Ðæt þúsendfeald getæl is fulfremed, Wulfst. 243, 26, 23. Þúsendfealdre gegaderunge millena congerie, Hpt. Gl. 416, 63. Ðæt wǽron þúsendfealde onsægednyssa, Homl. Th. ii. 576, 8. Ongǽn þúsendfealde deriende cræftas contra mille nocendi artes, Wrt. Voc. ii. 135, 30: Hpt. Gl. 424, 45. [Mid þusendfeld wrenches he þe herte towendeð per mille meandros agitat quieta corda, O. E. Homl. ii. 191, 26.]

þúsend-gerím, es; n. Numeration by thousands, counting with the unit a thousand :-- Ðría ðreóténo ðúsendgerímes thirty-nine thousand, Salm. Kmbl. 582; Sal. 290.

þúsend-getæl, es; n. The number a thousand :-- Þúsendgetel bip fulfremed, and ne ástíhþ nán getel ofer ðæt, Homl. Th. i. 188, 34.

þúsend-híwe; adj. Of a thousand shapes :-- Þúsendhíwe milleformes, Coll. Monast, Th. 32, 29.

þúsend-líc; adj. Numbered by thousands :-- Ðúsendlícre milleno, Wrt. Voc. ii. 57, 40. Ðæt hé ús gescylde wiþ ða þúsendlícan cræftas deófles costunga, Blickl. Homl.19, 16.

þúsend-mǽle (?); adj. A thousand each, a thousand :-- Ðúsendmǽle mellena, Wrt. Voc. ii. 58, 19. Betere is tó gebídanne ánne dæg mid ðé ðonne óðera on þeódstefnum þúsendmǽla, Ps. Th. 83, 10.

þúsend-mǽlum; adv. In thousands :-- Weras and wíf somod wornum and heápum þrungen and urnon þúsendmǽlum, Judth. Thw. 23, 40; Jud. 165: Cd. Th. 190, 8; Exod. 196: 304, 18; Sat. 632. Him ymb flugon engla þreátas þúseudmǽlum, 300, 23; Sat. 569: 279, 11; Sat. 236: 296, 28; Sat. 509: Andr. Kmbl. 1744; An. 874.

þúsend-mann, es; m. A captain of a thousand men :-- Gesete of him þúsendmen and hundrydmen rulers of thousands and rulers of hundreds (A. V.), Ex. 18, 21, 25.

þúsend-ríca, an; m. A ruler of a thousand men :-- Þúsendríca millenarius, Wrt. Voc. i. 18, 9.

þus-líc, þul-líc; adj. Such :-- Nǽfre adeáwde ðuslíc (swyle, W. S.), Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 9, 33. Ðuslíc talem, 18, 5. Mæhto ðullíco uirtutes tales, Mk. Skt. Lind. 6, 2. Ðuslícra is ríce Godes talium est regnum Dei, 10, 14. Of ðuslícum cnæhtum ex hujusmodi pueris, 9, 37. Mid ðullucum (ðuslícum, Rush.) monigum bíspellum talibus multis parabolis, 4, 33. Ðuslícum fultumum, Rtl. 64, 33. Ðuslíco (-u, Rush.) monigo gié dóas hujusmodi multa facitis, Mt. Skt. Lind. 7, 13. Ðe fæder ðullíco (ðuslíco, Rush.) soecað pater tales quaerit, Jn. Skt. Lind. 4, 23. [Of þulliche wepnen, O. E. Homl. i. 255, 15. Þeos and swuche (þullich, MS. C.) oþre, A. R. 8, 7. Gon and iseon swuch (þullich, MS. C.), 10, 13. Of swuche (þullic, MS. C.), 82, 3. Swuche (þulliche, MS. C.), men, 84, 20. Þulli, Marh. 7, 27: H. M. 9, 25. Þullich, Kath. 847. Þellich, Ayenb. 6, 12.]

þútende. v. þeótan.

þú-þistel, es; m. Sow-thistle :-- Þúðistel (-þistil) lactuca, Txts. 73, 1179: Wrt. Voc. ii. 50, 57. Cf. þúfe.

þuuf, þuxsian. v. þúf, þuhsian.

þwǽle (or -a?; m.), an; f. A band, fillet :-- Ðuaelum taenis, Txts. 101, 1991. Thuélan vittas, 107, 2120. From its form the word, apparently, should mean towel, cf O. H. Ger. dwahila, dwehila; f. mantile, mappula, manutergium: M. H. Ger. dwehele, dwéle: Du. dwaal a towel; a shroud.

þwǽnan; p. de To soften by moisture, ointment, etc., to soften :-- Rysele oþþe gelyndo wiþ gárleác gemenged and on áléd ðone swile þwǽnþ, Lchdm. ii. 72, 5. Ðæt (the ointment) ða áheardodan swilas bét and þwǽnþ, 246, 17. Ðá hé ðam feaxe onféng ðæs hálgan heáfdes ðá wæs hé monad ðæt hé tó gesette and sum fæc ðone swyle mid ðýgde and ðwénde (ðwǽnde, MSS. B. T.) admonitus, cum accepisset capillos sancti capitis, adposuit, et aliquandiu tumorem horum adpositione coniprimere ac mollire curabat, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 41. Sceal mon mid útyrnendum drencum áteón út ða horhehtan wǽtan. Þwǽne mid ðý ǽrest, Lchdm. ii. 222, 26. Gif ðú wylle mannes wambe þwǽran, i. 82, 11. v. á-, geþwǽnan, and cf.(?) þǽnan.

þwǽre, an; f. An instrument for beating or stirring :-- Thuaere, thuérae, thuére tudicla, tudica, Txts. 103, 2072. v. þweran.

þwǽre; adj. Gentle, agreeable :-- Scs Arculfus sǽde ðæt ðǽr hangade úþmǽte leóhtfæt and ðwǽre (a lamp giving an agreeable light?), Shrn. 81, 17. [Gif hé on Tíwesdæg hip ácenned, se biþ ǽwerd on his lífe and biþ mán and ðwǽre (effeminate?, but perhaps manþwǽre should be read, the text is late), Lchdm. iii. 162, 11.] v. efen-, ge-, mann-, un-þwǽre.

þwǽrian. v. ge-, mid-þwǽrian; þwárian.

þwǽrlǽcan; p. -lǽhte To consent :-- Þwǽrlǽhte consentiret, Hpt. Gl. 465, 63. v. ge-þwǽrlǽcan.

þwǽrness, e; f. Agreement :-- Hí him ðǽr eádmédo budon and þwǽrnessa (geþuǽrnesse, MS. A.), Chr. 827; Erl. 65, 7. v. geþwǽrness.

þwang, es; m.: e; f. A thong, strip of leather :-- Ðwangc corrigia, Wrt. Voc, i. 84, 2. Grénre hýde, þwanges recentis corii, Hpt. Gl. 483, 31. Ic ne underfó ánne þwang (corrigiam caligae), Gen. 14, 23. Mid ðuongum (ðwongum, Rush.) sandalis, Mk. Skt. Lind. 6, 9. Ðæs ne eom ic wyrðe ðæt ic his sceóna þwanga (ðuongas, Lind.: þwongas, Rush.) búgende uncnytte cujus non sum dignus procumbens soluere corrigiam calciamentorum ejus, Mk. Skt. 1, 7. [Orm. Laym. þwang, þwong: R. Glouc. þong: O. H. Ger. dwang frenum.] v. brídel-, ól-, scóh-þwang; þweng.

þwárian; p. ode To bring into agreement, make harmonious :-- Hé gemetgaþ ða feówer gesceafta, ða hé þwáraþ and gewlitegaþ (geþwǽraþ and wlitegaþ, Cott. MS.), hwílum eft unwlitegaþ and on óþrum híwe gebrengþ and eft geedníwaþ elementa in se invicem temperat, et alterna commutatione transformat, Bt. 39, 8; Fox 224, 9. [Cf. O. H. Ger. twárón misceri.] v. þwǽrian.

þwarm. v. þwearm.

þwástrian ( = ? hwástrian, q. v.) to murmur, speak low :-- Þis ic spece nú gyt mid swá miccle ege ðæt mé þinceþ ðæt mé sió tunge stomrige nis hit gyt forðun ðæt ic þwástrian durre I dare not yet even speak low, Shrn. 42, 35.

þweál, es; n. m. I. washing :-- Ðhuehl, thuachl delumentum, Txts. 55, 641. Þweál, Wrt. Voc. i. 61, 20: ii. 25, 18: delumentum, i. lavatio, 138, 52: lustramentum, Hpt. Gl. 483, 20. Ðeáh swín áðwægen sié, gif hit eft filþ on ðæt sol, ðonne biþ hit fúlre ðonne hit ǽr wæs, and ne forstent ðæt ðweál náuht, Past. 54; Swt. 421, 3. Hwæt forstent him ðæt ǽrre ðweál (lavatio), 21. Ðæt wæter his bána ðweáles aqua lavacri, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 6. Clǽnsunge ðweáles and bæþes lavacri purificationem, 1, 27; S. 495, 16. Be weres þweále de viri lotione, L. Ecg. C. xxvi. tit.; Th. ii. 130, 10. Æfter fóta ðweále post pedum lavationem, Anglia xiii. 392, 392: R. Ben. 83, 23. For ðæs reáfes þweále, 91, 4. Swýn ðe cyrþ tó meoxe æfter his ðweále, Homl. Th. ii. 380, 11. Se Hǽlend hí áþwóh mid þweále, 242, 29: Blickl. Homl. 147, 22. Mid þweále ðæs hálgan fulluhtes, Lchdm. iii. 434, 2. Eádig ðú eart ðe onfénge ðone þweál mínre gife, Homl. Skt. ii. 30, 111. Þweálu clǽnes wǽles lavacra puri gurgitis, Hymn. Surt. 52, 13. Þweála (þweálu, MS. A.) calica baptismata calicum, Mk. Skt. 7, 8. [Forhabbe hé hyne wyð ǽlc þweald, Lchdm. iii. 134, 25.] II. what is used in washing, ointment. (Cf. Icel. þvál a kind of soap, þvæla to wash with soap: Swed. twål hard soap.) v, þweán, II :-- Pund ðuahles librum ungenti, Jn. Skt. Lind. 12, 3. [Goth. þwahl; n. lavacrum: O. H. Ger. dwahal.] v. fót-, hand-, heáfod-þweál.

þweán; p. þwóh, pl. þwógon; pp. þwagen, þwægen, þwegen, þwogen. I. to wash. (1) with object of that which is to be cleansed :-- Petrus cwæð tó him: 'Ne þwyhst (ðuóas, Lind.: ðwǽs, Rush.) ðú nǽfre míne fét.' Se Hǽlend cwæþ: 'Gif ic ðé ne þweá (áðóa, Lind.: ðwǽ, Rush.), næfst ðú nánne dǽl myd mé, Jn. Skt. 13, 8. Ðú ðwehst (ðwés, Surt.) mé lavabis me, Ps. Lamb. 50, 9. Hé his handa ðwehþ (ðwéð, Surt.), Ps. Th. 57. 9. Ne þweáð (ðwés, Lind.: thuáð, Rush.) hí hyra handa, Mt. Kmbl. 15, 2. Gif ic þwóh (geðuóg, Lind.: ðwóg, Rush.) eówre fét, Jn. Skt. 13, 14. Ic þwóh (ðwóg, Surt.), Ps. Th. 72, 11. Ic in ða eá ástáh and of ðam wætere míne handa þwóh, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 502. Hé hire fét mid his teárum þwóh, 744. Hé þwóh Aaron and his suna, Lev. 8, 6. Heó hí ðwóhg, Bd. 3, 9; S. 534, 13. Ðæt sylfe wæter ðæt hí ða bán mid ðwógan, 3, 11; S. 535, 33. Ðæt wæter wæs gedréfed, ðonne ðǽr micel folc hiera fét and honda on ðwógon, Past. 16; Swt. 105, 22. Þwógan, Blickl. Homl. 149, 6. Þwógon, Gen. 43, 24. Þweah (ðuah, Lind.: þwah, Rush.) ðíne ansýne, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 17. Ne þweh ðú ná míne fét áne, Jn. Skt. 13, 9. Þweáð eówre fét, Gen. 19, 2. Ne beðearf búton ðæt man his fét þweá (áðóa, Lind.: ðwǽ, Rush.), Jn. Skt. 13, 10. Búton hí hyra handa þweán, Mk. Skt. 7, 3. Scealt ðú ðweán (geðóas, Lind.: ðú mé ðwoege, Rush.) míne fét, Jn. Skt. 13, 6. Heó wolde hig þweán æt ðam wætere, Ex. 2, 5. Hé underféhð ðæt fenn ðara ðweándra, Past. 16; Swt. 105, 24. (2) with object of that which is to be cleansed away :-- Mid hú micle elne ǽghwylc wille synrust þweán, Exon. Th. 81, 9; Cri. 1321. II. to anoint. v. þweál, II :-- Ðuah heáfud ðín unge caput tuum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 17. [Goth. þwahan: O. Sax. thwahan: O. H. Ger. dwahan: Icel. þvá.] v. á-, be-, ge-þweán.

þwearm, es; m.(?) A cutting instrument :-- Thuearm, duæram, þuarm scalprum, Txts. 94, 891.

þwénan. v. þwǽnan.

þweng, e; f.(?) A band :-- Ðuencgu (þwænge, Rush.) philacteria, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 23, 5. [Icel. þvengr a thong.] v. þwang.

þweora, an; m. Crossness, peevishness :-- Ǽlc ðweora and ǽlc ierre and unweorðscipe ... sié ánumen fram eów omnis amaritudo, et ira, et indignatio ... tollatur a vobis (Eph. 4, 31), Past. 33; Swt. 222, 8. His múð hé sceal from ǽlcum þweoran (or adj.? v. L. E. I. 21; Th. ii. 416, 33) and yflum wordum gehealdan debet os suum a malo vel pravo eloquio custodire, R. Ben. 18, 7. [Cf. Goth. þwairhei indignatio (in the verse just given): Icel. þver-leikr crossness.] v. þweorh, III.

þweores, þwires, þwyres. I. across as opposed to along, athwart, transversely, crosswise as opposed to lengthways :-- Lege bred þweores ofer ða fét lay a board across over the feet, Lchdm. ii. 342, 6. Ðonon þweores ofér ðone beorh, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 353, 16. Adam wæs on lenge fíf and hundnigontiges fingra lenge ofer þweoras ða fingras (i.e. taking the breadth, not the length, of the fingers), Anglia xi. 2, 28. Andlang ðære þorngrǽfan þwyres ofer Hysseburnan on gósdæne; ðonne andlang ðæs weges ðe líð andlang gósdæne þwyres ofer in waldes weg, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 148, 4-7. Þwyres ofer þrý crundelas; ofer ða strét; þwyres ofer ða dúne, 13, 32: vi. 226, 15. Hé hét ǽnne weall þwyres ofer eall ðæt lond ásettan from sǽ óþ sǽ, Ors. 6, 15; Swt. 270, 13. Binnan ðam díce ðe wé gemynegodon ðæt Severus hét ðwyrs ofer ðæt eálond gedícian intra vallum quod Severum trans insulam fecisse commemoravimus, Bd. 1, 11; S. 480, 19. Ðá wolde hé þurhþýn hí þwyres mid ðam swurde then he wanted to thrust her through, from one side to the other, with the sword, Homl. Skt. i. 12, 225. Hí wurdon áworpene intó ðam byrnendum ofne gebundene ðwyres (bound across, with their arms bound to their sides), Homl. Th. ii. 312, 1. II. on the flank :-- Ðá hét hé ðæt hiere (the serpent) mon mid ðǽm palistas þwyres on wurpe. Ðá wearð hiere mid ánum wierpe án ribb forod, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 174, 10. Hé gesette twá folc diégellíce on twá healfa ... and bebeád ðǽm twám folcum,... ðæt hié on Reguluses fird on twá healfa þwyres on fóre (that they should attack Regulus's army on both flanks), 176, 3. Hannibal him com þwyres on, 4, 8; Swt. 188, 15. III. perversely, wrongly :-- Godes wiþerwinnan ðe willaþ ǽfre þwires, Jud. Thw. 157, 30. Se ðe his neáxtan hataþ, se bið geháten ðæs áwyrgedan deófles bearn, ðe wyle ǽfre ðwyres, Basil admn. 4; Norm. 44, 14. [O. H. Ger. tweres oblique; cf. Ger. quer, quer über: Icel. þvers, þvers um across: Dan. tværs, tværs over across.] v. next word.

þweorh, þwerh, þwyrh; adj. I. crooked, cross, (1) for the literal sense see þweores. (2) fig. :-- Ðuer wig perversa via, Kent. Gl. 772. On ðweorum wige in via perversi, 812. Þwuru (þweoru, MS. A.) beóþ on gerihte erunt prava in directa, Lk. Skt. 3, 5. II. adverse, opposed (cf. Icel. þver-úð discord). v. þweorian, þweor-líc, II :-- Þwyr oððe wiðerrǽde adversus, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 240, 1. Gif gé beóð þwyre tó ðisum, Homl. Skt. i. 11, 94. Ungeþwǽre and þwyre him betwýnan at variance among themselves, 13, 236. III. cross, angry, bitter. v. þweora :-- Ðǽm þweorum (þreorum, Wrt.) rancidis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 80, 59. v. þróh. IV. perverse, wrong, evil, depraved, froward :-- Heorte ðuerh (þweor, Spl.: þweorr, Lamb.) cor pravum, Ps. Surt. 100, 4. Cyn ðuerh (þweor, Spl. Lamb.) genus pravum, 77, 8. Þwyr geþanc praua mens, Scint. 68, 3. Mann þwyr homo peruersus, 134, 11. Þwyr mód proteruus animus, 19. Hé wæs þwyr on dǽdum, Homl. Th. i. 534, 2. Seó híwrǽden is swíðe ðwyr domus exasperans est, ii. 530, 29. Decius se þweora heóld ríce, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 12. Eálá þwyre (þweóre, MS. A.) cneóres O generatio perversa, Mt. Kmbl. 17, 172. Þwure (þweore, MS. A.), Lk. Skt. 9, 41. Seó ðwyre sáwul, Homl. Th. i. 408, 13. Ðæt ðwyre mód, 410, 21. Ðwerre heortan peruersi cordis, Kent. Gl. 612. Mid þweorum (ðý ðweoran, Surt.) cum perverso, Ps. Spl. 27, 28. Hé eall ðurh his unrihtdǽde mid ðweorum lífe áþýstrade universa prave agenda obnubilavit, Bd. 5, 13; S. 633, 33. On þwerre sprǽce in locutione perversa, Confess. Peccat. Ðweran perverso, Kent. Gl. 242. On bogon þweorne (ðone ðweoran, Surt.) in arcum pravum, Ps. Spl. 77, 63. On óðre wísan sint tó manienne ða bilwitan on óðre ða ðweoran and ða lytegan quomodo admonendi simplices et versipelles, Past. 35; Swt. 237, 5. Ða ðweoran hí ofslógon, Homl. Th. i. 232, 7. Ða ðwyran beón geðreáde, ðæt hí tó Godes rihte gebúgan, ii. 96, 5. On þweorra (ðwyrra, Wells Frag.) manna (pravorum) gewit, R. Ben. 119, 23. Ðwyrra, Homl. Th. i. 552, 35. Ðweorum pravis, Wülck. Gl. 251, 23. Mid þweorum ðeáwum, Homl. Th. i. 302, 30. From þweorum and yfelum wordum, L. E. I. 21; Th. ii. 416, 33. Geðyldig wið ðwyrum mannum, Homl. Th. ii. 514, 11. Ða ðwyran improbos, R. Ben. Interl. 15, 10. ¶ On þweorh wrongly, evilly :-- Ðæt hí ðý máre wíte hæbben ðe hí gere witon ðæt hí on ðweorh dóð, Past. 55; Swt. 429, 9. Hé ongeat ðæt hé hæfde on ðweorh gedón, ðæt seó mǽgþ wæs bútan biscope, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, 22. Ðonne hig eów tela tǽcean, and him sylf on ðweorh dóð, L. E. I. 21; Th. ii. 418, 7. Hié on þweorh sprecaþ, Cd. Th. 145, 30; Gen. 2413. [Goth. þwairhs angry: O. H. Ger. dwerah transversus; in duerh in transversum: Icel. þverr cross, transverse.] v. ire-þweorh.

þweorh-furh (?) a cross furrow, a rough place :-- Þuerhfyri salebrae (cf. O. H. Ger. furihi salebras; sulcos), Txts. 95, 1761. Ða unsméþan ðwerfuru salebrosos (complanans) anfractus (Ald.), Wrt. Voc. ii. 78, 26. Þwyrhfero anfractus (the passage in Aldhelm is: Errabundis anfractibus exorbitans), 83, 6. Ðweorhfyro, 2, 20. See also þwyres fura salebroso (the passage is: Genus explanat salebroso pagina versu), 90, 60.

þweorian, þwyrian; p. ode To be opposed, adverse to (wið), to be at variance. v. þweorh, II :-- Ic ðwyrige oððe ic wiðerige adversor, Ælfc. Gr. 25; Zup. 145, 18. On sibbe is fulfremednyss ðǽr ðǽr nán ðing ne þwyraþ (there are no conflicting elements), Homl. Th. i. 552, 21. Ic eom sóðfæstnys, ac ðás ðweorigaþ wið mé these men are opposed to me, 380, 8. Ne mæg ðeós offrung beón on ðære heortan ðe mid gýtsunge oððe andan gebysgod bið, for ðan ðe hí ðwyriaþ wið ðone gódan willan they are adverse to the good will, 584, 20. Oððe hí his fét gesóhton, him and Gode gehýrsumigende, oððe gif heora hwylc ðwyrode (if any one of them was adverse), hé his andweardnysse forfleáh, 560, 10. Ða heáfodmen wiðcwǽdon and symle ðwyrodon ever proved adverse, ii. 260, 2. Wiðersaca[n]dan ɫ þw[r]eredon apostataverant, Hpt. Gl. 510, 50. Ðá ongunnon Phariséi him betwýnan ðwyrian the Pharisees began to be at variance among themselves, Homl. Th. ii. 298, 28.

þweor-líc, þwyr-líc; adj. I. reversed, contrary, opposite :-- Ða word, ðe synd passiva, beóð activa gif se r byþ áweg gedón; ... twá dǽdlíce word synd ðe habbaþ þwyrlíce getácnunge; ðæt ðe geendaþ on o getácnaþ þrowunge, and ðæt ðe geendaþ on or getácnaþ dǽde, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Zup. 122, 17. Bið swíðe þwyrlíc, ðæt ðearfa beó módig it is quite reversing the proper order of things for a needy person to be proud, Homl. Skt. i. 13, 123. II. adverse. v. þweorh, II :-- Antecrist is gereht ðwyrlíc Crist, Homl. Th. i. 4, 22. III. perverse, evil, depraved :-- Hé wǽs ácenned búton synne, and næs nán ðing ðwyrlíces on him, Homl. Th. i. 176, 5. Fram þwyrlíce sprǽce a pravo eloquio, R. Ben. Interl. 21, 9. Gesamnodon gehwylce ðwyrlíce wiðercoran, Homl. Th. i. 468, 5. Ðonne ðwyrlícra manna heortan beóð geemnode, 362, 26. Þwyrlícra pravorum, R. Ben. Interl. 107, 11.

þweorlíce; adv. I. awry, askew, in reversed order :-- Þwyrlíce færð æt ðam húse ðær seó wyln bið ðære hlǽfdian wissigend and seó hlæfdige bið ðære wylne underðeódd, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 10. II. in a way that offers opposition, obstinately, flatly (of refusal) :-- Hé wiðcwæð þwyrlíce (flatly; cf. Icel. synja, neita þverliga; or angrily, v. þweorh, III) and hí mid gedréfedre ǽbilignysse him fram ádráf Homl. Th. ii. 24, 29. III. perversely, evilly :-- And suá ðeáh hé mid wón weorcum hit tó ðweorlíce ne fremeþ ðeáh hé hit on his móde forlǽtan ne mæge et quamvis prava non exerceat opere, ab his tamen non evellitur mente, Past, 11; Swt. 73, 13. Enervatius, i. debilius sleaclíce, þweorlíce; enerviter, wáclíce, turpiter, Wrt. Voc. ii. 143, 55. Þwyrlíce lybbende praue uiuendo, Scint. 45, 18.

þweorness, e; f. I. crookedness (fig.) v. þweorh, I. 2 :-- Ðwyrnyssa beóð gerihte, Homl. Th. i. 362, 22. II. opposition. v. þweorh, II, þweorlíce, II :-- Aduersus ongeán mid þwyrnysse (.i. discordia, MS. W.), Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 239, 14. Ðá sceorede ðágyt se yldesta hǽðengylda mid mycelre þwyrnysse the chief idolater still refused most flatly, Homl. Th. i. 72, 10. III. perversity, iniquity, evil, depravity :-- Mycel is seó þwyrnes (cf. abundabit iniquitas, 8), Wulfst. 82, 17. Fram þwyrnysse a prauitate, Scint. 32, 3. For heora lífes ðwyrnysse, Homl. Th. ii. 530, 24. Forbeóde hé ða þwyrnesse hyra ungeþeahtes prohibeant pravorum prevalere consensum, R. Ben. 119, 9. Hrædlíce bið se Déma tó úrum bénum gebíged, gif wé fram úrum ðwyrnyssum beóð gerihtlǽhte, Homl. Th. ii. 124, 35: Lchdm. iii. 276, 18. Manna þwyrnyssa hominum prauitates, Scint. 44, 9.

þweorscipe, es; m. Perversity, iniquity, depravity :-- Se bið ðæm ísene gelíc inne on ðæm ofne, se ðe for ðære suingellan nyle his ðweorscipe forlǽtan, ac ofan his níhstan his lífes, Past. 37; Swt. 269, 6.

þweor-timbre (?); adj. Cross-grained(?), stubborn :-- Ic wát ðæt ic ǽr ne síð ǽnig ne métte þrístran geþohtes ne þweorhtimbran (Grein suggests -tímran, v. next word) mægþa cynnes, Exon. Th. 275, 15; Jul. 550.

þweor-tíme; adj. I. given to opposition, contentious. v. þweorh, II :-- Ðone réþan, ðe biþ þweortéme, ðú scealt hátan hund, nallas mann ferox, atque inquies linguam litigiis exercet? cani comparabis, Bt. 37, 4; Fox 192, 16. II. given to evil, wicked, depraved :-- And ðeáh ðonne hé ongiete ða scylda ðara ðweortiémena, ðonne geðence hé ðone ealdordóm his onwealdes cum pravorum culpa exigit, potestatem sui prioratus agnoscat, Past. 17; Swt. 107, 12. Ðǽm gódum hé sceal mid wordum stýran and ðǽm þweortýmum mid swingellum honestiores animos verbis corripiat, improbos autem verberum castigatione, R. Ben. 13, 20.

þwer. v. þweorh.

þweran; p. þwær, pl. þwǽron; pp. þworen, þuren :-- To twirl, stir. [O. H. Ger. dweran; p. dwar; pp. dworan miscere.] v. á-, ge-þweran; þwirel.

þwínan; p. þwán, pl. þwinon; pp. þwinen To get less, dwindle, be reduced (of a swelling) :-- Beþe ða fét and smyre, ðonne þwínaþ (-eþ, MS.) hý sóna (the swelling goes down), Lchdm. i. 84, 25. Ðonne þwínaþ ða áswollena sina, ii. 282, 8. Tácn ðæt se swile þwínan ne mæg, ne út yrnan on ðære litre, 162, 3: 212, 9. Cf. dwínan.

þwirel; es; m. A stick for whipping milk :-- Meolc lac, fliéte verberatum, molten lac coagolatum, þwiril verberaturium, Wrt. Voc. i. 290, 26-30. [O. H. Ger. dwiril: M. H. Ger. twirel, twirl: Ger. querl, quirl a twirling-stick; querlen to beat up: Icel. þyrell a whisk to whip milk; flauta-þyrell a stick for whipping milk; þyrla to whirl; cf. þwara a stick used to stir up a cauldron.] v. þweran.

þwires. v. þweores.

þwítan; p. þwát, pl. þwiton, þweoton; pp. þwiten To thwite (still in some dialects, e.g. Lancashire), to cut, cut off :-- Þwíteþ, Exon. Th. 354, 50; Reim. 63. Monige of åam treówe ðæs hálgan Cristes mǽles spónas and sceafþan nimaþ (spónas ðwítaþ, MS. B.) multi de ipso ligno sacrosanctae crucis astulas excidere solent, Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, 31. Monige of ðære ilcan styþe spónas ðweoton and sceatþan nómon (ðæt geþwit náman, MS. B.) astulis ex ipsa destina excisis, 3, 17; S. 544, 44, col. 2 (sprytlan ácurfon, col. 1). Genim ðone wyrttruman, delf up, þwít nigon spónas on ða winstran hand, Lchdm. ii. 292, 2. [Telwyn or thwytyn abseco, reseco, Prompt. Parv. 488. To thwyte dolare, Cath. Angl. 388, and see note. Cf. Icel. þveita a small axe, þvita a kind of axe, þveit, þveiti a cut-off piece, a parcel of land.] v. á-, for-þwítan; ge-þwit.

þwur, þwyr, þwyr-, þwyre, þý, þýan. v. þweor, þweor-, þweores, þe, þeówan.

þý-dǽges; adv. On that day, then :-- Gif ðǽr byð án ofer ða seofon, ðonne tácnaþ ðæt ðæt se mónð gǽð on Sunnandæg on túne; gif ðǽr beóð ofer ða seofon twá oððe þreó, feówer oððe fífe oððe syxe, wite ðú tó sóðe ðæt ðýdæges cymð sé mónð tó manuum, Anglia viii. 304, 13: 310, 39.

þyddan; p. de To strike, thrust, push :-- Impingere on besettan (in margin on þidden, ic on þydde), Hpt. Gl. 505, 46. Ðá ðydde Æfner hine mid hindewerde sceafte on ðæt smælðearme ðæt hé wæs deád percussit eum Abner aversa hasta in inguine, et transfodit eum, et mortuus est, Past. 40; Swt. 295, 17. Se assa þidde his hláfordes fót þearle tó ðam hege junxit asina se parieti et attrivit sedentis pedem, Num. 22, 25. Ðá ábrǽd Aoth his swurd and hine hetelíce þidde swá ðæt ða hiltan eodon in tó ðam innoðe Aoth tulit sicam, infinxitque eam in ventre ejus, tam valide, ut capulus sequeretur ferrum in vulnere, Jud. 3, 21. Ðæt is ðæt mon mid hindewearde sceafte ðone ðydde ðe him oferfylge aversa hasta persequentem ferire eat, Past. 40; Swt. 297, 14. [Þenne þudde ich in ham luueliche þohtes, Marh. 14, 7. Þa þudde ha uppon þe Þurs feste wið hire fot, 12, 17. He þudde (þraste, 2nd MS.) frommard his breoste, Laym. 1898.] v. þurh-, wiþ-þyddan; þoddettan; see also þeówan.

þyder, þýfe. v. þider, þífe.

þýfel, es; m. A bush; a thicket; a leafy plant :-- Frutectum, i. arborum densitas vel ramus (ramnus?) þýfel, frutices, ramos (ramnos?) þyrne, frutex, frutecta þýfel, Wrt. Voc. ii. 151, 42-45. Þýfel frutex, i. 33, 42. Ðýfel, 80, 20. Þýfel spartus, 32, 40: spina, sentrix, 33, 47. Of þiccum þéfele, Hpt. Gl. 408, 38. On ðone hundes þýfel; of hundes þýfele forþ on ðone þorn, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 425, 29. Andlang paðes on ðone hyndes þýfel; of ðæm þýfele andlang weges, vi. 36, 4. Þýfelas frutecta, Wrt. Voc. i. 39, 9. His þýfelas ɫ twygu arbusta ejus, Ps. Lamb. 79, 11. Þýfela vel boxa belsarum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 125, 44. Genim ðysse wyrte, ðe wé león fót nemdon, fíf ðýfelas bútan wyrttruman, Lchdm. i. 98, 16. [Smale fuʒele þat fleoþ bi grunde and bi þuvele, O. and N. 278.] v. brémel-, rysc-, sceald-, wiðig-þýfel; þúf.

þýflen (?); adj. Bushy :-- Þýflen (printed ryplen) sparteus (cf. þýfel spartus), Germ. 399, 457.

þyften, e; f. A female servant :-- Þyften verna, famula, servus, Hpt. Gl. 470, 9. Þeftan vernacula, servula, ancilla, 461, 56. [Þe oðer is ase lefdi; þeos is ase þuften, A. R. 4, 11. Mi lauerd biseh his þufftenes mekelec respexit humilitatem ancillae suae, H. M. 45, 12.] v. ge-þofta.

þýgan. v. þeówan.

þyhtig; adj. Strong, firm :-- Sweord ecgum þyhtig, Beo. Th. 3121; B. 1558. v. hyge-, un-þyhtig.

þylc; pron. Such :-- Þes þylc fela spycð iste talis multum loquitur, Scint. 80, 19. Gif hé áwiht þylces dó si tale quid fecerit, L. Ecg. C. 15; Th. ii. 142, 27. Þylces fela his similia, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 11. Ánne þilícne lytling unum parvolum talem, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 5. Hwæt is þes be þam ic þilc gehýre de quo audio ego talia, Lk. Skt. 9, 9. Manega óþre þylce (þyllíce, MS. A.) gé dóð alia similia his facitis multa, Mk. Skt. 7, 8. Feáwa synd ða þylce gebedu habban pauci sunt qui tales orationes habeant, Scint. 33, 3. [Laym. Chauc. þilk: R. Glouc. þulk: Icel. því-líkr.]

þyl-cræft, es; m. Rhetoric :-- Þelcræft rethorica, Hpt. Gl. 479, 55. v. þyle.

þyld patience :-- On ðylde iówre settas gé sáwle iówre in patientia uestra possidebitis animas uestras, Lk. Skt. Rush. 21, 19. [Þild to þolenn unnseollþe, Orm. 2603. Þild patientia, Ps. 9, 19. O. H. Ger. dult.] v. ge-þyld.

þyldig; adj. Patient :-- Strong and ðyldig fortis et patiens, Rtl. 1010, 8. [þuldi and þolemod, Kath. 174. O. H. Ger. dultíg patiens.] v. ge-, un-þyldig.

þyldigian; p. ode To endure :-- Wel þyldigende hí beóð bene patientes erunt, Ps. Spl. 91, 14. v. á-, for-, ge-ðyldigian (-þylgian).

þyle, es; m. An orator, spokesman :-- Gelǽred þyle fela spǽca mid feáwum wordum geopenaþ doctus orator plures sermones paucis verbis aperit, Scint. 119, 3. Þylas oratores, Wrt. Voc. ii. 63, 1. As a proper name Þyle is found in Exon. Th. 320, 5; Víd. 24 :-- Þyle weóld Rondingum. ¶ In Beowulf the þyle of the Danish king is mentioned :-- Húnferþ þyle, Beo. Th. 2335; B. 1165. Þyle Hróðgáres, 2917; B. 1456. In two passages it is noted that he sat at his lord's feet :-- Húnferð maþelode ðe æt fótum sæt freán Scyldinga, 1002; B. 499: 2335; B. 1165. He is the only one of the courtiers who is actually stated to have addressed Beowulf, so that the duty of leading the conversation seems to have fallen to him. If a gloss in Wrt. Voc. ii. 25, 31-descurris hofðelum-may be read de scurris of ðelum ( = ðylum) or hofðylum, perhaps his function was something like that of the later court jester, and the style of his attack on Beowulf hardly contradicts the supposition. [Icel. þulr; cf. þylja to say, chant.] v. þyl-cræft.

þýle, Thíla Thule, some island in the north-west of Europe :-- Be westannorðan Iberuia is ðæt ýtemeste land ðæt man hǽt Thíla (insula Thule), and hit is feáwum mannum cúð for ðære oferfyrre, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 20. Ðæt íland ðe wé hátaþ Thýle, ðæt is on ðam norþwestende ðisses middangeardes ultima Thule, Bt. 29, 3; Fox 106, 23. Thíle hátte án ígland be norðan þysum íglande, syx daga fær ofor sǽ, Lchdm. iii. 260, 2. v. Týle.

þylian, þylíc, þyl-líc, þylman. v. þilian, þylc, þys-líc, for-þylman.

þýmel, es; m. A thumbstall, fingerstall, thimble :-- Wiþ scurfedum nægle ... wyrc þýmel tó, and lege eald spic onufan ðone nægl, Lchdm. ii. 150, 6. [Themyl digitale, Wulck. Gl. 578, 29 (15th cent.). Themelle, thymbylle, thymle digitale, parcipollex, pollicium, Cath. Aug. 383, where see note. Thymbyl theca, Prompt. Parv. 491. Icel. þumall the thumb of a glove.]

þýmel; adj. A thumb thick, applied to the fat of swine :-- Æt þýmelum, L. In. 49; Th. i. 132, 19.

þýn to press. v. þeówan.

þyncan; p. þúhte. I. to seem, appear. (1) where the subject of the verb is expressed :-- Ðynceþ him swíðe leoht sió byrðen ðæs láreówdómes pondus magisterii levius aestimant, Past. proem.; Swt. 24, 9. Mé ðeós (ród) heardra þynceþ, Exon. Th. 91, 9; Cri. 1489: 383, 14; Rä. 4, 10: Met. 12, 8. Þincð, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 25: Met. 12, 18. Þis þinceþ riht micel, ðæt..., Cd. Th. 149, 17; Gen. 2476. Mé ðæt riht ne þinceþ, ðæt..., 19, 11; Gen. 289. Þynceþ, Andr. Kmbl. 1218; An. 609. Hí ne wundriaþ mæniges þinges ðe monnum wonder þynceþ, Met. 28, 82. Ðæs ðe mé þynceþ, Andr. Kmbl. 944; An. 472: Ps. Th. 101, 3. Him ða twigu þincaþ merge, Met. 13, 44. Hý wyrðe þinceaþ, Beo. Th. 742; B. 368. Lytel þúhte ic leóda bearnum, Exon. Th. 87, 14; Cri. 1425. Ne þúhte hé him nó innon swá fæger swá hé útan þúhte. Þeáh ðú nú hwam fæger þince, ne biþ hit nó ðý raþor swá, Bt. 32, 2; Fox 116, 24. He ðúhte him selfum suíðe unlytel se parvulum non videbat, Past. 17; Swt. 113, 12. Hire þúhte hwítre heofon and eorðe, Cd. Th. 38, 7; Gen. 603: 111, 4; Gen. 1850: Beo. Th. 1688; B. 842: Met. 12, 15. Tó lang hit him þúhte, hwænnne hí tógædere gáras béron, Byrht. Th. 133. 47; By. 66. Him ðæt wræclíc þúhte, Cd. Th. 233, 4; Dan. 270. Ðæt wundra sum monnum þúhte, ðæt..., Exon. Th. 133, 13; Gú. 489: 169, 27; Gú. 1101. Hié ðam were geonge þúhton men, Cd..Th. 146, 27; Gen. 2428. Ealle brimu blódige þúhton, 214, 20; Exod. 572: Andr. Kmbl. 880; An. 440: Beo. Th. 1737; B. 866. Ðý ðe hý him sylfum séllan þúhten, Exon. Th. 455, 24; Hy. 4, 54. Hé þenceþ ðæt his wíse welhwam þince unforcúþ, 315, 13; Mód. 30. Þeáh hit lang þince, Met. 10, 66. Hwæt eów sélest þynce, Elen. Kmbl. 1062. Hié wilniaþ ðæt hié ðyncen ða betstan, Past. 18; Swt. 134, 18. Hwelc wíte sceal ús tó hefig ðyncan? 36; Swt. 255, 3. Hí woldon mé swíþe bitere þincan, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 19. Swá hit þincan mæg, L. I. P. 19; Th. ii. 326, 36. (2) where the subject is not expressed, as in methinks :-- Swá me ðincþ, Bt. 33, 1; Fox 120, 21: 36, 3; Fox 176, 30. Swá ðé ðyncþ, 38, 2; Fox 196, 22. Hú þincþ eów quid vobis videtur, Mt. Kmbl. 21, 28. Þincþ him genóg on ðam ðe hí binnan heora ǽgenre hýde habbaþ, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 22. Dém ðú hí tó deáþe, gif ðé gedafen þince, Exon. Th. 247, 32; Jul. 87. Ðeáh monnum swá ne þince, Bt. 39, 8; Fox 224, 17. (2 a) where the verb is followed by a clause :-- Mé þincþ ðæt hit hæbbe geboht sume leáslíce mǽrþe, Bt. 24, 3; Fox 82, 24. Ne þynceþ mé gerysne, ðæt wé rondas beren, Beo. Th. 5299; B. 2653. Hwæt þincþ ðé ðæt ðú sý?, Jn. Skt. 8, 53. Þyncþ him ðæt hé næbbe genóg, Bt. 33, 2; Fox 124, 4. Him selfum þincþ ðæt hé nǽnne næbbe, swá swá manegum men þincþ ðæt hé nǽnne næbbe, 29, 1; Fox 104, 8. Wrætlíc mé þinceþ, hú seó wiht mæge wordum lácan, Exon. Th. 414, 11; Rä. 32, 18. Þinceþ ðé miht ðú libban potes vivere? Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 40. Ðúhte heom ðæt hit mihte swá, Cd. Th. 266, 14; Sat. 22. Ne þúhte gerysne rodora wearde, ðæt Adam leng ána wǽre, 11, 9; Gen. 169. Ðeáh ús þince ðæt it on wóh fare, Bt. 39, 8; Fox 224, 20. Higesnotrum mæg þincan, ðæt..., Met. 10, 8. II. to seem fit :-- Swá mycel swá ðé þince as much as to you seems good, Lchdm. ii. 74, 2. Dó swá ðé þynce, gif ðú frygnen sié, Elen. Kmbl. 1078; El. 541. [Goth. þug[g]kjan: O. Sax. thuukian: O. H. Ger. dunchan: Icel. þykkja.] v. ge-, mis-, of-on-þyncan.

þyncþ[u]; f. Honour, dignity, rank :-- Suá suǽ hé on ðyncðum (geðyncðum, Cott. MSS.) bið furður ðonne óðre sicut honore ordinis superat, Past. 14; Swt. 81, 23. v. ge-þingþu.

þýnde. v. þignan.

þyng, es; m.(?) Growth, progress, profit :-- Mið ðynge proficiendo, Rtl. 83, 40. v. ge-þynge.

þyn-hlǽne; adj. Wasted, shrunk :-- Ða gescruncenan and ða þynhlǽnan marcida, Wrt. Voc. ii. 57, 23.

þynne; adj. Thin :-- Ðæt ic reccan móste þicce and þynne, Exon. Th. 424, 8; Rä. 41, 36. Ic dó sum ðing ðinre tenuo, Ælfc. Gr. 24; Zup. 137, 9. I. of dimension, (1) thin, lean, the opposite of fat or stout :-- Þynne monn galbus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 42, 11. Ne mæg him se líchoma batian, ac bið blác and þynne, Lchdnl. ii. 206, 11. (2) thin, the opposite of thick :-- Mid ðynre tyrf bewrigen obtectus cespite tenui, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 20. Hé hæfde midmycle neosu ðynne vir naso pertenui, 2, 16; S. 519, 34. Seóh þurh þynne hrægl, Lchdm. ii. 290, 4. Seó wyrt hafaþ þynne leáf, Lchdm. i. 288, 16. (3) thin, the opposite of broad :-- Ðæt seó ðynneste dolhswaþo ætýwde ut tenuissima cicatricis vestigia parerent, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 19. II. of density, (1) where the parts of a whole are not close together, thin :-- Oft of ðinnum rénscúrum fléwð seó eorðe, Homl. Th. ii. 466, 7. In sceagan ðǽr hé þynnest is, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 391, 15. (2) applied to liquids, air, etc., thin :-- Sum útgang biþ þynne, suns mid þiccum wǽtum geondgoten, Lchdm. ii. 276, 24. Hit sié þicce swá þynne bríw, 314, 4. Lyft is líchamlíc gesceaft, swýðe þynne, iii. 272, 17. Þynne wín, ii. 254, 18. Snáw cymð of ðam þynnum wǽtan, iii. 278, 23. Hé elles ne ðeah nemne medmicel hláfes mid ðynre meolce lac novum in phiala ponere solebat, et post noctem ablata superficie crassiore, ipse residuum cum modico pane bibebat, Bd. 3, 27; S. 559, 35. Ǽr se þicca mist þynra weorðe, Met. 5, 6. III. fig. (1) thin, weak, feeble :-- Hwilc sié sió gecynd ðæs líchoman, hwæðer hió sié strang ðe heard ... ðe hió sié hnesce and mearwe and þynne, Lchdm. ii. 84, 14. Ðynre éþunge ánre ætýwde ðæt hé lífes wæs halitu tantum pertenui quia viveret demonstrans, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 24. (2) delicate, fine :-- Andgyt þénunge gearwigende Gode þýhð symle and þynne hit byð sensus officium exhibens Deo uiget semper et tenuis fit, Scint. 52, 9. [O. H. Ger. dunni tenuis: Icel. þunnr.]

þynness, e; f. I. thinness, slightness of density. v. þynne, II. 2 :-- Metta meltung and þynnes, Lchdm. ii. 198, 3. II. weakness. v. þynne, III. I :-- Hit gehǽlð ða þynnysse ðære gesihðe, Lchdm. i. 134, 27 (see note).

þynnian; p. ode To make or to become thin :-- Ðynnade obtenuerat, Txts. 182, 80. Ðæt þicce horh ðú scealt mid ðám lǽcedómum wyrman and þynnian, Lchdm. ii. 194, 22. [O. H. Ger. gi-dunnót attenuatus; dunnén rarescere: Icel. þynna to make thin.] v. á-, ge-þynnian.

þynnol(-ul); adj. Lean, meagre :-- Ðynnul macilentus, Wrt. Voc. i. 51, 16.

þynnung, e; f. Thinning, making thin :-- Lǽcedómas ðe þynnunge mægen hæbben and smalunge, Lchdm. ii. 260, 23.

þyn-wefen; adj. Thin-woven :-- Thynwefen hrægl levidensis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 54, 17.

þyrel (from þyrhel, v. þurh), þyrl, es; n. A hole made through anything, an aperture, orifice :-- Ǽlces kynnes múð vel ðyrl orificium, Wrt. Voc. i. 19, 57. Ic borige terebro, ðyrl foramen, 84, 65: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 12; Zup. 40, 16. Is on ðam wáge ðyrl geworht est foramen in pariete, Bd. 4, 3; S. 570, 17. Gif án þyrl (foramen) open byð forlǽten, ðanon fram feóndum beó inn ágan, Scint. 140, 6. Ðæt wǽre ðyrel on middum ðæm hweóle, Shrn. 81, 13. Gerýme ðæt ðæt þyrel (the aperture made by a lancet) tó nearo ne sié, Lchdm. ii. 208, 25. Stól niþan ðyrele, 76, 22. Ðæt ísen (a scythe) becom swymmende tó ðam snǽde and tó ðam ðyrle ðe hit ǽr of ásceát, Homl. Th. ii. 162, 14. Swá swá mon melo sift; ðæt melo ðurhcrýpþ ǽlc þyrel, Bt. 34, 11; Fox 152, 2. Þurh nǽdle þyrel (ðyril, Lind.) per foramen acus, Mk. Skt. 10, 25: Wrt. Voc. ii. 73, 1. Ðyrl, Lk. Skt. Lind. 18, 25. Gif wyrm þyrel gewyrce ... drype on ðæt þyrel, Lchdm. ii. 114, 14. Drincan syllan þurh þyrel, Exon. Th. 485, 1; Rä. 71, 7: 397, 18; Rä. 16, 21. Ne furþon án þyrl (foramen) búton cræfte mínon (the smith's) ðú ne miht dón, Coll. Monast. Th. 31, 17. Hé ðæt ísen sette on ðæt ylce þyrl, and hit fæste stód, Homl. Skt. i. 21, 71. Þyrel foramina, Wrt. Voc. ii. 149, 73. Þyrlum finistris, 148, 60. Ðyrelum foraminibus, Bd. 3, 17; S. 544, 30, col. 2. Ðurh ða ðyrlo, 544, 32, col. 1. Ic hét hió þurhborian ... hét ic eft ða ðyrelo mid golde forwyrcean, Nar. 20, 3. [A. R. þurl a window: Ayenb. þerle.] v. eág-, ears-, hún-, næs-, nos-, teol-þyrel (-þyrl, -þerl), and next word.

þyrel; adj. Perforated, having a hole or holes, pierced through :-- Gif eáre þirel weorðeþ, .iii. sciɫɫ. gebéte, L. Ethb. 41; Th. i. 14, 6: 49; Th. i. 14, 15. Þyrel, 45; Th. i. 14, 10. Gif monnes þeóh biþ þyrel (þyrl, MS. B.), L. Alf. pol. 62; Th. i. 96, 13: 63; Th. i. 96, 16. Gif se wáh bið ðyrel if the wall have a hole through it, Past. 21; Swt. 157, 17. From ðyrelan stáne, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. ii. 29, 2. On ðone þyrlan stán, iii. 406, 11. Þyrlian, 436, 34. Se ðe médsceattas gaderaþ, hé legeþ hié on ðyrelne pohchan (in sacculum pertusum), Past. 45; Swt. 343, 20. Gif ðegna hwelc ðyrelne kylle bróhte tó ðýs burnan, béte hine georne, 65; Swt. 469, 10. Heáfodwunde tó bóte. Gif ða bán beóð bútú þyrel (þyrle, MSS. B. H.) ... Gif ðæt úterre bán bið þyrel..., L. Alf. pol. 44; Th. i. 92, 14. Gif bútú þyrele sién, L. Ethb. 47; Th. i. 14, 12. Hé eówaþ ús his þyrlan handa, Wulfst. 90, 6. [O. H. Ger. durchil pertusus.] v. þurh-þyrel.

þyrelian, þyrlian; p. ode. I. to make a hole through, pierce through, perforate :-- Þirlie his hláford his eáre mid ánum ǽle dominus perforabit aurem ejus subula, Ex. 21, 6. Þirlige, Lev. 25, 10. II. to make hollow; fig. to make vain :-- Áídlie ɫ þyrlie obunco (? obunco is glossed by ymbclipe, Wrt. Voc. i. 22, 31), Engl. Stud. xi. 66, 66. Þyrliaþ cavantur, evacuantur, hol cava, Wrt. Voc. ii. 129, 62. [He lette þurlen his scheld, A. R. 392, 24. To þurlin godes side wið speres ord, Jul. 41, 14. With a spere was thirled his brestboon, Ch. Kn. T. 1852. To hem þat his herte þirled, Piers P. i. 172. Thyrlyn (thryllyn) or peercyn penetro, terebro, perforo, Prompt. Parv. 491.] v. þurh-þyrelian.

þyrelung, e; f. Perforation, piercing through :-- 'Ðurhðyrela ðone wág' ... Hwæt is sió ðyrelung ðæs wáges 'fode parietem.' ... Quid est parietem fodere? Past. 21; Swt. 153, 25. [In his side þurluuge, O. E. Homl. i. 207,13]

þyrel-wamb; adj. Having the stomach pierced :-- Þyrelwombne, Exon. Th. 490, 13; Rä. 79, 11.

þyrfende. v. þurfan.

þyringas; pl. The Thuringians :-- Wód weóld Þyringum, Exon. Th. 320, 17; Víd. 30: 322, 16. Mid Eást-þyringum, 323, 30; Víd. 86. Maroara habbaþ bewestan him þyringas, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 16, 11. v. Grm. Gesch. D. S. c. xxii.

þyrl, þyrlian. v. þyrel, þyrelian.

þyrl-hús, es; n. A turner's shop :-- Þrylhús tornatorium, Wrt. Voc. i. 58, 45.

þyrn-cin, es; n.(?) A small prickly plant (-cin diminutive suffix?), a thistle :-- Cwyst ðú gaderaþ man wínberian of þornum oððe fícæppla of þyrncinum (tribolis), Mt. Kmbl. 7, 16.

þyrne, an; f. A thorn-bush :-- Þyrne, thyrnae dumus, Txts. 57, 710. Þorn oþþe þynne dumus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 25, 70. Þyrne frutices, ramos, 151, 44; dumus, i. spina, spineta, Wülck. Gl. 225, 23. Hé geseah ðæt seó þyrne (rubus) ... næs forburnen, Ex. 3, 2, 3. On ða þyrnan westewarde ðǽr se mycla þorn stód, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 404, 12. On ða rúgan þyrnan; of ðære þyrnan on ða brémbelþyrnan, 419, 12. On gáte þyrnan; of ðære þyrnan on blace þyrnan, vi. 2, 5. On ða blacan þyrnan; of ðære þyrnan, 220, 20. On ða ealdan þyrnan, Cod. Dip. B. iii. 136, 25. Þyrnan dumos, þyrnum dumis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 27, 43, 44. [Cf. Icel. þyrnir a thorn.] v. brémel-, brér-, mǽr-þyrne.

þyrnen; adj. Of thorns :-- Hé hæfde fiþru swylce þyrnen besma, Shrn. 120, 28. Hí mid þyrnenum helme his heáfod beféngon, Homl. Th. ii. 252, 26. Þyrnenne helm (ðyrnenne bég, Lind., Rush.) spineam coronam, Mk. Skt. 5, 17: Jn. Skt. 19, 5. Þyrnenne cynehelm (sigbég of ðornum, Lind., Rush.) coronant de spinis, 2. Ðyrnenne beág, Past. 36; Swt. 261, 14. Þyrnenne, Exon. Th. 69, 27; Cri. 1127. Ðone ðyrnenan helm, Homl. Th. ii. 254, 10. Þyrnenan, Wulfst. 124, 5. [O. Frs. thornen: O. H. Ger. durnín spineus.]

þyrnet[t], es; n. A place full of thorns, a thicket of thorn-bushes :-- Þirnetum spinetis, of ácynnendlícum ɫ fexedum þyrnetum de spinetis nascentibus (gignentibus), Hpt. Gl. 463, 32-36. Of þiccum þyrnetum senticosis, spinosis, 436, 47.

þyrniht; adj. Thorny, prickly :-- Ðeós wyrt hafaþ leáf ... þy