Department of Philosophy
Department of Philosophy

Herbert I Hochberg


Professor EmeritusPhD, Iowa

Contact

Interests


Metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, logic

Biography


He has published over 100 papers and six books, Introducing Analytic Philosophy: Its Sense and Its Nonsense, 1879-2002 (2003), The Positivist and the Ontologist: Bergmann, Carnap and Logical Realism (2001),Russell, Moore, and Wittgenstein (2001), Complexes and Consciousness (2000), Logic, Ontology and Language (1984), and Thought, Fact and Reference: The Origins and Ontology of Logical Atomism (1978), that deal mainly with topics in metaphysics, philosophy of language and mind, ontology, and the history of analytic philosophy. Recent articles include 'A World of States of Affairs' (Nous,1999) and 'Propositions, Truth and Belief: The Wittgenstein-Russell Dispute' (Theoria, 2000). Before coming to Texas, he taught at Northwestern, Indiana, and Minnesota, and has been a visiting professor at Gothenburg, Sweden, and Ohio State. He has held Guggenheim and Fulbright Fellowships.

Courses


PHL 301L • Early Modern Philosophy

42080-42090 • Fall 2010
Meets MW 10:00AM-11:00AM WAG 302
(also listed as CTI 310)

42080 discussion is W 2:00-3:00 in WAG 210

42085 discussion is W 3:00-4:00 in WAG 210

42090 discussion is W 4:00-5:00 in WAG 210

 

DESCRIPTION:

The course will consider a number of philosophical issues in the writings of some major historical figures from the “modern” (17th-18th centuries) period. Beginning with Galileo and Descartes on perception, we will consider diverse aspects of Cartesian rationalism and its mind-body dualism, along with a short passage (on BLACKBOARD website) from Malebranche. We will proceed to the British empiricist tradition’ as found in Berkeley and Hume, and  Kant’s “Critical Idealism” that  attempts to respond to the basic problems raised by Descartes, Berkeley and Hume –about “causation,” knowledge, perception, mind-body interaction. Finally we will consider the “debate” between Hume’s empiricist approach to ethics –his “moral sense” and “utilitarian” views— and Kant’s emphasis on reason, “duty” and obligation. If time permits we will briefly look at some 19th century reactions to Kant in Nietzsche and Mill.

TEXTS                                                                                                               

 

GALILEO (1564-1642) Selections: The Assayer  (on Blackboard Documents)        0

 

DESCARTES  (1596-1650) Meditations                                  (Hackett)                     6

 MALEBRANCHE (1638-1715) Dialogues on Metaphysics,   7th dialogue,                0

on Blackboard  and at  http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/pdf/maldia.pdf

 

 (Newton: 1643-1727) —  just for the placing of the others in time

 

BERKELEY (1685-1753) Three Dialogues                                       (Hackett)             5

 

HUME   (1711-1776)  An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding  (Hackett)  6

                                     An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (Hackett)  6

 

KANT    (1724-1804) Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics     (Hackett)         6

                                     Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals   (Hackett)     6       

 

GRADING:

 

   There will be 3 exams—Exams 1 and 2 =  33% each -- Exan  3 =  25%

 participation in discussion sections will count 12 %.

PHL 375M • Founders Of Analytic Philos

42530 • Fall 2010
Meets MW 11:00AM-12:30PM WAG 208

Texts and Reading

B. A. W. Russell:  Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy and  Principles of Mathematics                                   

R. Carnap, Meaning and Necessity, 

H. Hochberg, Introducing Analytic Philosophy

On line papers by Frege, Moore, Ramsey, Quine.

Grading

 1.  research paper  50%--a first draft to be turned in at the 9th week for

faculty feedback and final draft due at end of term.

 2  take home-research essay exams,  25 %   each—each exam to consist of three

questions, of which two will be historical and one a critical discussion of a major

theme of a studied text. The critical discussion from one exam will be presented in

class for peer discussion.  The essay exams will be given out  in the  6th week and

the 12 th week—and due one week later.

The course will deal with central themes in the writings of central figures in the development  of what has come to be called "the Analytic Tradition" in contemporary philosophy. In doing that we will read classic papers  (Moore, Frege,  Russell, and Ramsey) and sections of books (Russell)  from the first two and a half decades of the 20th century, some earlier works of G. Frege, and mid-century works by Quine and Carnap.

 

 Specifically the course will focus on: 

(a) problems concerning the relation of language and thought to the "objects" and facts that they are purportedly "about," which will involve questions about the nature of reference, predication, propositions and truth; 

 (b) Russell's theory of definite description and its subsequent importance in the development of the philosophy of language and of analytic metaphysics and  revival of metaphysics and ontology;

(c) issues surrounding the analysis of logical truth and logical validity and, hence, the "analytic-synthetic" dichotomy; issues about mathematical truth and, derivatively, questions about mathematical "entities"--such issues will involve a consideration of the "logicism" of Frege and Russell (the thesis that arithmetical truths are logical truths, and arithmetical concepts are "definable" in terms of logical concepts), and some alternative views; 

(d) G. E. Moore's analysis of  intentionality and its derivation from the phenomenological tradition of the Austrian philosopher-psychologist  F. Brentano and  his students E. Husserl and A. Meinong, along with the diverse "sense-data" analyses of perception of Russell and Moore and their differing views of the nature of the objects of perception and of physical objects;

(e)  the classic arguments of Russell and Moore regarding the existence of relations, universals, facts and basic particulars and the subsequent challenge to those views by F. P. Ramsey. 

(f) the later developments of the analytic tradition in the focus on “semantics” in Carnap and the linguistic nominalism of Quine.

 

PHL 301L • Early Modern Philosophy

42775-42785 • Spring 2010
Meets TTH 12:30PM-1:30PM WAG 420

An introduction to the philosophical achievements of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, concentrating on such figures as Descartes, Hume, and Kant. 

PHL 323K • Metaphysics-W

43135 • Spring 2010
Meets TTH 9:30AM-11:00AM WAG 208

This course is an overview of some of the central topics in metaphysics.
Metaphysics, generally speaking, is the branch of philosophy concerned
with the nature of reality; metaphysicians seek an understanding of the
fundamental sorts of things that constitute the world, as well as of the
structure of the world itself.
We will begin by focusing on issues surrounding one particular sort of
thing: persons. In particular, we will be considering different views
regarding what it is to be a person and for a person to persist through
change. This will lead to more general discussions of the nature and
structure of time and the persistence of things through temporal change.
From there we’ll take up the issue of composition. In particular, we’ll be
concerned with the following question: Under what circumstances do
some things (parts) compose another thing (whole)? We’ll then turn to the
problems of universals and individuation – how do we account for (i)
similarities among distinct things and (ii) the distinctness of exactly
similar things? We’ll conclude the course with a discussion of possible
worlds.

PHL 301L • Early Modern Philosophy

42925-42935 • Fall 2009
Meets TTH 11:00AM-12:00PM WAG 302

 FALL 09   SCHEDULE AND SYLLABUS

 

301 L               T-TH         11-12              302 Wag                       

 

The course will consider a number of philosophical issues in the writings of some major historical figures from the “modern” (17th-18th centuries) period. Beginning with Galileo and Descartes on perception, we will consider diverse aspects of Cartesian rationalism and its mind-body dualism, along with a short passage (on BLACKBOARD website) from Malebranche. We will proceed to the British empiricist tradition’ as found in Berkeley and Hume, and   Kant’s “Critical Idealism” that  attempts to respond to the basic problems raised by Descartes, Berkeley and Hume –about “causation,” knowledge, perception, mind-body interaction. Finally we will consider the “debate” between Hume’s empiricist approach to ethics –his “moral sense” and “utilitarian” views— and Kant’s emphasis on reason, “duty” and obligation. If time permits we will briefly look at some 19th century reactions to Kant in Nietzsche and Mill.

 

 

Texts:                                                                                                                   approx. $$

 

GALILEO (1564-1642) Selections: The Assayer  (on Blackboard Documents)        0

 

DESCARTES  (1596-1650) Meditations                                  (Hackett)                     6

 

MALEBRANCHE (1638-1715) Dialogues on Metaphysics,   7th dialogue,                0

on Blackboard  and at  http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/pdf/maldia.pdf

 

 (Newton: 1643-1727) —  just for the placing of the others in time

 

BERKELEY (1685-1753) Three Dialogues                                       (Hackett)             5

 

HUME   (1711-1776)  An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding  (Hackett)  6

                                     An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (Hackett)  6

 

KANT        (1724-1804) Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics     (Hackett)        6

                                         Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals   (Hackett)        6       

 

GRADING:

 

   There will be 3 essay  exams—Exams 1 and 2 =  30% each -- Exan  3  =  25%

 participation in discussion sections will count 15 %.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE CALENDAR BELOW IS AN APPROXIMATION OF WHAT WE WILL BE ON WHEN.

AUG

                        27         Introduction

 

SEPT

 

1                               Medieval background to Descartes

                     3

8                                Descartes  & Malebranche

10       

           

15        17

 

22        24          Berkeley  Dialogues 1  & 2

 

  29                             Exam  1

 

OCT

                     1             Berkeley  Dialogue 3                                                                       

6                          

                    8          Hume--Understanding

13            

 

                 15           

20              22          Kant –Prolegomena--Metaphysics

 

27                           Exam    2

 

     29           Kant – continued

 

NOV

     3                        

                        5   

  10                               Hume--Ethics                            

                   12      

                                                    

  17                          Kant—Metaphysics of Morals                                                                              

                   19                             

   24                                

                   26                   Thanksgiving    

 

    DEC 

     1                             

               3    EXAM 3

                           NO SECTIONS   DEC. 4

 

PHL 334K • Existentialism And Nihilism

43425 • Fall 2009
Meets TTH 12:30PM-2:00PM WAG 208

PHL   334k- NIHILISM AND EXISTENTIALISM (SARTRE & CAMUS)   T-TH  

12:30-2:00      WAG  208     OFFICE HRS   T  &  TH   2:00-2:40  Waggener  310-C 

 

We will begin with Nietzsche’s attack on traditional philosophical and religious 

justifications for social and individual ethical frameworks based on views about “man” 

and “human nature.” This will involve a consideration of Nietzsche’s purported 

“nihilism,” and his influence on the development of 20th century existentialism and the 

purported nihilism in works of “the school of Paris”—(Malraux, Sartre, DeBeauvoir, -- 

and—Camus, etc.). The focus will be on philosophical essays, plays and novels* of 

Camus and Sartre and the different political and individual ethical views they 

develop—Sartre’s “existentialism” and “existential psychology” and Camus’ “ethics of 

absurdity and rebellion”—which led to the (once celebrated) Sartre-Camus “debate” 

over political violence, rebellion, nihilism, and Marxism. GRADING TWO EXAMS (40 

% EACH ) + CLASS PARTICIPATION + SHORT PAPER (4-5 PAGES)  --20% 

                                                

READING-------------TEXTS:                           $$  

 

Nietzsche        Beyond Good and Evil            Random House ISBN 0679724656      12 

 

Camus            Caligula and Three Other Plays Knoph—ISBN 0394702077       13  

    The Plague*, The Fall* ….   Selected Essays                                        23 

                        (includes The Myth of Sisyphus) Everyman’s Library  Knoph  

                                           ISBN:  1400042550     

 

Sartre            Essays in Existentialism              Kensington Publishing Co                15 

                           ed. W. Baskin                                           ISBN-0806501626 

 

                       The Transcendence of the Ego    FARRAR/STRAUS                         10 

                                                                               ISBN- 0809015455 

 

                        Nausea*                     NEW DIRECTIONS ISBN-0811201880           12 

 

OTHER READING: 

 

Kierkegaard   from   Fear and Trembling            on Blackboard and on Web 

Dostoyevsky   from   The Brothers Karamazov—The Grand Inquisitor                       

                 on Blackboard and on Web                                                   

de Beauvoir    from The Ethics of Ambiguity       on Blackboard and on Web 

Book Forum   review of commentaries                  on Blackboard and on Web 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUG                       

        27        Introduction—course description 

SEPT 

 

1            3           NIETZSCHE, PARTS I-V, pp. 202-210 

 

8            

                  10          CAMUS—Camus, Plotinus and Augustine 

                      CALIGULA &  THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS 

15           17 

 

22           24          THE PLAGUE 

 

  29                           EXAM      1 – CAMUS & NIETZSCHE 

 

OCT 

                     1           SARTRE: EXISTENTIALISM-HUMANISM,     

                      NAUSEA 

6             

      8           SARTRE FILM (SARTRE BY HIMSELF) 

 

13             

                 15           TRANSCENDENCE OF THE EGO 

20             22 

 27             29 

 

NOV 

 

     3                          

                        5      QUESTIONS FOR SARTRE EXAM DISTRIBUTED 

    10                           EXAM   2—SARTRE 

                        

                12      CAMUS—THE PLAGUE, REFLECTIONS on the 

                                                       GUILLOTINE, THE JUST                                              

    17                          

               19     SARTRE—BEING AND NOTHINGNESS SELECTIONS,  

SARTRE- CAMUS   CONTROVERSY, DE BEAUVOIR –  

PAPER TOPICS DIST.    

                         

   24                        NO CLASS—PREPARE PAPER FOR TURN-IN  DEC. 1 

26   THANKSGIVING 

 

DEC 

 

     1                          SARTRE-CAMUS-DEBEAUVOIR CONTIN.   PAPER DUE     

           3 

PHL 301L • Early Modern Philosophy

41970-41980 • Spring 2009
Meets MW 10:00AM-11:00AM WAG 302

An introduction to the philosophical achievements of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, concentrating on such figures as Descartes, Hume, and Kant. 

PHL 301L • Early Modern Philosophy

43000-43010 • Fall 2008
Meets TTH 11:00AM-12:00PM WAG 302

An introduction to the philosophical achievements of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, concentrating on such figures as Descartes, Hume, and Kant. 

PHL 323K • Metaphysics-W

43240 • Spring 2008
Meets TTH 2:00PM-3:30PM WAG 112

This course is an overview of some of the central topics in metaphysics.
Metaphysics, generally speaking, is the branch of philosophy concerned
with the nature of reality; metaphysicians seek an understanding of the
fundamental sorts of things that constitute the world, as well as of the
structure of the world itself.
We will begin by focusing on issues surrounding one particular sort of
thing: persons. In particular, we will be considering different views
regarding what it is to be a person and for a person to persist through
change. This will lead to more general discussions of the nature and
structure of time and the persistence of things through temporal change.
From there we’ll take up the issue of composition. In particular, we’ll be
concerned with the following question: Under what circumstances do
some things (parts) compose another thing (whole)? We’ll then turn to the
problems of universals and individuation – how do we account for (i)
similarities among distinct things and (ii) the distinctness of exactly
similar things? We’ll conclude the course with a discussion of possible
worlds.

PHL 329L • Early Mod Phl: Descartes-Kant

43285-43295 • Spring 2008
Meets TTH 3:30PM-5:00PM WAG 302

This course is an introduction to early modern philosophy. The objectives of the class are to identify and analyze arguments in philosophical texts of the early modern period, and to become familiar with central themes and problems. Topics include causation, substance, and the possibility of knowledge. The relationship of philosophical theories to contemporary science will be an ongoing theme.

PHL 301L • Early Modern Philosophy

43720-43735 • Fall 2007
Meets TTH 11:00AM-12:00PM WAG 302

An introduction to the philosophical achievements of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, concentrating on such figures as Descartes, Hume, and Kant. 

PHL 375M • Nominalism-W

44375 • Fall 2007
Meets TH 12:30PM-3:30PM SZB 286

Topic 1: Philosophy and Feminism

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

42385-42460 • Spring 2007
Meets MW 11:00AM-12:00PM UTC 2.112A

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 325K • Ethical Theories-W

44100 • Fall 2006
Meets TTH 3:30PM-5:00PM PAR 101

This course will consider three classic moral theories in detail, those
of J. S. Mill, W. D. Ross and I. Kant – otherwise known as Utilitarianism, Intuitionism and
Kantianism. We will do this by studying one classic text by each author in detail.

PHL 381 • History Of Analytic Philosophy

44220 • Fall 2006
Meets TH 12:30PM-3:30PM WAG 210

Past topics include major figures and movements in ancient, medieval, early modern, and nineteenth- and twentieth - century philosophy. 

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

41565 • Spring 2006
Meets TTH 2:00PM-3:30PM BEL 328

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 334K • Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein-W

42200 • Spring 2006
Meets TTH 11:00AM-12:30PM GAR 200

Critical study of the philosophical implications of the works of selected modern thinkers from the nineteenth century to the present day. 

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

41435 • Fall 2005
Meets TTH 12:30PM-2:00PM WEL 2.246

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

40055-40090 • Spring 2005
Meets MW 11:00AM-12:00PM CMA A2.320

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 310 • Knowledge And Reality-W

41430 • Fall 2004
Meets TTH 11:00AM-12:30PM WAG 308

This course is an advanced introduction to philosophical issues concerning the nature of
belief, truth, and knowledge with an emphasis on the latter. Topics to be discussed include,
but are not limited to, the following:
• What is knowledge? For example, what is the difference between knowledge and
mere true belief?
• What are the basic sources of knowledge (i.e., perception, memory, testimony of
others)?
• Why, if at all, should we value the acquisition of knowledge?
• Is it really possible to know anything at all?

PHL 325K • Ethical Theories-W

41705 • Fall 2004
Meets TTH 2:00PM-3:30PM GAR 201

This course will consider three classic moral theories in detail, those
of J. S. Mill, W. D. Ross and I. Kant – otherwise known as Utilitarianism, Intuitionism and
Kantianism. We will do this by studying one classic text by each author in detail.

PHL 325K • Ethical Theories-W

39180 • Spring 2004
Meets MWF 11:00AM-12:00PM WAG 308

This course will consider three classic moral theories in detail, those
of J. S. Mill, W. D. Ross and I. Kant – otherwise known as Utilitarianism, Intuitionism and
Kantianism. We will do this by studying one classic text by each author in detail.

PHL 334K • Hume, Russell, Quine-W

39255 • Spring 2004
Meets MWF 1:00PM-2:00PM WAG 420

Critical study of the philosophical implications of the works of selected modern thinkers from the nineteenth century to the present day. 

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

39435 • Fall 2003
Meets MWF 12:00PM-1:00PM ECJ 1.202

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 375M • Universals And Particulars-W

40290 • Fall 2003
Meets M 1:00PM-4:00PM UTC 3.120

Topic 1: Philosophy and Feminism

PHL 323K • Metaphysics-W

39255 • Spring 2003
Meets MWF 11:00AM-12:00PM GAR 3

This course is an overview of some of the central topics in metaphysics.
Metaphysics, generally speaking, is the branch of philosophy concerned
with the nature of reality; metaphysicians seek an understanding of the
fundamental sorts of things that constitute the world, as well as of the
structure of the world itself.
We will begin by focusing on issues surrounding one particular sort of
thing: persons. In particular, we will be considering different views
regarding what it is to be a person and for a person to persist through
change. This will lead to more general discussions of the nature and
structure of time and the persistence of things through temporal change.
From there we’ll take up the issue of composition. In particular, we’ll be
concerned with the following question: Under what circumstances do
some things (parts) compose another thing (whole)? We’ll then turn to the
problems of universals and individuation – how do we account for (i)
similarities among distinct things and (ii) the distinctness of exactly
similar things? We’ll conclude the course with a discussion of possible
worlds.

PHL 375M • Russell And Wittgenstein-W

39520 • Spring 2003
Meets MWF 12:00PM-1:00PM CAL 221

Topic 1: Philosophy and Feminism

PHL 303M • Mind And Body

39285-39320 • Fall 2002
Meets TTH 2:00PM-3:00PM TNH 2.114

Introduction to philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and its relation to body: What is mind? Do people have free will? How does psychology relate to neuroscience? 

PHL 325K • Ethical Theories-W

40060 • Fall 2002
Meets TTH 12:30PM-2:00PM GAR 203

This course will consider three classic moral theories in detail, those
of J. S. Mill, W. D. Ross and I. Kant – otherwise known as Utilitarianism, Intuitionism and
Kantianism. We will do this by studying one classic text by each author in detail.

PHL 303M • Mind And Body

38530-38565 • Spring 2002
Meets MW 9:00AM-10:00AM FAC 21

Introduction to philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and its relation to body: What is mind? Do people have free will? How does psychology relate to neuroscience? 

PHL 381 • Bradley

39470 • Spring 2002
Meets W 4:00PM-7:00PM WAG 210

Past topics include major figures and movements in ancient, medieval, early modern, and nineteenth- and twentieth - century philosophy. 

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

39405-39440 • Fall 2001
Meets MW 9:00AM-10:00AM BEL 328

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 375M • Analytic Traditn In 20-C Phl-W

40430 • Fall 2001
Meets W 1:00PM-4:00PM WAG 210

Topic 1: Philosophy and Feminism

PHL 310 • Knowledge And Reality

38665-38680 • Spring 2001
Meets MW 11:00AM-12:00PM WAG 302

This course is an advanced introduction to philosophical issues concerning the nature of
belief, truth, and knowledge with an emphasis on the latter. Topics to be discussed include,
but are not limited to, the following:
• What is knowledge? For example, what is the difference between knowledge and
mere true belief?
• What are the basic sources of knowledge (i.e., perception, memory, testimony of
others)?
• Why, if at all, should we value the acquisition of knowledge?
• Is it really possible to know anything at all?

PHL 323K • Metaphysics-W

39010 • Spring 2001
Meets MWF 10:00AM-11:00AM GAR 203

This course is an overview of some of the central topics in metaphysics.
Metaphysics, generally speaking, is the branch of philosophy concerned
with the nature of reality; metaphysicians seek an understanding of the
fundamental sorts of things that constitute the world, as well as of the
structure of the world itself.
We will begin by focusing on issues surrounding one particular sort of
thing: persons. In particular, we will be considering different views
regarding what it is to be a person and for a person to persist through
change. This will lead to more general discussions of the nature and
structure of time and the persistence of things through temporal change.
From there we’ll take up the issue of composition. In particular, we’ll be
concerned with the following question: Under what circumstances do
some things (parts) compose another thing (whole)? We’ll then turn to the
problems of universals and individuation – how do we account for (i)
similarities among distinct things and (ii) the distinctness of exactly
similar things? We’ll conclude the course with a discussion of possible
worlds.

PHL 310 • Knowledge And Reality

39565-39580 • Fall 2000
Meets TTH 9:30AM-10:30AM GAR 313

This course is an advanced introduction to philosophical issues concerning the nature of
belief, truth, and knowledge with an emphasis on the latter. Topics to be discussed include,
but are not limited to, the following:
• What is knowledge? For example, what is the difference between knowledge and
mere true belief?
• What are the basic sources of knowledge (i.e., perception, memory, testimony of
others)?
• Why, if at all, should we value the acquisition of knowledge?
• Is it really possible to know anything at all?

PHL 301 • Introduction To Philosophy

37685-37720 • Spring 2000
Meets TTH 9:30AM-10:30AM GSB 2.124

A survey of principal topics and problems in areas such as ethics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of religion. 

PHL 332 • Philosophy Of Language

38495 • Spring 2000
Meets TTH 12:30PM-2:00PM BEN 204

The course focuses on various philosophical issues concerning language. Topics to be discussed include, but are not limited to, the following: speaker-meaning, conversational implicature, sentence/expression-meaning, reference, modality, and propositional attitude ascriptions. 

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