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Evaluation of the Role of Nigerian Capital Market towards Economic Growth and Development
    Maryam Abdu, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences Kaduna State University, Nigeria

The Nigerian capital market is a market through which intermediate and long term funds are channelled to both businesses and the government. The Nigerian capital market has witnessed booms and glut of business activity, which has greatly impacted economic development. The problem before the study was that not many studies have been made regarding equities and Federal government bonds on economic development of Nigeria. The objective of the study was to investigate the performance of the capital market towards economic growth and development. The hypothesis formulated for the study was that there is no relationship between the Nigerian capital market and economic growth and development of the country. Secondary data was used to conduct the study using two models on equities and federal government bonds. A multiple regression equation using SPSS was used to test the hypothesis of the study. The study revealed that there was a relationship between the Nigerian capital market and economic growth and development and it was recommended that more attention needed to be made by government on the capital market so as to ensure that development is continued to be achieved.

An investigation into the Personal intention to change Behaviour towards Preventing HIV among Male Nigerian Migrants in Sunnyside, City of Tshwane    
    Abdulmalik Inusa Abdulrasheed, Social and Behavioural Studies (HIV/AIDS), Department of Sociology, College of Human Sciences, University of South Africa

HIV and AIDS represent major threats to the health of male Nigerian migrants struggling to survive in South Africa and the City of Tshwane. A number of them are economic migrants. Male migrants residing in Sunnyside are susceptible to HIV infection due to their exposure to urban lifestyles, their dislocation from families and communities, their limited access to social, education, health services and their separation from sociocultural norms that guide behaviour. A qualitative research approach was used as the methodology for this study. Participants expressed their stories through personal narratives and data was also gathered through in-depth interviews. This insider view enabled the researcher to interact and investigate participants, who shared similar experiences, gender and geographical backgrounds. The study found that self-confidence, motivation and determination prevent these male migrants from being disposed to HIV. In addition, knowledge and having role models such as senior male Nigerian migrants also contributed in preventing them from risky behaviour and from contracting HIV.

Ending Violence against Women: The SHINE Victime Prevention Programme    
    Abdulmalik Inusa Abdulrasheed, Social and Behavioural Studies (HIV/AIDS), Department of Sociology, College of Human Sciences, University of South Africa
    Nanette Minnaar, Strategic Programme Development Manager

South Africa faces a globally unprecedented problem of violence against women and children. With rates of homicide, rape as well as childhood and domestic violence far above those of other countries, the problem of violence is undermining our nation’s economic and social development. The problem is so severe that it affects people from all walks of life regardless of socio-economic status, ethnicity, age and religion. Preventing and reducing levels of violence has been a missing piece in the national transformation agenda. It needs to be addressed vigorously as a national priority. Khulisa Social Solutions faces this challenge head on with their SHINE Women/Teen Girl Victim Prevention Programme. The SHINE group therapy programme is focused on post trauma intervention and is developed around the model of Post Traumatic Growth but it also empowers victims of violence to become community role models through the “One less Victim” Peer Education Programme that focuses on risk reduction. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical grounding and methodologies of the SHINE and One less Victim programmes; the findings and impact of the programmes in Tembisa (Gauteng) from 2013 to 2014 and to emphasise the importance to empower women of all ages to understand the signs and impending dangers of violence in our communities and learning to circumvent these potential life threatening problems ranging from bullying to domestic violence.

Protestant Youths, Development and Nigerian Socio-Political Landscape: the Language Question
    Balogun Temitope Abiodun, Osun State University, Faculty of Humanities and Culture Department of Language and Linguistics, Nigeria

The basic human pillars of any nation are the youths. This set of people exhibit great potential, which is revealed in their strength, vibrancy, and adept mental capacity.  Regrettably, it is discovered that Nigerian youths from their various comments both verbal and non-verbal are challenging different socio-political processes, as well as developmental and governmental policies thereby establishing themselves as stakeholders in this regard. This calls for worry in the drive for development especially in an attempt to achieve the 2020 millennial development goals. The paper seeks to make enquiry into the different communication media used by the Nigerian youths to show their views on the developmental issues and others in the nation as well as to measure their contributions to the same. Data for the study are culled from three different sources, which are: the inscriptions on the T-shirts and caps worn by youths, comments from youths on the Nigeria nation and her development from different social media. To test the validity of some of the claims in the first two sources, questionnaire shall be administered to 200 youths in the southwestern part of Nigeria. The data shall be collated and subjected to content analysis using critical discourse analysis and speech acts models as the framework. The paper submits that Nigerian youths should be allowed to actively participate in policy making, governance, and total nation building that is youth-driven which relies on the vigour, innovation, ingenuity and creativity of the youth in order to produce the desired change that is geared towards a sustainable development in Nigeria.

Not so Indirect Rule: Afro-Jamaican Gendered Encounters.
    Professor Jamaine Abidogun, History Department, Missouri State University

From the beginning of colonial contact African and British representatives encountered gender based conflicts.  The British male dominated missionary and colonial leadership was often ignorant of and later purposefully marginalized female leadership roles held in many African ethno-nations.  Of course the reality of these African female roles could not be wished away or immediately and/or completely suppressed by the British.  Therefore a range of historical accounts document exchanges between African females and British colonials as the British first sought economic spoils and later engaged in political and military invasions of African ethno-nations.  These gendered interactions occurred throughout the Anglophone Africa Diaspora. In this paper, Jamaica’s historical context is examined to highlight Afro-Jamaican women’s roles that directly engaged British authority creating cultural contestations. In early Jamaican society, Afro-Jamaican women’s encounters with the British focused largely on maintaining some level of economic autonomy in their enslaved state. These early encounters slowly gave way to a uniquely African-Anglophone colonial experience that created ongoing gendered cultural contests.   It is the goal of this paper to demonstrate how African women’s experiences in Jamaica eventually transformed their gendered norms into African-Anglophone Jamaican identities.

Development of Bitumen Industry in Agbabu, Ondo State and its Socio-Economic and Psychological Implications
    Colenious Olu Aboluwoye, Centre for Research and Development, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

Bitumen is a mixture of organic liquids that is viscous, black and sticky. It consists of a mixture of high boiling point hydrocarbons. It is deposited in Agbabu, Ondo State, Nigeria. The Bitumen Ore was analysed with high technology equipment to identify trace elements and essentials hydrocarbons. The analysed hydrocarbons are precurors for the synthesis of drugs. The establishment of pharmaceutical industries in Agbabu would reduce unemployment among our graduates. It shows that there are opportunities in the bitumen for the production of all sorts of petroleum products and natural gases (including welding and cooking gases). This study also investigates the Socio-economic and psychological implications of the exploration of bitumen in Agbabu. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The result shows that there is the need to organize community meetings by government and policy makers to proactively empathise with the social and psychological conditions of the host community members and allay the fear of relocation and also to put in place measures that would prevent insurgency in the community. It is recommended that once a social and psychological profiling of the host community is completed, then an Incremental Empowerment Initiative (IEI) could be put in place.

Hypomobility – An Epidemiological Analogue for Viewing Urban Transport Conditions in Developing Countries
    Emmanuel (Kofi) Adanu, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Civil Construction Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama
    Steven Jones, Director, Global Impact Lab, Department of Civil, Construction & Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama

Access to affordable, safe and environmentally sustainable transport is a fundamental requirement for the wellbeing of urban dwellers as thus the balanced functionality and prosperity of cities. Paradoxically, overall urban transport tends to worsen in developing countries in direct relation to increased economic gains. Transport impacts social inclusion/exclusion – for those without private transport, access to widely dispersed facilities such as markets, hospitals and employment can be very difficult. Transport and communications promote social interactions. But the transformation in the speed and reach of these means is having overwhelming social consequences especially in urban areas. As travel becomes faster, cheaper and easier for the wealthy it becomes more difficult for the poor. We pick up a term first defined in the late 1990’s, hypomobility, to connote extreme lack of mobility and difficult of movement for people in urban areas. The term originates as a medical one referring to lack of mobility within human muscular-skeletal systems. Hypomobility can result in a diminished ability to engage in economic opportunities and social activities, hence deepening poverty, social exclusion, increasing costs of transport, among other negative outcomes. The condition is especially pronounced in poor urban areas in developing countries. Social and economic inequalities in urban areas are constant features of development and urbanization in developing countries. We offer a framework for addressing hypomobility from an epidemiological approach with a view to diagnosing symptoms, recommending treatment, and even discuss the idea of transmission.

Semiotic Notions of Development and the National Flag: A Case Study of ‘Our National Flag’
    Ismaila Rasheed Adedoyin. Department of Creative Arts, University of Lagos, Nigeria

The Nigerian National Flag is green white green. Like all national flags, it is expected to incorporate the beliefs, aspirations and yearnings of the Nigerian people. It is expected to stir patriotic zeal, command the respect and admiration of the Nigerian people. However, the exact green white green colours of the Nigerian National Flag remains shrouded in mystery. Contemporary Nigerians do not even know the exact colours of the national flag just as its custodians parade different shades of green white and green. Government institutions, ministries and agents like the Police and the armed forces have different shades of green white green badges and flags. At this juncture, it may be apt to ask; What does a nation’s national flag have to do with the nation’s development? Are there correlations between the national flag and the notion of national development? Must a nation’s national flag say something about the topography and direction of development of a nation? Our National Flag is a dramatic work that explores the absurd style with only two fictitious characters and minimal technical requirements to engage the notion of development. Among other issues, it queries the relevance of the flag, its symbolic meanings and significance in contemporary socio-economic political issues in Nigeria. The paper is exploratory, qualitative and doctrinal.

Thematization and Perspectivization of Human Right and Development in Selected Yoruba Poetry.
    Arinpe Adejumo, Dept of Linguistics and African Languages, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Human rights and sustainable development have always been privileged by scholars in the fields of Sociology, Psychology, Political Science and Liberal Arts.  The writer as a product of history, time and space are socially responsible to the society; hence, the criticism of the way human rights and development are perceived in the society has been a major pre-occupation of writers across the globe. Therefore, this paper, using a documentary and content-analysis approach to the study of literature examines the theme of human rights and development using the template provided by selected Yoruba poets, namely Lanrewaju Adepoju, Kunle Ologundudu, Atari Ajanaku and Duro Adeleke in their literary works.  The way human rights are perceived in relation to the achievement of a sustainable development is examined in the selected poems.  The paper reveals that the poets’ ideological stance on the issue of development is radical in nature.  It is also revealed that the poets’ stance on human rights in the Nigerian society is dialectical and propagandistic in nature.  The paper therefore advocates the need for the government to prioritize human development above physical development; assess the need to promote the rights of the people to good education, freedom of speech, security, fair trial and social amenities among others.

Rethinking Sexuality: A Paradigm Shift in Women Empowerment among Nigerian Pentecostal Women
    Adewale J. Adelakun, Department of Religious Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

From a theological perspective, this paper examines how Pentecostal women in Nigeria empower and develop themselves by emphasizing the importance of holistic understanding of woman sexuality. There is no doubt that majority of women are suffering from socio-economic inequality leading to feminization of poverty. In order to close this yearning gap, three foremost Southwestern Pentecostal women preachers namely, thr late Pastor Bimbo Odukoya, Pastor Funke Adetuberu and Reverend (Mrs) Funke Areogun have taken up the challenge to direct their teachings on thr empowerment of women. Their teachings focus on how women can express their sexuality fully. The paper concludes that there cannot be meaningful empowerment and development if women do not express their sexuality fully.

Universities and Socio-Economic Development of Host Communities: The Case of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
    Oladele Adeleke, Department of Sociology and Psychology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria
    Omokeji Ganiyu Rasaq, Department of Sociology and Psychology, Fountain University

The growing recognition of the pivotal role of Universities in promoting socioeconomic development has led to a focus upon the expansion of the sector around the world. As the economy and society become more ‘knowledge intensive’, the role of universities in development is more onerous than just teaching, research and service. Driven to fulfill this role, Universities are likely to become even more important in building regional networks of their host communities. Currently, there are about 124 universities in Nigeria, with a total number of 36 federal, 36 state and 52 privately owned universities. Olabisi Onabanjo University is among the private universities in Nigeria located in Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State. The University is committed to the total development of men and women in an enabling environment, through appropriate teaching, research and service to humanity, influenced by Yoruba ethics and culture. The university focuses on educational development and growth that are relevant to the nation’s manpower needs and global competitiveness through a gradual but steady process. This paper examines the role of the University in Socio-economic development of host Community using the University as a baseline study. The research methodology design for this paper was a was questionnaire and In-depth interview (IDI) with a total of 100 respondents. The finding reveals that Olabisi Onabanjo University plays an important role in socio-economic and cultural development through their various academics activities. The paper recommends that universities must bridge the gap between a creative individual with innovative ideas and the application of technology for economic development.

African Migration and the Challenge of the Contemporary International Order
    Abolade Adeniji, Professor of History and Int'l Studies, Lagos State University, Nigeria.

Migration is currently at the centre of disagreement between the mainly poor sending countries of the south and the richer receiving nations of the north. It is generally acknowledged that today the world is more connected than ever before. Information, commodities and money flow rapidly across national boundaries; a phenomenon often referred to as globlalization. But while the industrialized nations are promoting the easier flow of capital, goods and services (which they mainly supply), they are at the same time restricting the movement of labour, which comes mainly from developing countries. Developing countries view this as a double standard especially since labour is an important factor in the production of goods and services. African and other developing countries are arguing that just as trade in goods services and information have been opened up, so should the flow of labour, a sector in which developing countries hold an advantage and from which they could earn substantial revenue. The contemporary international economic order has undoubtedly conspired to make the situation worse for many African countries. For example, most migrant receiving countries protect their farm sectors through subsidies, guaranteeing their farmers prices higher than on the world markets thus leaving poor farmers in sending countries unable to compete. This paper thus posits that if appropriate policy measures are put in place, African migration can be positive for those who move, for the societies they move to and for the societies they leave behind.

Rhetoric and Culture of International Human Rights in Nigeria    
    Enoch Oluwole Adeniran, Department of History, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education Oyo, Nigeria

One of the most fundamental things any human being should enjoy is liberty. It is a kind of honor often bestowed on any Citizen through a code of rules or constitution. Its effective usage preserves human dignity, welfare and wellbeing. Its proclamation internationally is a welcome development to the human race all over the world. But while it has been so effectively practised in the developed world, it has remained a mirage and a shadow of itself in the developing world. The rate of human right abuses and violations, oppression of the weak and poor by the rich and influential, oppression of defenceless citizen by the government and, on the global scene, the political and economic domination of the big powers over the weaker states is alarming. This paper examines the meaning, history and process of culture of international human rights with a view to addressing its rhetorical nature so as to enhance its effectiveness for meaningful human development in the third world Countries. The paper assesses the ways development strategies affected human rights and shaped self-determination and global intervention. The methodology used is basically oral interview and secondary sources, with reference to relevant materials in text books, journals, magazines, newspapers and the internet. The paper concludes with ways by which the indigenous and global activities can tremendously transform societies through a well-defined culture of international human rights.

Historical Perspectives of the Concept of Underdevelopment in Urban Space and Human Rights Violations in Nigeria
    Enoch Oluwole Adeniran, Department of History, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education Oyo, Nigeria

Historically, the term underdevelopment had always been used to describe the impoverished states of Africa and other less-developed nations of the world. Closely related to this is urban space, usually explained as the process of building towns or cities and expansion of infrastructural facilities especially in poor states and which had been a popular issue of political discourse in Africa since the colonial days. Again, the concept of human rights which ordinarily should mean liberty presurposing that everyone be treated fairly and not in a cruel way, (especially by  the government of the day) has also been made a rhetorical issue especially in Africa (Nigeria inclusive). All the above constitute a major ordeal Nigerian state in her quest to attain relatively developed status with the first world. The paper thus historicizes the concepts of underdevelopment, urban space and human rights with an inquiry into factors which undermine development or constitute developmental challenges in Nigeria. It investigates factors which obstruct urban space efforts as well as those that weaken human rights practices in Nigeria. The paper relies on oral interviews and  secondary sources (existing literatures in textbooks, journals, newspapers, magazines, internet e.t.c). It thus concludes that enthronement of good leadership, good governance, creation of effective economic system, fighting corruption, eradication of poverty, proper funding of education, provision of infrastructural facilities to enhance living standard, effective national security which engenders inflow of foreign direct investment and a working human rights process- would ensure genuine transformation of urban space in Nigeria.

Preserving and Renovating Textile Artifacts for Sustainable Textile Development in Yoruba Land: A Panorama of Some Indigenous Woven Fabrics
    Evelyn Omotunde Adepeko, Clothing and Textile Section, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria

The Yoruba tribe is one of the three main tribes in Nigeria. They occupy the south-western region of the country. Some of their major towns include: Oyo, Ilorin, Ogbomoso, Ibadan, Ilesa, Abeokuta, Ijebu-Ode, Eko (Lagos), Akure, Ondo, Okitipupa, Ado-Ekiti, Owo and Ikare. The Yoruba people are well known both within and outside the country for their proficiencies in various art forms and crafts. Such as sculpture, pottery, blacksmithing and especially textile, both dyed (adire) and the woven (aso oke). Their creativity in textile production has earned them a distinctive clothing culture. In the past, the Yoruba people use these indigenous fabrics for their day to day activities. However, there has been a decline both in the production and use  since the advent of the colonial masters in Nigeria. Although, the woven fabrics (aso oke) still remain the attire for the commemoration of both traditional ceremonies and festivals in Yoruba land. Therefore, this paper wishes to discuss the preservation and renovation of textile artefacts for sustainable textile development in Yoruba land: A Panorama of some indigenous woven fabrics. Under the following sub-headings lest it becomes a 'dead' and forgotten clothing tradition in Yoruba land: Method of preserving woven fabrics; The development of skill involved; Steps involved in the renovation of woven fabrics; Impacting the skill to the younger generation in other to sustain its use; Entrepreneurship involved in the preservation and renovation of indigenous woven fabrics.

Democracy and the Right of the Minority in Africa
    Moses Oludare Aderibigbe, The Federal University of Technology, School Of Sciences, General Studies Department, Nigeria

Democracy, which advocates popular participation in the political, social, economic and cultural processes of governance is a concept closely related to human rights. The persistent call on African nations to embrace democracy and allow her citizens to exercise their fundamental human rights is becoming noticeable. However, the challenges of Africa pluralistic societies that are divided along ethnic, cultural and religious grounds raises the question of legitimacy. The principle of the supreme right of the majority which election produces in democracy would amount to having the majority imposing its will on the minority. Thus, the suitability of democracy in this sense to ensure the right of individual (minority) to be respected and recognized is being questioned. Given the tendency of Africans to vote according to their ethnic/religious identities, democracy will have to mean more than voting at elections. To this end, this paper set out to argue that the universal principle and values of democracy need to be contextualized by putting into consideration the Africa reality and adopting some indigenous values, and social mores to make democracy home-grown and sustainable. The philosophical method of conceptual clarification and critical analysis would be employed to advocate for the values of autonomy of the component elements, consensus and tolerance which are capable of protecting the right of the minority in the society. These value systems which allow decision-making process to move down to the local units such as lineages and extended families would be of advantage.

Boko Haram Insurgency: Its Ideology and Impact on the Nigerian State
    Omoniyi Aderemi Adesanya, Peace and Conflict Studies Program, Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

The Ustadh Muhammad Yusuf led Boko Haram Movement founded in 2002 is the insurgency group that has unleashed mayhem on the Nigerian state for several months. The group also known as ‘Jama’at ahlis Sunnah lid Da’wat wal Jihad’, literally meaning ‘people committed to the propagation of the Prophet’s teachings and jihad,’ is the de facto dissident group. Boko haram, the Hausa name of the group means ‘no to education’ an outright denunciation of western education but not Islamic learning. The group views westernization as ‘contamination’. In its anti-westernization campaign, Boko Haram advocates the institutionalization of Sharia as a substitute for the British legal code that Nigeria operates. Having failed in this agenda, and in its strive to rupture the democratic order, the movement resulted to unleashing large-scale violence on the state including gun attacks, suicide bombings targeted at public buildings and houses of worship – all mayhem disguised as terrorist attacks. The Boko Haram’s saga still looms large. Since the group justifies its actions on ideological doctrines hinged on the pristine Islamic value system, what then is the way forward for Nigeria? How does the state break the movement’s stronghold without being accused of targeting repressive actions against Muslims? To what extent can the argument be sustained that Boko Haram is politically motivated and is a volatile instrument in the hands of internal and external shadow parties poised to destabilize the state? One of the critical questions posed in this paper is: if Boko Haram advocates for Islam and its doctrines, who advocates for the Nigerian state under siege?

Impact of Foreign Aid on Nigeria’s Socio-Economic Development: An Assessment of the Democratic Era
    Oluwasegun Samuel Adesina, Department of History & International Studies, University of Benin, Nigeria

In the 1990s, Africa’s aid dependency was about 20%, but it presently constitutes 40% of the annual budget of some extremely poor states like Malawi, while foreign aid occupies about 6% of Nigeria’s annual budget. It was discovered that the volume of foreign aid in Nigeria has been declining in the past decade. The bulk of ODAs Nigeria receives has failed to transform into economic prosperity. It was discovered that Nigeria’s structure of governance, judicial system, and problem of corruption among other factors has hindered the effectiveness of foreign aid in the country. The ineffectiveness of foreign aid has spurred donors to restrategise as they collaborate with NGOs and government MDAs in Nigeria. Consequently, official development assistance and private aid in Nigeria now bypasses national budget and goes straight to government’s MDAs and NGOs that uses it. Out of this concern, the paper assesses the effectiveness of the ODAs and private aid in Nigeria since 1999. The study also examines the administration of the largesse by Nigerian MDAs and NGOs. It was identified that ODAs and private aids has created jobs, stimulated growth and development of the small and medium business, and has also encouraged corruption and fiscal crisis among other socio-economic strata in Nigeria since 1999.

Visually Impaired Information Users in Nigeria: Characteristics, Challenges of Inclusion and the Dilemma of the Excluded
    Adeniran Adetoro, Associate  Professor, Department of Library and Information Science, Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria.

The visually impaired in Nigeria are faced with the problems of access to information, inclusion and the dilemma of technology adoption or not, among other intractable challenges. All these poses human right and development questions given that Nigeria is signatory to international conventions to promote and protect rights and dignity of persons with disabilities; equalizing opportunities for all. This study investigates visually impaired information users in Nigeria with emphasis on their personal characteristics, the challenges of inclusion and the Dilemma posed by technology. Survey research design was adopted and the study purposively focused on southwestern Nigeria. Using stratified proportionate random sampling technique, data were gathered using interviews and a questionnaire from fourteen selected libraries, stratified into non-governmental, public, tertiary institution and secondary schools. Out of 503 copies of questionnaire, 401 (71.3%) was used for the study. The study revealed that visually impaired information users are mainly males and below twenty five years. They are mainly artisans, craftmen, craft-instructors and teachers. Government has paid lip service to inclusion and left her duties it in the hands of private players and a few NGOs. The visually impaired are clearly in a dilemma of adopting technology and sticking to the familiar traditional formats which are very limited in supply and has failed to address the information needs over the years. The human rights and development implications are discussed and the study recommends formulation of inclusive policies, collaboration of government and relevant stakeholders towards widening social participation for the visually impaired in Nigeria.

From Lecture Hall to Practice: Sustainable Development in the Training of Acting in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: Olabisi Onabanjo University and Pencils Film Institute as Cases of Study
    Fadirepo Adejoke Adetoun, Department of Performing Arts, Olabisi Onabanjo University,Nigeria

Acting as a subject among the theatre courses has always been an attractive one at the initial stage due to the end product which is glamour, prosperity and fame that are tagged along with it. Students of thespian artistry soon discover the illusion in that opinion and the reality due to the sustainable development in quality training encountered where human resources use aims to meet human needs The objective of this paper is to explore and expatiate on the need for training and the ultimate continuum in practice towards skill acquisition .The study analyses acting discipline and training according to Constantine Stanislavsky’s technique and method in performance theory which is ‘Affective Memory’ alongside Bertolt  Brecht’s ‘ Alienation Effect’ as techniques in performative skill. Findings showed that most  students are more interested in the glamour and only a few have the passion to pursue acting as a career .The result is the display of outright mediocrity on the level of professional acting in films and stage productions. The paper concludes that in order to attain excellence and marketability in the profession, there is a great need for training and membership in guilds and association, hence the paper recommends a sustainable training and apprenticeship  for the growth and development of individual’s inherent talent and also enjoins the student to develop the passion which will help in the voyage of training and  career.

Gendered Disparities in Cultural Practices of Widowhood in Ondo State, Nigeria: Implications for Development
    Dorcas Omotola Adeyemi, Ondo State Teaching Service Commission, Ministry of Education, Nigeria.

In many Nigerian communities, women are restricted, exploited, checkmated and suppressed by cultural dictations and patriarchy.  A lot of many government policies are made to keep women down through male authorities. This paper discusses the disparities in the traditional rites enforced on men and women in Yoruba land Nigeria at the death of their spouses. Interview on items like: demography, marriage, profession/career leanings, widowhood/widowerhood rites and issues of inheritance was conducted on 85 widows and 85 widowers in Ondo, Nigeria. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results confirmed great disparity in the rites performed by the groups because women were restricted and subjected to a lot of dehumanizing activities including becoming a ‘property’ item to be inherited with no right to any inheritance; men were given assistance and more security with temporary wives and they didn’t have to swear or perform and humiliating rites. It also revealed that in post-independence Nigeria, many aspects of religions, culture and traditions are still being used to dehumanize women. The implications of the findings for gender development and particularly for children upbringing by the impoverished widows were discussed. The paper concluded that concerted efforts need to be taken to review all barbaric and oppressive aspects of culture and traditions that promote gender inequalities and oppression. It recommended a legal backing for widows’ right to inheritance and removal of the powers of in-laws to take charge of such at the demise of husbands.

Prospects of Developing New Methods in Production of Local Snacks in Ondo State, Nigeria
Ebunoluwa Bridget Adeyanju, Lecturer, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria

This study examined new methodologies in production of local snacks for poverty alleviation among unemployed citizens in Ondo state, Nigeria, West Africa. Data were collected using Questionnaire from 210 local snack producers. Questionnaire contained items on respondent demography, improved methods of producing local snacks, new recipe for the snacks, level of sales and profit from the local snacks and consumers preference for the new product. The data were analyzed using frequencies, counts, percentages and mean scores. The findings revealed that up to 78% of the local snacks producers agree that new methods helps to improve the quality of the snacks. 72% of the respondents said consumers prefer snacks produced by the new method, while 75% of the snack producers confirmed that they make profit from snacks made with new methods and it has really helped to cater for their needs. There are limitations in areas of finance and which can enhance large scale production of local snacks. This paper recommended that: 1) Local snack producers should document the recipe for the new product, this makes the new product to be reproducible anywhere in the world, and 2) improved local snacks should also be produced for different categories of people to suit their health requirement. This study concluded that snacks should be well packaged and stored to ensure nutrient retention so that they can reach the consumers in good condition.

Diasporic Experiences in Amma Darko’s Beyond the Horizon and Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah
    Bosede Funke Afolayan, Department of English, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Transnational migration is a worldwide phenomenon. The usual developmental attitude is for a rural-urban movement to which scholars advocate urban bias thesis (UBT). While it is a prominent trend for ambitious people to move from villages to the cities, there have not been many studies accounting for and comparing the experiences of the émigré in his/her exilic conditions. Therefore, this paper examines the reasons for moving into the city and the harsh conditions in which the émigré lives in Amma Darko’s Beyond the Horizon and Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah. The paper attempts to classify the character of the emigrants, explores their methods of hustling for a livelihood and their relationships with their home and host countries. Applying the Marxist and the Postcolonial theories, the paper sees the émigré’s movement as determined by economic reason and more of a transportation from the colonised to the coloniser’s land. The postcolonial Africa still envisions the western world as a land of opportunities. The paper concludes that the African moves with a lot of dreams that are usually unfulfilled largely because of unfriendly environment characterised by racial discrimination.

Urbanised Servitude: Representations of Househelps in Nollywood
    Bosede Funke Afolayan, Department of English, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Servants and slaves are part of the human society. Their place in society is usually lower than that of the children in the family. A rising trend in this issue of servitude is that of young people moving from the rural areas to urban centres as domestic hands in return for a fee, the promise of educational development and as financial support for their parents or guardians in the villages. In the course of dispensing their chores, these young people are exposed to inhuman treatments both physical and psychological. Their rights are violated and they face traumas and violence unequalled to their age. Working within a Marxist theoretical framework, the paper designates the victims and their masters as the proletariat and bourgeois respectively. In a capitalist society like Nigeria, the worker can also become the oppressor. Thus, the paper examines the representations of the househelps in eight films. The portrayals can be categorised into three: first, the victims and the abused who are maltreated; second, the ones who find themselves in comfortable environments and third, those who turned themselves into terror. The paper concludes that the films are a reflection of the social realities in the urban centres in Nigeria or elsewhere. It believes that deprivation is the main reason for engaging in servitude in the city but even when this is eradicated, ill-treatment may still occur. What determines the way a househelp is treated or treats others, even in affluent homes, is the goodness of their hearts.

A Political Economy Analysis of Gender Inequality in Esan, Edo State, Nigeria
    Babatunde Agarah, Centre for Strategic and Development Studies, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria
    Onoho’Omhen Ebhohimhen, Centre for Strategic and Development Studies, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria

This paper examines gender policy and women inequality from political economy perspectives. It situates the conceptual interplays in the multidisciplinary theoretical construct appropriate in materialist analyses. The paper, therefore, interweaves sociological themes with political economy analyses to form a multidisciplinary theoretical intersection, which are part generative canons and part, integrative techniques to elevate the gender discourse to an evel keel in the specific context of Esan society. This enables the paper to interrogate the place of emergent Esan women in a transitional society and to critique the wholesale relevance of foreign constructed paradigms alone to discourse gender relations in Esan society. The distilled cognition advances the ramifying argument for broadly focused and impartial but in-depth studies of the Esan cultural environment. The fundamental findings of the paper are that women inequality in Esan is class based but in the contexts derived from petit-bourgeois aspirations founded on foreign material cultural intervention. This leads to the conclusion that all forms of discrimination are amenable to enduring remediation if the basis and aetiology, nature and content are holistically explored to respectively tackle women inequality in every society.

The Role of Igbo Language in National Development and Urbanization
    Onu Mercy Agha, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

Language is often said to be a means of communication between individuals who share a common code. The codes that individuals share are in the form of symbols. These symbols can be oral or written. And a race whose language cannot be used for literary and serious purposes has no real identity, the race is decadent. The most conclusive conquest of a people is the conquest through language. The most essential asset of a people is not in their affluence and technological advancement. Neither is it in the number of eminent sons and daughters they own. The most essential asset is their own language- their mother tongue. No people under normal circumstances would want their mother tongue to die, for it is after all the language that makes them an ethnic entity or nation. Without a language of its own, a nation becomes merged and lost in the foreign group whose language it is forced to speak. But with its own language, a nation identifies itself and ensures its perpetuation. This paper is set out to investigate the roles Igbo language plays in National Development and Urbanization. This predicates that the sustainability of National Development and Urbanization cannot be achieved if the indigenous language of the said nation is neglected.

Breaking the Dance on the Brink: Post 2015 Nigerian Presidential Election
    Osaore Aideyan, Assistant Professor, Department of Politics & Government, Illinois State University

In February 2015, Nigeria will hold a crucial presidential election that might result in one outcome – Nigerians (assuming a free and fair election is held) will stick with the present rot of the ruling party or got with an emboldened opposition that is yet to properly articulate a platform. Building upon three overarching ideals of the Beijing model of development (Innovation; pursuit of dynamic goals/rejection of per capita GDP; and self-determination), this paper will provide critical assessment on which of the two platforms (proxy by quality of presidential candidates) will modernize the country after many years of dislocating corruption, incompetent leadership and a vicious insurgency. The presentation will be guided by this question: Will a Buhari or a Jonathan presidency be interested in and committed to economic development and pluralism in Nigeria instead of simply using government power to attain personal wealth?

Democracy, Dictatorship and Citizens’ Capabilities: Evidence of Two Half Decades of Reforms from Sub-Saharan Africa
    Osaore Aideyan, Assistant Professor, Department of Politics & Government, Illinois State University   
    Osunde Omoruyi, Department of Sociology & Anthropology, University of Benin, Nigeria & Teagasc Rural Economy and Development Program, Teagasc Mellows Campus Athenry Co.  Galway, Ireland;   Benedicta Ideho, Development and International Cooperation, Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

In this paper, we investigate the impact of regime types on the capabilities of domestic populations in samples of 49 sub-Saharan African nations. More specifically, we comparatively assess the impact on physical needs, informed decisions, and safety of regime types. Our analysis synthesizes literature that has focused exclusively on either authoritarianism or democracy in Africa at specific times, but has not explored their impacts at different intervals with the same country. This is against the background that Africans are losing faith in current regimes to improve their capabilities.

ALQIM and the Development of Insurgency in Nigeria: The Boko Haram Exploration 2010 – 2014
    David Nyam Ajiji, Department of History, Federal University Lafia, Nigeria
    Larab Tangshak Ayuba, Department of History and International Studies, University of Jos,  Nigeria

2nd abstract: In the last few years insurgency is one of the main problems of the Nigerian state. This paper seeks to ask and answer one major question, do external links of local groups matter? It also raises and attempts to answer subsidiary questions such as, what are the causes of insurgency in Nigeria? Why is it tougher in only some parts of the country? What are the nature and patterns of the insurgency attacks? Why is it taking too long to put down despite huge resources deployed by government? How can it be stopped? This paper therefore examines the influence of Al Qeada in the Maghreb (ALQIM) on the development of the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria from 2010 down to 2014. The methodology used is qualitative, as basically secondary sources of data mainly published literature, journal articles and others are used. The subject is historicized, described, and analysed.

Diasporic culture: An instrument for grassroot development in developing countries.
    Zana I. Akpagu, Department of Modern Languages & Translation Studies, University of Calabar, Nigeria
    Gloria M. Umukoro, Department of Modern Languages & Translation Studies, University of Calabar, Nigeria

One significant aspect of the African slaves who were shipped out of Africa during the trans-atlantic slave trade was the retention and preservation of the African culture. These values over the years have either been watered down, compromised or have been influenced by external cultural influences. Though these Africans now live in the diaspora, literature has been able to reveal their attitudes, experiences and cultural preoccupations in the new world. Using the cultural approach, this reading seeks to contribute to the literature by analysing more comprehensively the cultural preoccupations of the French diasporic communities, and discusses the role played by these diasporic communities as a driving force in poverty alleviation while redefining the social relations between the communities and their homeland. In this paper, we are going to look at diasporic cultural festivals as an instrument for grassroot development in Africa. We will discuss for instance: 1) how the Caribbean carnival has found its way back into Africa and has been nationally accepted as a mode of cultural celebration (e.g.Nigeria), and 2) how these carnivals have impacted the economy of developing countries and have played a vital role in the economic and socio-cultural deveflopment of the homeland.

Repositioning Christian Religious Education in Nigeria as an Impetus for National Development
    Ezekiel K. Akano, Christian Religious Studies Department, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Nigeria

Religious education had been at its best in its creative efforts at facing the challenges of the unknown thereby empowering the growth of a nation. Education as an indispensable tool in all spheres of life and is a weapon for development. An educated citizenry is the one that has better understanding, appreciates and focuses on development. One of the means of achieving such citizenry is through effective religious education. Hence, the need for planning and strategizing a purposeful educational plan for national development. Literatures have documented neglect of religious education as a way of promoting national development. For the nation to be peaceful, harmonious, stable and developed, functional religious education (Christian) must be pursued vigorously. The paper argues that viable and enabling Christian education programmes which must emphasize moral tenets and create an enlightened polity to ensure development must be put in place. The paper ends with recommendations given to all stakeholders concerned. One of the recommendations pointed out that a well-structured, planned, monitored, controlled teacher education programme over a period of time designed by appropriate authorities would produce trained persons who can facilitate learners to be critical thinkers, problem solvers and assets to their communities, nations and the world at large is needed. Lastly, the paper details how Christian Religious Education should serve as a way to approach nation building if effectively supported and implemented.

Foreign Direct Investment or Neo-colonialism? A Scorecard Analysis of International Land Acquisitions in Africa
    Comlanvi Sitou Akibode, Michigan State University/the Department of Agricultural Food and Resources Economics & the African American and African Studies program/The Emerging     Geo-political Economy of Natural Resources in Africa (EGNRA)

Millions of acres of land are being sold in Africa, recently, after the global energy and food crisis of 2008 (Cotula, 2009). Two-third of the 56 millions of acres, under investors’ interests in less than a year, are on the African continent (Cotula, 2009). This important size, the rapidly growing trends that had characterized those deals, along with the much criticized conditions: lack of transparency, absence of consent, secrecy, population, displacement, food security issues, etc. (Mittal, 2011; Cotula, 2012; Amanor, 2012), have prompted a controversial debate around the question: “Are International land Acquisitions, Foreign Direct Investments or “foreign-controlled investments” supporting the continent’s economic and social development; or Neo-colonialism, benefiting international investors and hindering the continent’s future development? To objectively answer the question, this study has advanced a conceptual, theoretical and empirical framework, and a scorecard analysis to assess large scale land acquisitions in Africa, as to whether they are beneficial Foreign Direct Investment or detrimental Neo-colonialist practices.  The first hypothesis is:  categorizing an investment as “Neo-colonialist” depends on 5 variables: degree of local vs foreign ownership of resources invested; methods of acquisition of local resources; management of resources; distribution of revenue generated, and the purpose of the investment. The second is: an investment is classified “Neo-colonialist” if it ranks lower than a specific commendable benchmark. Out of 2 country based hypothetical cases analyzed and scored, one case appears to be Neo-colonialist, that is having characteristics that would hinder the continent’s development; and the other shows characteristics of an FDI that has the potential to support the continent’s development.

Civil Society, Human Rights and the Politics of Land Reforms in South Africa    
    Adeoye O. Akinola, School of Management, IT & Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    Professor Henry Wissink, School of Management, IT & Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Land is considered as a central resource to rural development and environmental challenges facing the South African states. Invariably, civil society organizations have realized the need to be proactive in effecting beneficial land reform in the country. The South African state has taken the land reform process as an important initiative and as key mechanism in the quest to redress racial and class inequalities in the post-apartheid dispensation. This demand for land redistribution, in terms both of redressing historical and racially grounded inequities and of growing needs by both the rural population and urban black elites, has been a consistent feature of Southern African politics and policymaking initiatives. The study examines the land reform program in South Africa (land restitution, redistribution and land tenure system), assesses how government policy has affected human rights in respects to access to land and explores the role of civil society in the ‘land battle’. Despite the post-apartheid constitutional provisions of human rights in South Africa, there are compelling evidences of political intolerance and several instances of human rights violations by the government. It was found that the court does not mostly help, evictions continue, and municipalities and private landowners violate land rights in the country. In conclusion, land reforms in South Africa fell far short of public expectations; hence, the need for “bottom up” land reform driven by the interests of the masses.

The Post-French-Revolution Reforms: A Demonstration of the Universal Concept and Dynamics of Self-Determined and Externally Imposed Development
    Giwa Akintunde, French Department, Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria
    Fasanmi Olufunso, English Department, Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria

Of critical significance for the appreciation of the concept of development are the effects of the developmental reforms which France imposed on its European conquests after the French Revolution. The reforms were both progressive and retrogressive (Dowe 2001). For instance, urbanisation rates increased within Germany while the sociological integrity of some countries was disturbed and debased (Bergeron 1973 & La Porta et al 1998). The reforms were based on France’s presumption and analysis of the developmental state and potential of the nations concerned.  Because this external evaluation lacked the consensus of the countries concerned, it did amount to a violation of the human rights of the citizens and residents of the countries – their rights to freedom of thought, of opinion and of participation in governance. Moreover, the reforms seemed implemented with a paradigm of radicalism, aimed at fundamental reform ( Burke 1969). Why were the reforms successful in some respects but not in others? What dynamics of national development do the successes and failures highlight in defining a nation’s natural amenability to external-reform imposition, to extraneous and self-determined radicalism, and to a unilateral analysis of its governance and welfare? Where should such (well-meant) intrusions begin, and where should they end without prejudice to human rights?  Employing empirical evidence, critical analysis, and induction from a wide range of viable sources, the paper would attempt to address these seminal questions. Answers to them, it is hoped, would enhance the current conceptualisation of development, and proffer a realistic paradigm for comprehensive national development.

Urban Renewal Schemes and the Plight of Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria: A Study of Oke Ilu-Eri, Badia East, Lagos State
    Bamidele Omotunde Alabi, Department of Sopciology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba Lagos, Nigeria.

Urbanisation in developing countries exemplifies the direct inverse of the propitious consequences with which it is closely correlated in developed economies. Lagos, Nigeria is one such urban area where a myriad of challenges are prevalent and in which there have been successive proposals and actual executions of different urban renewal schemes to address them. However, despite its intended beneficial objectives, urban renewal schemes brood many negative consequences, that includes displacement of persons, resulting from forcible eviction. This is an exploratory study that employs in-depth interview method of qualitative research. Respondents were drawn from among officials of the Lagos State Urban Renewal Authority, as well as persons forcibly evicted by the agency from Oke Ilu-Eri, Badia East, Lagos State, in February 23, 2013 The study evaluates the implementation of the urban renewal schemes by Lagos State Government, with specific focus on the consequences of forced eviction and the availability of remedies to the displaced persons. It establishes that urban renewal schemes are often implemented without consultations with, and input from inhabitants of the places it seeks to regenerate, thereby causing affected persons series of untold economic, social and psychological miseries, even as no durable ameliorative panaceas are offered by the authorities. The study recommends that adequate and reasonable information be given prior to eviction of persons from places proposed for renewal, and that durable ameliorative panacea, by way of compensation, resettlement and other beneficial remedies be provided to persons displaced from their usual places of abode.

Top Up, Pay as You Go! The impacts and potentials of the mobile telephony and Internet revolutions on the lives of Africans.
    Bamidélé Aly, Department of History at Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Paris

This paper will focus on the way the mobile telephony and internet revolutions have improved and can improve the daily lives of ordinary Africans. Due to the hitherto lack of strong infrastructures, the penetration of landline telephony has been extremely low in most African countries, which have created a divide between rich and poor. Nevertheless, the mobile telephony i) requires a low barrier to entry and low infrastructure investments with the exception of the installation of submarine cables and the launch of telecommunications satellites in the interstellar space, ii) has led to a high level of device penetration and iii) appears to have reduced the technology gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, my aim for this conference is to concentrate on few economic sectors where the mobile telephony has either some potentials or represent some challenges or has led to material benefits by taking as empirical evidence Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa. First, I will provide an overview of the history of the mobile telephony on the African continent. Secondly, I will analyse the economics of the mobile telephony in the banking and the agricultural sectors. Thirdly, I will analyse the case for the new frontiers of the mobile telephony and of the Internet revolutions being namely retail e-commerce and education to provide long-term sustainable development on the African continent.

Gender and Development in Africa: The Shifting Influence of Urbanization on the Historic Role of Umuada in Igboland, Southeast Nigeria
    Chidi M. Amaechi, Lecturer, Department of History and International Studies, University of Nigeria, Nigeria.

From all indications, the striving towards development has continued to occupy the centre stage among the various African societies. In the continent, the idea of development is largely influenced by the people’s colonial experience which imposed new political, socio-cultural and economic views of the concept. Invariably, urbanization, provision of modern infrastructural facilities and the adoption of western social habits became prominent parameters of measuring development. Unfortunately, these were restricted to the urban centres. Among the indigenous rural dwellers, the situation amounted to deprivation of their right to the ‘good things of life’ and which led to the migration of people from the rural areas to the urban centres where most of them were still confined to the urban slums. This trend engendered changes, both in various aspects of the culture of Africa’s indigenous peoples and in the developmental activities of the cultural groups. Within the pre-colonial Igbo society, Umuada (daughters of the lineage or community) rivaled the men in the development of their various patrilineal communities. Considering the debilitating influence of urbanization especially on the cultural practices of the people and the fact that the Umuada exists and still play prominent and challenging developmental roles, this paper seeks to find out the influence of urbanization on the group’s developmental activities over time and if the Umuada groups can become veritable partners in the general effort towards the extension of development or the fundamental necessities of life to the rural areas.

Women and local governance in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State
    Cinderella Temitope Amos, Department of History & International Studies, University of Benin, Nigeria

Local governments are recognized as the closest government to the people and the easiest platform for the voices of the disposed people to be heard. Women belonging to the latter strata are generally noted to be more able to participate in the local political space where the entry requirements are less stringent. An effective local government enables a holistic national development. Effectiveness and good governance derives from the inclusion of both men and women in political decision-making. This paper examines the participation of women of Lagos state in local governance. What strides have been made and road blocks to their empowerment. How has the mandate of the Nigerian National Gender Policy of gender mainstreaming, drawn from global advocacy been actualized in the lives of rural women? Lagos State is made up of twenty local government areas with five administrative divisions: Epe, Ikorodu, Badagry, Lagos and Ikeja. The research examines eight local government areas under these five administrative divisions. A comparative analysis reveals that the political participation of women in remote areas, (Epe & Ikorodu), slum areas, (Ajeromi/Ifelodun), and commercial areas, (Lagos Island), are low compared with women in high, (Ikoyi), and middle class, (Ikeja and Kosofe) areas. Some of the factors responsible for this disparity are inadequate funds, illiteracy and domestic labour.

The Difference Female Legislators Make: Gender and Support for Welfare and Women Issues in Nigeria’s National Assembly.
     Andrea Andzenge-Agogo, Doctoral Student, Global Studies. College of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Massachusetts – Lowell

The call for the election of more women into national parliaments worldwide is frequently based on the difference theory or gender role theory i.e. that women in the legislature will act for issues traditionally associated with the concerns of women and children. While studies have been conducted to examine the legislative behavior of members of parliaments in various African states, no known studies have systematically looked at bill sponsorship records to empirically support dominant assumptions about the nature of bills women are more interested in sponsoring. This study examines a database of 2,142 bills sponsored in the Nigerian National Assembly between 1999 and 2013. The hypothesis that female legislators are more likely than their male counterparts to sponsor bills that concern welfare and women issues is supported. A bill sponsored by a female legislator during the period examined was twice more likely to concern welfare and women issues than a bill sponsored by a male legislator. Further, by analyzing qualitative information on female legislators in the Seventh Senate (2011-2013), the paper discusses other important factors that appear to influence bill sponsorship activity in general.

Multiculturalism, Democracy, and Sustainable Development
    Phil O. Anosike, The University of Toledo

In the era of globalization, the implication of a state sanctioned multiculturalism has generated a plethora of conversations among social critics and scholars of contemporary political philosophy who speculate the political implications of a national multiculturalism.  Would a state-enshrined multiculturalism lead to a national unity or results to a national disunity and “balkanization” of a democratic state?  This paper examines the views of conservatives and liberal pluralists who adopt the assimilationists’ stance arguing that multiculturalism would result to national disunity.  Their argument is juxtaposed with the views of critical race theorists, as well as the contemporary political philosophers of multiculturalism who argue that multiculturalism will bring about national unity and sustainable development.  The study sought a relationship between multiculturalism, democracy, and sustainable development, through the lens of content analysis and logical reasoning.  The findings reveal that multiculturalism movement is a democratic movement with sustainable moral values, which became the culminating point of various historical movements of the oppressed peoples of America in their struggle to achieve freedom and equality of opportunity. The various movements that gave rise to multiculturalism movement include the women’s movement (which gained prominence with the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention of 1848, and led to the founding of women’s study program in major universities); the African American movement (culminating in the Civil Rights movement, and the founding of Black and Ethnic Studies programs in major universities); and the multiethnic studies movement – which includes women, gays, lesbians, and people with disabilities (culminating in the multicultural studies movements).

Where Local Kings Rule: Long-Term Impacts of Precolonial Institutions and Geography on Access to Public Infrastructure Services in Nigeria
    Belinda Archibong, Columbia University

Though previous works have discussed the benefits of precolonial ethnic state centralization for development in Africa, the findings, of a positive relationship between centralization and development and the mechanisms provided, of local accountability of ethnic state leaders, do not explain the heterogeneity in outcomes, reflected in the unequal distribution of access to public services among formerly centralized states today. Here, I posit that centralization has had a negative effect on access to federally administrated, high state control goods when cooperation failed between ethnic state and federal government leaders in the kind of cooperative federalist, dual authority regimes that defined much of colonial and postcolonial Africa. I focus on the case of Nigeria, and specifically, I find a significant negative effect of centralization on access to high state control goods for centralized states whose leaders failed to cooperate with the autocratic military regime, and whose jurisdictions were subsequently subject to a punishment regime with lasting impacts till today. I also posit that the longterm effects of this punishment regime can be seen in the lower reported trust in institutions of federal authority over traditional institutions today from respondents from these centralized precolonial states that were subject to the punishment regime. The results are robust to a number of controls and instrumenting for centralization with an ecological diversity index.

Sustainable Development in Africa and the Narratives of Insurgency: Examination of Boko Haram in Nigeria
    Felix Chinwe Asogwa, Department of Political Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria
    Daniel Ugwuja, Department of Political Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

No doubt, Africa is today engulfed in various forms of development problems; power contests among diverse groups laying claim(s) to one issue or the other. This has tended to undermine the very fabric of social existence and sustainable development in these African societies. The Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria has come to epitomize one of the negative consequences of this new trend in insurgency in Africa. Initially, Boko Haram was perceived as a purely local Islamic sectarian group with little or no consequences to the Nigerian state and her citizens. But overtime, it has grown through effective mobilization and indoctrination to constitute not only a fundamental threat to the very existence of the Nigerian state but other neighbouring states within the West African sub-region. The activities of the group has been strengthened not only through mass mobilization but also through its alliance with other terrorist groups such as al Queda network; al shabab, etc, etc. On the other hand, the Nigerian state has employed various mobilization strategies to counter the Boko Haram insurgency. The Nigerian situation is, therefore, characterized by adoption of various strategies by both the Boko Haram sect and the Nigerian state for collective action by the people of Nigeria. This paper, therefore, will investigate the origin and impact of Boko Haram and other diverse issues relating to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria especially as it affects sustainable development. The paper would source its data from secondary sources and adopt content analysis as its method of analysis.

Mobilizing Indigenous Technology for Sustainable Development in Africa: Assessment of Igbo Indigenous Technology, South-East Nigeria
    Felix Chinwe Asogwa, Department of Political Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria
    Daniel Ugwuja, Department of Political Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

There is no doubt that Africa is confronted with enormous developmental challenges arising from assumed paucity of technological advancements in the character of developed western countries. This development gap is not so much of lack of technology but essentially as a result of the inability of the leadership of states to mobilize indigenous technology for sustainable development. Africa, before the contact with colonialism, had its own form of indigenous technology but with colonial contact, these indigenous forms of technology were abandoned for western values so much so that we now regard our own technological innovations as inferior to imported technology. But experience has shown that in times of dire needs, most African states have resorted to age-long indigenous technologies to solve particular problems. The Igbo of South-East Nigeria has shown great resilience and zeal in homing-in on indigenous technology to drive development in areas like tooling, fabrication of spare parts, local construction of machines and even in health care delivery sectors. However, the absence of inclusive political and economic institutions as well as property rights that encourage innovations has not allowed for the mass mobilization of such indigenous technological development. This paper, therefore, sets out to examine the role of indigenous technology in sustainable development in Africa with particular emphasis on the Igbo indigenous technology. The paper will rely essentially on secondary sources of data and would employ content analysis as its method of data analysis.

Sustainable Design Strategies and Practices: Recommendations for the Building Industry in Nigeria
    Abimbola O Asojo, University of Minnesota

Our planet’s increasing population and depleting natural resources show the importance of sustainable design which protects our environment for the health, benefit and welfare of all (Winchip, 2005). Sustainable design focuses on using materials and design strategies that protect the environment and save energy for future generations. It is imperative for design practitioners and students globally, as well as in Nigeria to design spaces that embody the principles of sustainability. Sustainable design principles will help conserve energy and protect the environment for future generations.  In this paper, the author discusses sustainable design strategies and practices with recommendations for the building industry in Nigeria. The author begins by presenting an overview and historical perspective of sustainable design practices in Nigeria, particularly how precolonial cultures practiced sustainable design and were earth-centered and environmentally friendly. However, due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, these sustainable practices were abandoned. The author will review the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED rating systems to offer some practical recommendations for the building industry in Nigeria today. Pedagogical examples will illustrate how design students and practitioners in the building industry in Nigeria can implement sustainable design strategies to gain benefits such as lowering operating costs; conserve energy, water and other resources; and create healthier and safer environments for occupants. Finally, the author will recommend sustainable strategies that can be adopted in the industry in Nigeria to help today’s design practitioners and students become effective in protecting the environment.

Health and Rural Development in Nigeria: A portrait of the Ibarapa Programme after a century of rural health service, training and International cooperation in Nigeria.
    Oluwatoyin A. Asojo, National School of Tropical Medicine,  Baylor College of Medicine Houston Texas

Health plays a major role in the development of a community. Poverty and underdevelopment are often intertwined with poor health. It is accepted that poverty, malaria, HIV-AIDs, hypertension, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are widespread in Nigeria. However, not so well known are the successful efforts within Nigeria by Nigerians to improve the health status of Nigerians. In this paper, we introduce the Ibarapa Programme, a model of rural health care as well as local intellectual capacity building by Nigeria’s premier medical school, with community, local and regional government participation as well as international support. The Ibarapa programme has trained thousands of health professionals from Nigeria’s premier medical school at the College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan (UI), her affiliate University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan and other schools in rural public health community medicine and health. One of the greatest assets of the Ibarapa Programme is its repository of biomedical data, records and consented patients that has served as the basis of international collaborative efforts to unravel the genetic and molecular basis of many diseases. Our objective is to highlight the work of the Ibarapa Programme in NTDs, rural health, public health, education, training and research. The stakeholder education and interdisciplinary synergism that this program provides to UI and their international partners will be illustrated.  Additionally, a needs assessment and the ongoing work of the Ibarapa Programme in developing indigenous intellectual capability and infastructure will be presented.

Stakeholder empowerment and disease control –Ebola outbreak in West Africa 2014
    Oluwatoyin A. Asojo, Tropical Medicine Department, University of Baylor

The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in ~15,000 deaths and disrupted the lives of over 200 million people through direct or indirect economic impacts. This paper will explore how different West African nations handled the disease and the roles played in success and failures. The socioeconomic cultural and other impacts on the nations impacted will also be explored. The effect of the built environment on disease control and spread will also be investigated.

Issues and Challenges in the Urban Renewal Programme of Lagos State    
    Adedotun Moses Atilade, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Humanity’s future will unfold largely in urban settings, making the demographic divide pass from an age when most of the population resides in rural areas to one in which most will be urban residents. Tagged as the most populous city in Africa with ever increasing population; the daunting challenges of managing urban agglomeration with attendant effects on security, housing, health services ,infrastructure management and environment sustainability as been one that the Lagos State Government has to grapple with. The task of managing the myriads of shanty towns and slums spread all over the city centers and the peri-urban locations have led the state to intensify efforts in its urban renewal programme. The launch into the inevitable urban renewal programme has generated a lot of conflicts and recorded human rights abuses with various responses from citizens. This research will focus on  four slums (waterfronts and shanty towns) where the programme are been implemented and some ongoing. The study would attempt to document  cases of abuse of human rights featuring assaults ,destructions of lives and properties  in contravention to both local and international laws and best practices that are not expected of a democratic governments. It also articulate  citizens responses pattern and  capacity for redress and their protection by the  justice systems. The Programme will also be benchmarked against other international best practices like participation respect for human right of the urban poor.

Democracy – Electoral Politics and Nigeria’s 4th Republic
    Tyodzua Atim, Department of Political Science, Benue State University

Politics is mainly about the control of State power. In civilized societies, politics find it’s bearing within the context of popular democracy. Democracy can only be meaningful if the people are given the freedom and liberty to choose those who will represent their interest. In African, since independence, the form and function of the state has remained basically the same. Politics remains the nerve centre where power is sought by all means in a legacy of lawless political competition amidst an ideological void. This power struggle is so outstanding that the pursuit of development is consigned to the dustbin. This paper is an attempt to evaluate and analyse democratic processes in Nigeria especially as it relates to the problem of orderly transition and the ability of the people to choose their representatives in a free and fair manner. The paper explains that because most of those who find themselves in elective positions go there through fraudulent means, they have little regard for the welfare of the people. The paper further claims that African Leaders and foreign financial institutions have a wrong notion of democracy and that instead of democracy advancing the welfare of the people, our leaders and western nations look at democracy from the perspective of human rights. The paper adopts the political interaction framework, which presumes that the State – Society relationship is central to the political dynamics of African democracy. The further posits that the survival of the 4th Republic is dependent upon the strengthening of democratic institutions and competitive politics based on African cultural norms.

Effects of Climate Change On Genetic Variability of Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.) from Teaching and Research Farm In Akure, Nigeria
    Oluwatosin Oyinkansola Awosika, Department of Crop Soil and Pest Management, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

Climate change and its resultant perennial rainfall culminating in erosion and washing away of ozone layers of soil has implicated agriculture and stable food supply. This study experimented with eleven inbred lines of maize obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The maize genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in three replications for a period of three months at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA); Nigeria; to determine yield performance, magnitude of variability of agronomic traits and degree of association among the traits during a period of rainfall stability July to September. Results confirmed high heritability for characters like days to tasseling, number of cobs, cob weight and number of plant stands for all genotypes. It also confirmed the effects of climate change on the genotypes as only: TZI 1318 had the tallest ear, highest number of plants stands, cobs and cob weight while TZEI 9 had the highest relative growth rate and lowest tasseling and silking days confirming improvement possibilities for heritable traits and early emergence of tassel and silk as a proof of early maturity. The paper recommended that maize genotypes gotten from agro allied sources would yield better production results.

Railways and Economic Development: The Nigerian Experience in the Global Context
    Tokunbo A. Ayoola, Department of History and International Relations, Elizade University, Nigeria

The railway as a mode of transport was developed in Britain in the 1820s. However, it was the Liverpool to Manchester Railway, which was completed in 1830, that confirmed its commercial viability and possible replication across the globe or world. From Britain railway technology was imported into continental Europe; and later to other parts of the world. Beginning from the 1870s, as European imperialist countries were forcibly taking over African territories, to exploit their resources, they decided to replicate the successes and advantages railway had brought to other parts of the world. This paper, therefore, seeks to locate Nigerian colonial and postcolonial railway development experience in the global context of the nexus between railway technological innovation and economic and social development. In essence, the paper seeks to find answers to questions such as: In what specific ways did railways in Nigeria play out the experience of their British ancestors or predecessors? Can the history of the railways in Nigeria serve as a good example for discussing colonial railways in the global south? And so forth.

Conflicts and Urban Dwellers in Jos: Issues in Rights to City
    Larab Tangshak Ayuba, Department of History and International Studies, University of Jos, Nigeria
    David Nyam Ajiji, Department of History, Federal University Lafia, Nigeria

Since 1932, but particularly from 2001, conflicts in Jos city—an urban area created in the colonial period—have been recurrent. This raises a number of questions begging for answers; for example: what is the nature and patterns of conflicts in the Jos city? What are the issues involved and their dynamics? Who are the parties and why?  The paper argues that contestations over indigeneship status and who owns the city among Nigerian citizens resident in the town are parts of the root causes of the conflicts. The paper is based on primary and secondary sources; relies on oral interviews, archival materials and also on literature of secondary status. The method of presentation and analysis is chronological descriptive, as well as analytical. In other words, it is a qualitative research. The paper is also prescriptive as it makes recommendations to appropriate governments at all levels, as well as indidividuals, and private institutions/organizations towards enduring peace in the city.

Africa Command (Africom): Is this a New Militarization in Africa?
    Augustine E. Ayuk, Clayton State University

On February 6, 2007, president George W. Bush pronounced the creation of a new military security initiative for Africa known as Africa Command or Africom. Following the twin bombings in 1998 of U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salam, Tanzania, as well as Al Qaeda’s terror attack on September 11, 2001, the White House and the Pentagon lunched this counterterrorism initiative to protect U.S. vital interest in Africa. Prior to the creation of Africom, the Department of Defense (DoD) placed the continent of Africa under three separate unified commands: The European Command (EUCOM), Central Command (CENTCOM), and Pacific Command (PACOM). Chris Toesing offers three strategic objectives of Africom, including: (1) prevent African locales from becoming “safe havens” for Al Qaeda and other radical Islamists. (2) To safeguard oil deposits (3) To check the growing interest of China in Africa and other natural resources. According Robert G. Loflis, “Africom was created because “Africa is more important to U.S. strategically and deserves to be viewed through its own lense.” This article will examine competing debates about Africom’s presence in the continent, from the viewpoint of supporters and critics. It will also attempt to provide answers if Africom is good or bad for Africa.

Refocusing On Educational Policies and Implementation For Entrepreneurial, Technological and Economic Transformation In Nigeria.
    Bridget Itunu Awosika, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria.

Education has been used as an instrument per excellence for effective national development by successive governments in Nigeria; yet the realization of technological advance has remained a mirage. This paper looks at existing policies on education vis a vis the curriculums for vocational and conventional programmes in schools to find out if the end has justified the means. Adequacy and quality of facilities and equipment in institutions and vocational training centers were determined, re-training of trainers for capacity building and the level of achievement of educational goals and objectives were viewed. The paper concludes that for too long, we have succeeded in producing an army of clerks and very few technicians, craftsmen, engineers, and technologists that can change  attainment the face of Nigeria industrially and economically. The paper concludes that the way forward for the country is to revisit the purpose of education in nation building and handle it in a way that would ultimately lead to self-reliance, job creation, security, as well as economic growth and development through proper and adequate funding and monitoring. Suggestions for improvement by taking clue from the Asian Tigers were given.

Entrepreneurial Development For Aso Ofi Weavers For Self-Sustenance and Cultural Sustainability in South Western Nigeria
    Bridget Itunu Awosika, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria.

Cloth weaving on narrow looms is a major traditional technology practiced in Small Scale Enterprises (SMEs) among the Yoruba of south western Nigeria.  The cloth produced from the narrow loom is known as Aso Ofi; used during important occasions like marriages, naming, chieftaincies, coronations and burials. This paper observed that Aso Ofi has suffered developmental predicaments due to repetitive designs and heavy weight such that weavers suffered manpower underutilization making the textile to be unpopular for everyday use. The study organized capacity building for 144 weavers chosen from six major weaving centres in South Western Nigeria on improved production techniques. Respondents were also interviewed on cultural values, innovativeness and mass production potentials of the Aso Ofi made in the study. Data analyzed showed that 100% male and 78.8% female weavers confirmed that the product was wide enough to cut large pieces while 76% male and 100% female confirmed its suitability for mass production. T-test analyses for Innovativeness, texture and weight reduction, cultural values and encouragement of youth weavers acceptable values (T-calculated being 2.42, 4.00, 6.00 and 4.00) respectively. The paper concluded that the nostalgia for Aso Ofi’s as everyday clothing could be reduced by upgrading the textile/fashion industry to form a nexus between them, government and private individuals Public Private Partnerships.

‘We are the visual and Creative World’: An Art Workshop aimed at making the Physically Challenged Students of Modupe Cole Memorial Childcare, Entrepreneurs
Ademola Azeez, Artist, Art Educator, Art Historian/Critic & Administrator, Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Federal College of Education (Technical), Nigeria

The theme: ‘We are the visual and creative World’ is chosen to keep the hope of physically challenged students of Modupe Cole Memorial School, Lagos alive. As creative beings they can still influence the world if they are given the chance despite their situation. This is an Art workshop organised for students of Modupe Cole who are physically challenged and in order to make them believe in themselves and to bring out the best in them in terms of creativity and entrepreneurial skills and to know that all is not lost after all.  The purpose of the workshop is to develop the students’ hidden and inherent talents and make them potential job producers and thereby encourage the public to support them in the area of visual art creation. The student-participants would be randomly selected among male and female students of Modupe Cole Memorrial Childcare, Lagos. The expected result of the training is to make the students to be Entrepreneurs by making them create for the world that has given them ‘narrow space’ to operate from. Various art materials are to be distributed based on the students’ interest in both two and three-dimensional areas of visual art. The workshop is to make them create different art forms that would bring out the best creativity in them and make them job producers. The processes of producing the art work are to be recorded in photographs and video and the end products are to be properly packaged and exhibited for members of the public for patronage.

Technological Development in Africa’s Past and Present    
    Abidemi Babatunde Babalola, Anthropology Department, Rice University

Technology is one of the indices used in determining development. Scholars across many disciplines have studied the level of technological development in African, and how Africa has contributed to the world development scheme, mostly as a consumer or at very best passive pattern. Often Africa is rated at the lowest rung of the world’s ladder of technological development, if it ever appears. However, studies have revealed that much of the earliest technologies in human history were either developed or extensively improved on in Africa. Focusing on metallurgical and glass making traditions, this paper examines the history of technological development in Africa, linking it to the broader development debate in the continent. To do this, the paper explores archaeological, historical, oral traditional, and documentary sources. It argues that knowledge of the past technological advancement in Africa is an important impetus that must be embraced for the present developmental projection for the continent.

Incidence of Democratic Rule on Urban Development in Nigeria
    Olatomide Emmanuel Babalola, Department of History, College of Education, Nigeria

Towards the last two decades of 20th century there were strong agitations by most of the African countries and other developing nations of the world to enthrone democratic rule. Today virtually all the African countries are practicing democracy. Nigeria began to operate democratic rule since independence but the military intervention has always truncated it until 1999 when Nigeria began to operate an uninterrupted democratic rule. Therefore this paper is aimed to establish the fact whether the Nigeria democratic rule for the past fifteen years has made any appreciable impacts in the area of urban development. It equally assesses the level of urban development during the military rule and compares it with the present democratic government in operation. The scope of this paper is between 1999 to 2014 democratic dispensation in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the nature of democracy operates in Nigeria is too expensive while funds that would ought to have been invested on developmental project are squandering by the politicians on political campaigns and other non- profitable ventures at the expense of the urban developmental project which could have benefited the lots of the citizenry and give the true picture of democratic rule in Nigeria as it is in most of the developed Nations of the world.

Modern Human Rights Violations and Ethnic Discrimination Against Pygmy Communities
    Anna L. Ballard, University of Texas at Tyler

As of 2008 it is estimated that roughly 250,000 Pygmies remain in the rain forest areas that stretch from the Atlantic coast of Cameroon to Lake Victoria in Uganda.  This paper argues that Pygmies in Cameroon, Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo are the recipients of often ignored human rights violations and scholars should investigate in more detail the historical reasons for this ethnic treatment.  Moreover, this study outlines recommendations for addressing these violations in light of the constitutions in Cameroon, Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study will investigate the human rights violations of the Pygmies by pulling primary sources from newspapers, reports and interviews and weaving these in with secondary historical literature on the pygmies. The Baka Pygmy group in Cameroon and the Bambuti Pygmy group in Democratic Republic of Congo are still experiencing acts of discrimination in forms of violence, in politics, and with forced submission by majority groups like the Bantu.  Also, foreign conservation and development groups, such as the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, villainize them in order to gain acceptance for their projects.  Little help comes from the government since many government officials do not see the Pygmies as citizens in their countries or acknowledge their representatives.

The Logic of Exclusion in Nigeria Urban Space and the Imperative of Cosmopolitan Rights
    Oladele A. Balogun, Department of Philosophy, OOU, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
    Ademola K. Fayemi, Department of Philosophy, Lagos State, Nigeria

There is increasing concern about the segregation of the rights and privileges of minority settlers, both foreign and indigenous, as the urban space in many parts of Nigeria expand, albeit in complex patterns. However, far too little attention has been paid to the ideological basis underpinning the complex nature of the Nigeria urban space as well as the possibilities of cosmopolitan rights and duties within her ambience. This paper is an attempt to expose the logic of exclusion clustering around the management of Nigeria urban space since the colonial period till contemporary times. It argues that social class, ethnicity, race, occupational pattern and religion are the most fundamental forces shaping the contours of Nigeria urban space. The logic of urban space in Nigeria is strategically defined by exclusion rather than inclusion. This paper identifies capitalism, which is the ideological wheel controlling the management of urban space in Nigeria as antithetical to the strife of cosmopolitan rights in Nigeria. Such an ideology reinforces and undermines the rights of the urban minority - local and foreign strangers, the poor, religious minority and ethnic minority - through unequal power relations. On the strength of Kantian framework on cosmopolitanism, this paper argues that as urban identities and diversities continue to grow in different parts of Nigeria, it is apt that cosmopolitan rights evolve complementarily with cosmopolitan obligations and human rights. This paper concludes that such mutual interaction would promote not only equitable physical development but also ensure the triumph of self-worth, justice and human development devoid of segregation in Nigeria urban space.

The Impact of Immigration on African Marriage Concept - A Pastoral Theological Study
    Prof Elijah Baloyi, University of South Africa

The Post Apartheid South Africa is typified amongst other things by the migration of people (particularly the younger generation) from rural to urban areas. This is a fast growing trend, which also impacts the delivery of the urban infrastructure and challenges human settlements that must ensure that people have a decent shelter and space to stay. Many young people are moving from rural villages to towns and cities in search for better employment and a better life. Although the influx is happening in many South African towns, it is remarkable that Gauteng towns and cities are the most possible destinations of these movements. One of the reasons is that Gauteng has been regarded as a powerhouse for the country. As much as this exodus is growing on a daily basis, the seriousness of the challenges on African marriages becomes a fast growing concern. The intention of this article is to check by way of research how the African concept of marriage is affected by this migration. It will also be the duty of this article to give guidelines on how the church through its pastoral service is addressing these problems.

The Priority Argument and Development in Africa
    Lawrence Bamikole, Department of Language, Linguistics and Philosophy, University of the West Indies Mona Campus, Jamaica

The priority argument in its social and political contexts poses the question: In an attempt to develop the state, should social and economic rights take priority over civil and political rights? Responses to this question have taken an ideological dimension. While Western political philosophy, championed by John Rawls, have argued that civil and political rights trump over social and economic rights;  first generation African leaders like Nkrumah, Nyerere and Toure and some contemporary African scholars had advocated for the priority of social and economic rights over civil and political rights. The thesis that will be argued for in this paper is that the priority argument, taken from a purely conceptual and philosophical perspective, does not go far enough unless it is put within the context of existing democratic states. Thus within the context of African democratic experiences, the political and social values derived from social and political rights should be harnessed and channelled toward the consolidation of existing African democratic states. It is only in this way that the African continent can witness development in its broad and inclusive senses.

Reexamining the Resource Curse: Why African Countries Do Not Suffer from the Dutch Disease
    Fodei Batty, Department of Philosophy and Political Science, Quinnipiac University

This paper reexamines the manifestation of the resource curse, or “Dutch Disease,” in sub-Saharan Africa, a concept used to describe the failure of resource endowed countries to benefit from their natural wealth. I analyze evidence drawn from the macroeconomic policy processes of resource-endowed countries in sub-Saharan Africa and find that, in contradiction with conventional expectations, African states that exercise greater controls over the architecture of the macroeconomic policy framework governing their natural resources sector are much more likely to realize gains such as economic development from the sector than those that do not. The finding is true for both authoritarian and non-authoritarian states as determined by Freedom House’s “free” and “partly free/not free” categories of countries. Building upon this evidence, I present a theory of natural resource management in Africa arguing that the relationships between the presence of resource wealth and democracy and economic development could be explained by a variation in self-directed versus outer-directed macroeconomic policy frameworks. The implications of the findings extend beyond an important conceptual clarification of the resource curse to cast doubt on the commonly held belief that the marginal returns from Africa’s natural resources sector are self-inflicted.

Empowering Children and Enlightening Parents: An Assessment of Child Protection Education in Rural Togo
    Komi Begedou, Assistant Professor, Université de Lomé, Togo

While child abuse is a global phenomenon, it is understood differently in specific contexts because of its complicated cultural implications. Over the past twenty years, the problem of child protection has become one of the greatest challenges in the world in general and in Togo in particular. Having witnessed many forms of child abuse and having worked with Compassion International Togo – an organization that promotes the holistic development of children, I realize the need to empower children and enlighten parents in rural Togo by providing a clear definition of child abuse, while respecting culturally-sanctioned child-rearing practices and notions of parental authority. Drawing upon professional experience acquired as Child Protection Specialist at Compassion International Togo, this paper addresses the pervasive ignorance of the rights of children and certain preconceived ideologies that prevent some parents, especially in rural areas of Togo, from accepting and availing themselves of child protection services. The paper also examines some ways in which the global notions of Child Protection can be contextualized for parents who have always believed that children have only duties and not rights.

Poster Children: UNICEF's Depoliticiziation of Childhood 1946-1989
    Kristen Carey, Graduate Student, Boston University

My paper will examine how the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) depoliticized childhood, from its inception in 1946 to the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989.  Given UNICEF’s central role in advocating for children in Africa during the second half of the twentieth century, it is important to understand how it publically conceptualized childhood and how this evolving conception affected policy.  My primary objective is to show that UNICEF narrowed its target demographic to children under the age of five, but I point to two possible reasons why.  First, I suggest that the Cold War milieu prompted UNICEF to search for a conception of childhood that could disempower ideological arguments. Youths could be the next generation of foot soldiers for either side of the conflict, but saving the lives of young children was a cause that no state could reasonably oppose.  Second, I examine the effects of donorism from the 1970s onward, as UNICEF became increasingly reliant on private donations.  By 1989, UNICEF focused its policies on preventing early childhood mortality, a poignant and tangible cause that connected donations and results. I attempt to use this research as applied history by situating it within Africa’s “youth bulge” theory.  Political scientists tend to speak of youth in an ahistorical manner, often ignoring their developmental trajectory.  I suggest that future research should look at how UNICEF’s lack of engagement with children over the age of five potentially contributed to a liminal youth class in Africa.

From State-Centered Development to Market Economy: Chronicling Africa's Development Crisis
    Bonza Chizea, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria

In the last fifty years Africa has been the experimental laboratory of different hues of social scientists testing theories and models of development that could best suit the needs of Africa. The journey to evolve the most appropriate model that will place Africa among the rank of the developed countries of the world has been tortuous, sometimes appearing optimistic, and at others downright frustrating. Basically the trajectory of the development models proposed has been informed by the power play among the forces contending for power and control of Africa’s resources. At independence developmentalism and modernisation theories were the dominant models of development in Africa. Developmentalism advocated a state-centred approach and de-emphasised politics. It called for a developmental and authoritarian state as the most appropriate agency for transforming Africa. Modernisation, with its dualistic perspective of African societies, was concerned with transforming the backward African economy into a Western-type society. However both models shared the view that an authoritarian structure was needed to create conditions for the transformation of Africa. The failure of developmentalism and modernisation was followed by a debilitating economic crisis in the late 1980’s to the early 1990’s, heralding the coming of neo-liberalism hinged on neo-classical economism. Neo-liberal economic reforms establish a strong relationship between markets and democracy. The implementation of neo-liberal reforms aggravated rather than solve Africa’s development crisis. From a radical political position, this paper examines the basis of the development crisis in Africa and suggests alternative options for Africa’s development.

Considering Sustainable Development in Nigeria Through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    Alaneme Justina Chika, Imo State Polytechnic

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, precisely from the year 2000, Nigeria has been on the drive for sustainable development. Sustainable development include the qualitative and quantitative increments that occur in the socio – economic and technological infrastructures etc of society which culminates in an enduring development and well – being of the society and its members. In her bid to join the world development train, Nigeria subs cubed and ratified, and have since domesticated the over 8 – point Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) envisioned by the international community. These MDGs, several pundits have argued, hold the ace for the development of the subscribing countries in a sustainable fashion. Hence, since 2000, many countries, including Nigeria have been working to apply or have actually applied the MDGs to their economic development strategies. Therefore the aim of this work is to itemize and examine the whole of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to x-ray the extent to which they have been applied so far and its successes or workability in Nigeria. The paper may also suggest ways to make it work for the desired sustainable development in Nigeria.

A Philosophical Analysis of Human Rights in Traditional African Society: A Study of IgboLand
Christiana O. Chukwu, Department of Mass Communication, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

This paper presents a philosophical analysis of human rights in traditional African society with perspective to Igboland.  The Igbo people are found in the south Eastern part of Nigeria, they occupy the states of Abia, Anambra, Enugu, Ebonyi and Imo State with the inclusion of other minority Igbo speaking people from other nearby states within the south-East zone of the country.  Common to these states are language, culture such as dressing, belief, norms, values among others.  They have unique identity and social activities that enhanced their cultural universality.  The paper pictured the concepts of human rights in the traditional Igbo society.  It focused on morality and right as the two pillars that sustain human being.  The society makes ethics for the protection of life and properties of individual in the society.  It is this rules that help in protecting the natural endowment of man derived from needs and capacity (Human rights).  Rouseaus J.J. in his assertion to human rights corroborated this view “In traditional Africa societies morality and rights are things the individual gets as members of a community”.

RPF Responsibility in the Assassinations of Exiled Rwandan Dissidents
Sean Curtis, Master of Science Candidate in Intelligence and National Security Studies, University of Texas at El Paso

This article examines whether the Rwandan government has been involved in assassination attempts on a series of its former high-profile government members living in exile. The RPF manages political space in Rwanda through fear and intimidation, forcing conformity from those who choose to remain in the country and death or exile for those who choose to dissent. The regime utilizes its capable and ruthless security apparatus to impose its will within and outside of Rwandan territory and affirm its authority. Although the RPF denies involvement in extrajudicial assassinations, it has provided little evidence to support these claims. A structured analysis of publicly available literature and interviews with subject matter experts confirms widespread suspicions. The Rwandan government is the culprit in these attacks and, as a result, Rwanda cannot be considered a peaceful and democratic state.

Repositioning Nigerian Musicology in the 21st Century: Development, Existing Social Realities and the Imagined Future.
    Babatunji Oluseyi Dada, Department of Music, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Recent interests and developments in Musicology in Nigeria has resulted in the emergence of a new breed of scholars and researchers, who have taken up keen interests at probing into different dimensions of the musical arts in the country. This new generation of scholars, who have been growing exponentially in numbers, have basically become the ‘army’ of this albeit inchoate field of study. This paper attempts to investigate the developmental trends in the context of socio-cultural and global realities, and the imagined future trajectories of Musicology in Nigeria. The theory of Continuity and Change provides the ideological foundation upon which this paper is based. Relying mainly on bibliographic sources and participant observation for its data, qualitative means were used in the subsequent analysis and conclusions. It was thereafter observed that there are deep-rooted contentions on fundamentals among the frontline practitioners of musicology in Nigeria. This field of study is expected to deliver its role, relevance and impact in the development and socio-cultural integration of the Nigerian musical arts both on the local and global scene. This paper therefore recommends urgent steps for a re-orientation and repositioning by every stakeholder in this field.

Appraisal of Fela Anikulapo’s Music in the Context of Human Rights abuse in Africa.
    Omolabake Adejoke Dada, Department of Music Technology, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Nigeria

Human rights are legally protected principles or norms that govern certain standards of human behaviour. Such norms are understood by the civil law as inalienable fundamental right of the people or citizens of a nation. It is observed that human right abuse is the bane of development in Africa, because of its negative impact on the society. There is therefore a need for scholarly discussions on the human rights situation, in order to explore and provide further insights into this area of concern. Popular music, been inextricable from modern societal dynamics, is an important tool in addressing this subject. Fela Anikulapo Kuti’s Afro Beat Music was used in the campaign against human right abuse in Nigeria. The study will conduct a textual analysis of some of his songs, and also discuss his choice of words and its symbolic representations in the crusade against human right abuse.  The study is hinged on the theory of ‘transformative musicology’, which postulates that music could be used as a tool for societal transformative processes. Archival and observational methods are employed to gather information for the study. The paper concludes that the textual content of Fela’s music brought to fore a number of salient human right issues, which not went a long way in creating awareness on the streets, but also instilling some level of caution on the ruling class and security agents.

Trends in Special Needs Education in Nigeria
    Olubukola Christianah Dada, Department of Special Education, College of Education Kwara State University, Nigeria
    Emmanuel Olufemi Adeniyi, Federal College of Education (Special)

Special education is specifically designed instructions to meet the unique needs of students with disabilities. Persons with special needs/ disabilities are those with high and low incidence disabilities which include the intellectually disabled, learning disabled, emotionally and behaviourally  disordered, hearing impaired, visually impaired, physical and health impaired amongst others. These persons have been stereotyped, misconceived and victims of prejudice from primitive period to date since the beginning of humanity. They have experienced neglect, extermination, exclusion and segregation. The education, treatment and training of persons with special needs have gone through these phases as well. Educators, Sociologists, Psychologists and other related professionals have contributed immensely towards this field of education. The current trend in the education of persons with special needs is inclusive education. This paper tales a close look into the education of persons with special needs from primitive period to date. Though the trend in most nations of the world is inclusive education the focus in Nigeria towards this is yet to be fully implemented. Ways of improving the education of persons with special needs are suggested. The need for more awareness and sensitization was advocated for in order to meet the unique needs of persons with special needs as stipulated in Article 24 of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

‘US African Leaders Summit: A Look behind the Speeches and Fanfare
    John Danfulani, Department of Political Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria
    Ntim Gyakari Esew, Department of Political Science, Kaduna State University; Yakubu
    Haruna Ja'e, Department of Political Science,  Kaduna State University

From 4th- 6th August 2014 U.S. President Barack Obama hosted over 50 African Head of States and Governments in what is tagged by international affairs experts ""U.S.-African Leaders Summit"". The summit was epochal because it shifted from traditional bi-lateral engagement to multi-lateral approach akin to those of China, Japan, and European Union approaches and engagements with Africa. The summit was a catch-up move to counter growing Chinese and Indian influence in the continent due to large quantum of their investments in Africa. The summit accorded U.S., African leaders and U.S. captains of industries a chance to interface and make fresh commitments towards improving trade, investment, security, good governance, infrastructure, human rights, and war against corruption. Over 33b USD in new trade agreements were signed in addition to existing commitments. African leaders undertook to provide an environment receptive to business and to enact policies that will guarantee security of foreign investment in their countries. Beyond commitments in chancelleries is the political and economic reality in many African States and in U.S. The political will to shift from thinking and acting the old way by African leaders will constitute a snag to achieving most of the set goals. On the other hand, U.S. domestic economic milieus and change of leadership might hinder fulfilling part of its deal with Africa.

Development, Urban Culture and the African: The Subaltern Redemptive Alternative
    Ademola Dasylva, Professor of African & Oral Literature, Department of English, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

This paper looks at ""development"" as a very common phenomenon, yet severally misconstrued and misrepresented. However, there is a general consensus on the concept of development to the degree that development (as we intend to use it in this study) characterizes and defines existence. It is a transformational change of an essence, say, person, place or thing, from its original state, in form and content, while the context, psychosocial milieu or locale provides the foregrounding catalyst.  This paper acknowledges the need to consider several factors when discussing development-related issues, and in this case, on the one hand, modernity, society and the African and the African Diaspora; and other hand, how the African or his Diaspora counterpart responds to the urban culture in his existential quest for survival and relevance.  Therefore, the present study is in two parts: first, it intends to critically examine how selected contemporary African writers and their Diaspora counterparts have graphically captured the culminating psychosocial effect of crossculturation, interculturation, and the Urban culture on the African and the African American; second, this is in response to related recent happenings in the US, and the Gambia: the two New York City Police officers, Eric Garner and Michael Brown murdered in cold blood while on duty, by 28 year-old Ismaaiyl Brinsley; and the failed coup in the Gambia. The paper interrogates, by way of silhouetting the apparent contradictions in the ""Urban culture"" against the dilemma that foregrounds the spontaneity of redemptive violence that characterizes the response of the African and his Diaspora counterpart to a ""culture"" that supposedly infringes on his ""human rights"".

Colonial Policy and Infrastructural Problems in Lagos, 1935-1990
     Lanre Davies, Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria

The paper is an examination of the colonial policies on some infrastructural facilities in Lagos and the problems emanating from them.  Some studies on urbanisation in Lagos, in the period under study have discussed colonial policies vis-a-vis infrastructure among others, within the context of the advantages or benefits that Lagos derived from them.  These studies argue that Lagos was not planned before the advent of the colonial government.  Only a few of these studies have drawn attention to the problems created by colonial government’s policies in Lagos. Thus, the present study aims at bridging the gap in the existing studies by not only focusing on both the positive and adverse consequences of colonial urban policies noted above but also drawing attention to some aspects of the problems imposed on colonial Lagos, which have subsequently become permanent features of post-colonial Lagos. The study highlights the benefits, and losses, as well as the psychological cultural and social effects of such exercise.  It is only by means of balanced analysis of urban development in Lagos, in the period under study, as undertaken by this study, that urban planners and policy makers can adequately address the critical problems of urban planning in nation building, in a mega city like Lagos, in the 21st Century.  Towards this end, the paper argues that the problems of infrastructural amenities in Lagos in the period under study were a product of policies formulated and implemented by the colonial government.

Assessing the Developmental Implications of Ghana’s Judicial Independence
    Josephine Dawuni, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Georgia Gwinnett College

The judiciary is the third and often silent arm of government. Charged with the primary responsibility of interpreting and applying the law, the judiciary has the added role of mitigating conflict between citizens and the government on one hand, and on the other hand, settling disputes among individuals. To effectively perform these functions, the judiciary should maintain a standard of independence from the daily vagaries of political activity within a state.  Ghana’s judiciary, which is based on the English common law tradition, has had a very checkered historical past in terms of maintaining its independence from military juntas. With the advent of democracy in 1992, the expectations have been that there would be a corresponding institutional insulation of the judiciary under the principle of separation of powers enshrined in the 1992 constitution of Ghana. The purpose of this paper is to take an in-depth analysis of the past and current state of judicial independence in Ghana. This project is vital in addressing key developmental issues that have wide implications for theoretical, democratic and economic development of Ghana and many similarly situated African countries.

Development Planning Under Stress in West Africa: Exploring Options to Forge Ahead
    Naomi Onyeje Doki, Department of Economics, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

The history of development planning in West Africa records that the development process has been affected by different stress factors- economic, social, political, religious and cultural. Development scholars have at different times theorized as well as fashioned models aimed at engaging these factors and more with regards to their influence on the process.  Corruption as a huge stress factor in the region has made development planning produce results below expectation. This paper examines the level of development in the region in relation to the resources committed within the past decade vis-à-vis the level of corruption. The discussions are built on the Hausmann-Rodrik-Velasco’s (HRV) Growth diagnostic Framework which explains that targeting the most binding constraints on economic growth has important advantages over other approaches to policy selection. The paper uses secondary data, employs descriptive tools and stylized facts to examine the effects of corruption on the outcomes of development planning. Corruption as a stress factor has constituted enormous leakages from the economy especially illegally. The institutions established to tackle the problem have also not been effective. As a result of the very strong and real presence of corruption in the region, the solution may lie in finding alternative ways to drive development in the midst of corruption, however controversial.

Delirious Aesthetics in Contemporary Music Videos about the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) Atrocities in Northern Uganda
    Okaka Opio Dokotum, Associate Professor of Literature and Film, Kyambogo University, Uganda

This paper examines the relationship between sound, words and images in contemporary music videos about human rights violations by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and the search for peace in post-LRA northern Uganda. The videos treat the intense theme of war, mayhem, death, and psychological dislocation and the search for peace through an equally delirious aesthetic that has a higher velocity than Carol Vernallis’ idea of “intensified audiovisual aesthetic” or David Bordwell’s “intensified continuity”; it uses fast paced music editing that combines heterogeneous elements of brisk entertainment with horrible testimonies of war even as it advocates for peace. The schizophrenic aesthetic is manifested in the combination of lyrics, cut to the beat visual narrative, dramatic reenactment, use of documentary and news footages showing; artillery and antiaircraft guns in action, fleeing terrified civilians, bloated dead bodies and skeletons overgrown by grass, with showy celebrity “bling-bling” iconography and hypersexualised queen dancers. These music videos are the artists’ attempts to navigate through dark memories and aftereffects of the war using music as therapy in order to make sense of the senseless and to lobby for peace. This paper seeks to establish how the stylistic features of the song videos together with generic elements of traditional Ugandan dances, and foreign genres like rap, hip hop and reggae collaborate to register, re-member, collate and mollify the damages of the LRA insurgency.

Homophobia in Uganda? Historically Treating Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Policies
    Melissa Dotson, The University of Texas at Tyler
    Christy Simmons, The University of Texas at Tyler

In 1886 the king of the Buganda nation, Kabaka (King) Mwanga II had a group of male servants put to death for rejecting his homosexual demands. The servants had recently converted to Christianity and because of their newfound beliefs, began refusing to comply with the Kabaka’s orders on the grounds that their new religious doctrine found that homosexuality was a disgrace. The region now known as Uganda has a long history of stories of homosexuality, especially when looked at through the lens of Mwanga and the martyrs. Currently under President Yoweri Museveni homophobia in Uganda is at a high. It is estimated that there are approximately half a million homosexuals residing in Uganda, or less than two percent of the total population. Since 2009 there have been Bills and policies designed to address the issue. The Anti-Homosexuality Act, 2014 commuted the death penalty to life imprisonment and removed the requirement to report known homosexuals to the authorities. The events that have taken place in Uganda over recent years are distressing in the sense that human rights are being violated, as well as an alarmist mentality is being adopted to support the actions of the Ugandan government. This study encompasses the views of homosexuality from pre-colonial times to the present day as well as the laws which are already in place which demonstrate the lack of necessity for the Act. This study argues that there is a need to question the Ugandan government’s Anti-Homosexuality position from a cultural and historical perspective to better understand the complex nuances of the debates.

Epistemology of Culture and Development Paradigm
    Maduabuchi Dukor, Department of Philosophy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

There is an extent to which imposition or adaptation of Development is an alienation, a separation from cultural self. This is the understanding that no culture is unarguably metaphysically, ontologically and epistemologically empty. The challenge of every race or people is, therefore, to empty itself out in ontic transcendental consciousness in search of reason for her existence, her innate capacity and nature’s endowment relative to the other races in space and time. It is argued that innate survival capacity is transformable into soft and hard powers as well as into culture of science and technology. Against this background, development is how the natural, from his culture of epistemology, responds to the challenges of time and space, nature, social and economic environment in the context of the survival of the fittest in the world. In other words, there is necessarily an interface of culture and development practically made clearer since the crisis of modernity, and established by the postmodern quest for plurality and democracy of ideas. The philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, Karl Popper, Khun, Feyeraband, to mention but few have in interface with man’s predicament, re-instated the question for methodologies of development. The history of mankind is propelled by the mechanistic world view of modernity There is a missing like or fault line in the evolution of man. This omitted praxis is Theistic Humanism and African Theistic Panpsychic  animistic methodologies of development which is yet to be exploited as a solution to mechanistic world crisis caused by modernity.

Africa Command, Health Diplomacy, and U.S. Response to the Ebola Epidemic: Obama Care in West Africa
    Peter A. Dumbuya, Professor of History/Attorney at Law, Department of History, Geography,
    Criminal Justice, and Political Science, Fort Valley State University

The current health crisis brought on by the Ebola virus disease (EVD) and the U.S. deployment of military personnel to help contain the disease in Liberia appears to have vindicated President Bush’s vision of the use of soft power by the U.S. military as well as by officials of the Department of State (DOS). In this paper, I posit the thesis that President Bush’s global health diplomacy, which began in 2003 with the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), culminated in AFRICOM taking on health as a common goal in relations between Africa and the U.S. I also argue that the Obama administration has framed its response to the outbreak of the EVD in the MRU states within AFRICOM’s command structure. The success or failure of this response to the EVD is going to be the first test of AFRICOM’s combined soft and hard power configuration. Additionally, Obama Care is how critics and supporters alike refer to the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,” one of President Obama’s signature programs that Congress passed in March 2010. Although President Bush’s global health initiatives received popular acclaim in Africa, critics wonder whether health promotion by the military will not undermine its traditional role of fighting and winning wars. Therefore, in analyzing the U.S. military’s role in the fight against the EVD, I have adopted the Obama Care phraseology to underscore continuity between the Bush and Obama administrations in terms of U.S. objectives in Africa, in particular the shared goal of promoting good health as indispensable to national security.

Sustainable Development Unrealistic Without Mathematics Education
    Paul Aighegbese Ebhomien, College of Education, Nigeria

This paper seeks to investigate and thoroughly examine how unrealistic sustainable development is without mathematics education. The obvious importance of mathematics education in facilitating sustainable development in the ‘developed’, ‘developing’ and ‘under – developed’ nations of the world are quite glaring. This paper therefore considered mathematics education as a key to sustainable development in Nigeria and other African States. Issues such as the role of mathematics education in sustainable development and principles behind the realization of sustainable development were delved into. This paper also discussed the challenges facing sustainable development through mathematics education in Nigeria and other African States. Hence, suggestions on ways of realizing sustainable development through mathematics education were given. It was however recommended among other things that the Government should invest more in mathematics education at all levels- primary, secondary and tertiary- in order to train more mathematics educators who are agents for the realization of sustainable development in African States.

Human Rights in Africa: Beyond Social Relativism
    Temisanren Ebijuwa, Dean, The Postgraduate School, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria

African States have suffered multiple challenges of varying magnitude in spite of the several attempts at democratising her social and political experiences. Part of these is that of the inability to evolve an appropriate moral guide that would be useful for the evaluation of human action and social progress.  This problem has become imperative in Africa today. There is the issue that the existing cultural values and beliefs are inadequate for the survival of the society and the promotion of human solidarity and happiness.  But what is the implication for cross-cultural evaluation of values and human behaviour and its consequence for the establishment of viable conception of human rights? The attempt in this paper will be to argue that this relativist concern fails because a particular moral claim is not justified simply because it is said to be relevant to a social context.  It is legitimate to ask for the justification of a moral claim even when we have established the rationale for it to a given social context. Specifically, the attempt is to argue for the existence of a world society in which human beings, irrespective of socio-cultural differences, interacts in a non-arbitrary manner. This paper, therefore, will explore the analytic-descriptive method to interrogate the above in a manner many scholars are wont to ignore.  Hence, it is expected that this paper will initiate a perspective that will challenge extant interpretation of a context-dependent conception of human rights and the possibility and legitimacy of cross-cultural evaluation of values.

Transforming Africa’s Development Trajectory through Infrastructural Paradigms: The Case of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria, 1999-2014
    Nkereuwem David Edemekong, Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

At the end of the first democratic dispensation in the 4th Republic (1999-2007), under the former Governor Arch. Victor Bassey Attah, Akwa Ibom State was already fertilized for any form of development. The administration of Attah, through his ‘militant’ campaigns during the era of Resource Control and the success that followed his campaigns, ensured that whatever will be the state’s share of national cake, if properly expended, will launch the state into an era of political and socio-economic revolution. As expected, infrastructural development took an aggressive dimension with the election of Godswill Obot Akpabio as the new Governor in 2007. In his almost eight years as the Governor, his infrastructural exploits has earned him a place in this essay. The work surveys the infrastructural changes put in place by his administration and critically assesses their impact on the socio-economic landscape of the state in the nearest future. It is the position of this paper that these infrastructural strides, in line with the nation’s transformation agenda, will launch Nigeria from the backwaters of industrial development to a frontline economic contributor and emerging force in the comity of industrialized nations. It is within this context that we will deepen our examination of some of the key infrastructural projects put in place by the present of governor, Mr. Godswill Akpabio.

Religious Relations and National Development in Nigeria: An Assessment of The 2015 Post- Presidential Elections
    Mosee Edokpolo-Nosayaba, College of Education; Ekiadolor Benin City, Nigeria

Against  the background of Saraydarian (1996) findings that religious tenets are  supposed to be used in solving the problems of life and death, the problem of international unity, and many others, this paper is of the  view that the 2015 Presidential election may create more challenges to  national development  in Nigeria because of the disturbing phenomenon  where both citizens and policymakers always put either Christianity or  Islam into consideration before they cast their votes, far above the  promotion of good governance. It further highlights that baring the  enthronement of a foresighted leadership, insurgencies may arise on a  very high magnitude from the religious side that fails in the election.  

Large Scale Land Deals and Women in Rural Communities in Nigeria: Paradox of a Development Paradigm
    Omokiniovo Harriet Efanodor, Ph.D candidate, Department of Political Science, Delta State University, Nigeria

The study examines large scale land deals and investment in Africa with a focus on women in rural communities in Nigeria. Large scale land deals as a development paradigm is recommended within the context of globalisation. Hence, promoters of globalisation argue that land acquisition and investment is a tool for poverty reduction, promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development. In the light of this assumption, development paradigm which emphasises privatisation and liberalisation of land and adopted by the Nigerian government is seen as the solution to economic growth and development. The paper thus examines this theoretical assumption by making comparism with empirical evidence from case studies of large scale land deals and its impact on rural women. The study adopted the qualitative descriptive survey design which involves exploratory analysis based on the perception of rural women drawn from six purposively selected rural communities. Findings reveal that argument in favour of large scale land deals and investments do not support the lived realities of rural women in Nigeria. In reality, policies such as privatisation and liberalisation reinforce differential access to economic opportunities thereby exacerbating further inequalities. The work advocate that in order for rural women to benefit from land deals and investment, the Nigerian government should develop in addition an inclusive policy model based on affirmative mechanism that would provide incentives favouring large scale deals, at the same time conditionality should be attached for women in rural areas, in having some measures of control over land and resources.

Understanding the African Development Strategies: The Nigeria Development Strategies as the Focus
    Juliet Adaku Egesi (Nee Nwokenkwo), Owerri Archdiocesan Catholic Education Commission, Nigeria

Since independence African states have been making strident efforts to develop their countries and economies through different strategies, which comprise both externally – influenced strategies and home grown methods of development. In Nigeria, these foreign – initiated strategies have come mainly from International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), European Union (EU), etc. The strategies introduced to Nigeria by these foreign bodies have not wholly proved beneficial to the country’s economy and her people. Often the little gains are repatriated to the home countries and economies of these foreign agencies. On the part of the home – grown strategies for development, the state and her citizen have initiated some that border on indigenous community development, National development, citizen empowerment programmes and lately entrepreneurship education and training etc.  The challenge so far in this connection is the lack of political will among our leaders and political class and the intractable corruption that pervade the system. However, the main purpose of this conference paper is to highlight and examine these various development strategies, both externally – induced and home – grown, with a view to understanding their effects on our development efforts in Nigeria, to proffering ways of checkmating the various challenges they have posed to our national development strides and capacity building.

Urban Spatial Development and Human Rights in Africa: Understanding the Urban Dilemma of Owerri - Igbo of South - Eastern Nigeria for Insights
    Jonathan C. Egesi, Imo State Polytechnic, Nigeria

Urbanization and urbanism are fairly recent phenomena in Africa and Nigeria in particular which began to take place especially in the late 19th century onwards. In Nigeria, urbanization and urbanism spread from Lagos and Calabar and to other centres as contact with Europe and European and Arabian influences swept through regions. However, in the early days of European colonialism, urbanization and urbanism crept into Igbo land, particularly Owerri the Heartland of Eastern Nigeria. These necessitated drastic and unexpected changes in the use of land and space for urban development purposes. Traditional rights to land and its use also changed. Ownership and control of land and land resources passed substantially from individual or family inheritance as well as communal ownership and control to state control and dispensation. In order to determine the rate of urban development and the allocation of space for such purposes, the various governments from the time of British rule to the present day rule by indigenous governments. Laws and policies were been created and executed that seem to attenuate the human rights of the people, In this context, the Owerri – Igbo in many ways. Therefore, our aim in this paper is to study urban spatial development in Owerri and the various ways in which it (alongside its sister, urbanism) has affected the fundamental human rights of the people of Owerri, this eliciting ugly side of urban development as it concerns the people so that efforts could be extended to finding ways to mitigate it for the benefit of all concerned.

Intellectual Property and the Struggle over Resources Control: A Study of Women and the Struggle for Resource Control in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
    Sylvester Michael Eka, Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Nigeria

Women have emerged as a powerful force in the process of social struggle in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. They first appeared in the pre-colonial era and expanded during the colonial period and developed remarkably after independence. A combination of women and youth power has been the most potent force behind opposition struggles in the Niger Delta region. However, women struggle have assumed a distinct pattern as they have not only laid down motherhood and gender, but have also used their cultures to press home their demands, while also imbibing international ideas to pursue their local claims. Oil, the major source of Nigeria income and the politics that result there from has not only contributed to the alienation of women, but have ensured that the women are victims of exclusion and domination. In an attempt to draw government attention to their plight sees them incurring the wrath of government through the application of the “carrot and stick” policy. On September 2005, the women of Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State embarked on a peaceful protest to press home their demands and it turned out to be very rewarding.

Managing School Violence by Principals: Networking as a Strategic tool
    Chidi Idi Eke, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

School violence is a global phenomenon that affects one of the core institutions of modern society to some degree across many countries, and on a global scale.  In Africa, the increase in school violence could be attributed to political instability, civil wars and deteriorating economic conditions in different communities, high level of unemployment, extremes of poverty and wealth. Within this context, this study explores the importance of networking as a strategic managerial tool for principals in managing school violence. Insights for this exploratory study are drawn from a non-systematic review of peer reviewed journal articles (30), extracts from local newspapers (10), extracts from national newspapers (10), and personal observations within schools (8).  The key themes that emerge from the findings include:  (1) Most principals acknowledged that networking has enabled them resolve complex school violence issues. (2) Most principals posit that networking has enabled them have a progressive and stable career. (3).The study also discovered that networking brought about high level of professionalism and the use of non-violence methods in conflict resolution. Further research need to be conducted at a larger scale, with particular focus on the cultural and traditional challenges faced by principals in the process of building networks that will enhance the management of school violence.

Gender Realities of leadership opportunities and ICT related development in Higher Education: A review of TASUED staff (2007-2014)
    Adefunke Ekine, Lecturers at the Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria
    Jimoh Olufunbi Akorede, Tai Solarin University of Education; Deborah O. Tobih, Tai Solarin University of Education

Gender issues has been a global concern for a long time as more efforts have been put in place in the last three decades by the education community to address this at all levels .Education has been regarded as a critical tool in development and it is the most effective tool to end poverty and empower women to be able to live a more productive life. In as much as more women have access to higher education women are still significantly underrepresented in academic leadership positions as revealed by literature. Academic profession has been viewed as a single sex profession long before now, but as at today the percentage of women academic staff in most countries are still very low compared to their male counterpart though rising. Apart from more participation of women in leadership positions, the need for ICT competency as an academic is imperative for global relevance and development. This paper investigated the gender realities of leadership opportunities and ICT related development of staff in Tai Solarin University of Education since inception up until now (2007-2014). The findings showed that no female non -academic staff had attained high management positions while majorly the lower positions were filled with women. In the same vein for academic staff there still exist gender inequality in the leadership positions. However both male and female staff have benefited from the various ICT training organized by the school management.

Geographies of Sexuality: The Transformation of Sexual Trade and Urban Space in Nigeria since 1900
    Mfon U. Ekpootu, Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Drawing upon Foucauldian musings on the production of normative sexuality through discursive and structural processes, this paper examines the geography of prostitution in colonial Lagos and its spatial consequences on the prostitute and the city. The complexities and fluidities of these socio-spatial productions are explored in a historical perspective. Mediations in space were enabled and justified by discursive processes, ideological underpinnings and institutional frameworks that othered the prostitute’s body as deviant and to be controlled. How sex workers resisted these mapping of their sexuality is also looked at. For some it was through mobility and charting new spaces of sex work, for others it was localization and the flaunting of ‘deviancy’ as a form of resistance. This study, a qualitative analysis, draws upon archival records, newspaper reports and interviews for data collection

The place of Indigenous Nigerian Languages in National Development  
    Ngozi U. Emeka-Nwobia, Department  of Languages and Communication Studies, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

Nigeria is the most multilingual nation in Africa with about 400 to  500 indigenous languages, which have various status - developed, developing, and underdeveloped (Emenanjo 1993:3, Aziza 1998:257). Language has been identified as a conduit for transmission of culture, idea, thought, etc from one generation to another. The work recognizes that 54 years after independence that English (the ex- colonial masters’ language) is still the language of education, governance, commerce, judiciary, etc in Nigeria and as such has hindered equal participation of the entire citizenry in governance, access to information and full involvement in government policies and programmes. The paper is a critical appraisal of the role of language in national development. Granted is the fact that knowledge and use of English provides access to trading in the global market and access to the world of science and technology; the work recognises the place of the indigenous languages and therefore solicits that deliberate efforts should put for the empower the indigenous languages to meet up with the technological drive of the 21st century and beyond.  The work is a call on government, stakeholders, and individuals to put effort towards forestalling exclusion of a representative population, language endangerment and possible extinction of the indigenous languages; this can be achieved through vigorous and regular language preservation and maintenance programmes. A lost language is a lost identity and that amount to a lost race and generation.

A Development Schema for Costumes, Body Arts and Festivals in Cross River State: Challenges and Goals in the 21st Century
    Bojor Enamhe, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

This study shall attempt a development schema for costumes, body arts and festivals in Cross River State. Art is very much embedded in costumes body decorations and festivals that provide focal points of historical memory. The various degree of concepts on the above, demonstrate the complexity of diverse historical memories associated with the arts. The theoretical importance of festivals goes back to the Cross River State tradition of origin which reflects a compendium of the region’s long and layered history of interactions. The power of regional trade, migration and global interferences gingers a relentless discussion of cultural activities. In this last decade, exciting new definitions have emerged on festivals, creating a shift to contemporary modernism in costumes and decorative arts. Compelling expressions from a networking between art worlds makes them interesting and notable, revealing creative insights, skills, processes, techniques and adoptions to environmental issues for effective visual communication which now attracts a new audience. As a part of the people in terms of the source of relationship in social, political or aesthetic displays cannot be a part from it. It speaks of a people and their values which promotes identity as a continuing dialogue through time. While this paper discusses these and challenges, efforts are made to explore the arts and stay alert to the dialogue of the moment using literature and photographs for clarity.

Interrogating Africa's Development Paradigms: Dr Kwame Nkrumah's Development Strategies in Ghana in Retrospective
    Ntim Gyakari Esew, Department of Political Science, Kaduna State University
    Yakubu Haruna Ja'e, Department of Political Science,  Kaduna State University; John Danfulani, Department of Political Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

Development has been a fundamental problem to the post-colonial state in Africa. This is so because none of the various colonial powers ever prepared their colonies for it. On the attainment of independence in 1957, Ghana’s first Prime Minister and later first President, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, embarked on a 7-Year Development Plan which was launched in Parliament in 1964 to terminate in 1970. The Military Cum Police however struck in February, 1966 to truncate the programme. The paper argues that the nearly two years of its existence and the giant strikes made were indications that the plan had put Ghana on the path to sustainable development. It also buttresses the point that military intervention in Ghanaian politics truncated her first serious attempts at dismantling the colonial economy. Relying solely on secondary data, the paper fundamentally explores the objectives, achievements and challenges of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s 7-Year Development Plan and ends with the recommendation that because of tenure limits, governments in contemporary Africa should come up with shorter and more achievable x-year development plans.

Globalization, Loan/Aids, and economic development of Sub-Saharan African States
    Victor O. Fakoya, Department of Political Science, University of Nevada Las Vegas

This study focuses on the relationship between international institutions and domestic economy. The central question is what relationships exist between global institutions and domestic economies of sub-Saharan states. Generally it is assumed that the more connected the states of the world becomes the better for their individual and the global economy. Beyond the notion of anarchic structure of international system, the contemporary states are engaging in relationships other than conflict. Therefore, globalized economy is rapidly expanding its influences across the global village. The current international economic order- an upshot of the Bretton woods initiative- engenders cooperation among states around the world. Essentially, this study addresses the impacts of the materialist structure of the international system on sub-Saharan African states development. Thus, it hypothesizes; Tough borrowing conditionalities create adverse consequences for the borrowing states economies. It examines the impact of the stringent conditions attached to granting loan to the lower income, or poor Sub-Saharan African countries.

Survey of Quality of Living Among Urban and Rural Families in Ondo State, Nigeria
     Mary Yemisi Falana, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria

Urban and rural areas of South Western Nigeria were discussed in terms of environmental hindrances’ and ways of improving the standards of life and living for individuals. The study used a four Likert scale structured questionnaire on one hundred and thirty five respondents comprising of male and females, literates and non-literates in three rural and three urban areas of Ondo state, Nigeria. Population for the study was selected using purposive sampling technique. The questionnaire was given to the literates participants and interpreted to non-literate respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that 75% of rural dwellers did not enjoy quality food, 68% were denied adequate clothing, and 80% did not have comfortable shelter while 65% did not have access to quality health care services and social amenities compared to the urban dwellers. It also revealed that 92% of urban dwellers experienced congestion, over population, 55% had no access to constant electricity supply, 57% had the problem of poor water supply, 95% of the urban dwellers experienced breakdown of law and order, 84% suffered from overcrowding due to shortage of standard residential areas and 76% have access to health services. The paper recommended that welfare facilities by government and good spirited individuals to better the lives of people should be given priority attention

Agricultural Policies and Rural Development, The Case of South Western Nigeria, 1945-1960
    Jonathan Olu Familugba, Department of History, College of Education, Nigeria

Agricultural Policies and Rural Development, The CAse of South Western Nigeria, 1945-1960 Agriculture is fundamental to the growth and development of any Nation. In most developing economies, agriculture constitutes a major economic activity of the people either as producer, seller or marketer. Agriculture serves as the main foreign exchange earning and major source of revenue for the government. It is against this background that this study investigates Agricultural policies and rural development in South Western Nigeria, 1945-1960. It examines the governmental Agricultural Policies adopted in the colonial period geared towards achieving increased agricultural production and the various strategies employed by the Regional government towards achieving the set goals. The paper went further to assess the extent to which the objectives were achieved, and what factors impeded the attainment of set goals. The paper adopts historical and descriptive method in analysing issues raised. The paper conclusively observed that the greater emphasis placed on the production of cash crops at the expense of food crops largely contributed to the food insecurity that is now prevalent in Nigeria.  The paper made some recommendations on how Agricultural production could be improved upon and be made to contribute meaningfully to the growth and development of Nigerian economy.

“Leaderpreneur” Business Hubs: A Revolutionary solution to the Development of Africa’s Teenagers and Young Adults
    Delphine Fanfon, Regent University

They are all over sub-Saharan Africa – the forgotten middle to lower class teenagers and young adults who either lack formalized educational backgrounds, or the required professional experience to ascend to positions of permanent employment with firms or organizations they desire to work for. Yet because they constitute a significant percentage of Africa’s youth, they deserve the kind of attention necessary to afford them opportunities for growth and maturity, and by extension, the growth of tomorrow’s Africa. This paper will argue for the need to transform these teenagers and young adults into “leaderpreneurs” who will, by leading themselves out of their confining circumstances, deepen the foundation necessary for the establishment of a much needed new breed of African leaders. The author argues that awakening the spirit of creativity, nurturing unique abilities and offering entrepreneurial opportunities that combine flexible working hours, out of the ordinary job packages, and unconventional recruitment and supervision policies is key to transforming the comparison with their peers that often leaves this target population in a ditch of self-pity into unstoppable energies that can result in the birth of unrivalled continent wide community development schemes. Business as usual will continue to sideline them, the establishment of “leaderpreneur” business hubs tailored to meet the needs of this unique population will have a ripple effect on communities across the African continent. This paper is dedicated to showing how this breed of “leaderpreneurs” can be groomed.

The Nigerian Music Industry: A Platform for Women Empowerment
    Kehinde Oluyemisi Faniyi, Department of Music Technology, The Polytechnic, Nigeria
    Oladipo Olufunmilola Temitayo, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria

A survey of the Nigerian population reveals that men are more than the women. Yet, women are persistently proving that they have the strength and the will to contribute to the development of the diverse facet of the Nigerian economy. Although women marginalization in a patriarchal society like Nigeria has remained a norm, they continue to advance their position through diverse means one of which is through music. Leading women musicians such as Miriam Makeba, Yvonne chakachaka and Onyeka Onwenu have expressed several views about the women, their place in community and nation building, their pains, their fears and their strength among other things. Women continue to draw on the utilitarian value of music to drive home issues concerning their rights and roles in development of the society. This paper examines one of the hit tracks of Sola Allyson titled obinrin ni mi meaning “I am a woman”. Sola is an emerging female artist in the Nigerian music industry and is rapidly pulling her weight. obinrin ni mi is much preferred by various women groups as it commends the woman as an epitome of grace and strength and a vessel of honour whose rights should be well accorded without strife.  Sola engages music as a weapon in her case against women oppression and exploitation. She is vehement in her drive to project music as a tool for women empowerment. The paper gathers its data through interviews, library and internet sources.

Children, Family Setting and Development
    Taiwo Fawehinmi, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria
The issue of development and the child may not be overemphasized, when one ponders on the question as to whom development strategies are meant for. The child makes up the family which makes up the group and in turn the society, large or small. The main objective of this paper is to determine to what extent, family setting and the child may affect issues in development. Our findings revealed that in actual fact, behavioral patterns of the individual in the society, is derived right from cradle. Furthermore, the level of developmental growth in the society may be traced to types of family constituted therein. More so, cultural beliefs usually emanating from the family where the child commences his first peeps into the new world, becomes very paramount.

Perspective in Education Development
    Taiwo Fawehinmi, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria
Linguistic communities seem to always want to aspire towards one form of development or the other. This is to say, societies tend towards change. To this end, this paper attempts to examine the place an impact of education on issues on development. Actually, the input language, culture and technology in this regard, may not be overemphasized. Our findings revealed that when educational goals are geared towards the right direction, the society experiences a positive political, socio-cultural and economic development. On the other hand, a faulty educational system brings about a break down in societal growth. This, given the fact that individuals or groups which make up for a society, pass through one form of education or the other, be it a formal or an informal type, in a bid to allow for development.

Community Development in the Light of Ecclesiatical Sensitivity to Climate Change in Ilorin, Nigeria
    Bamidele Olusegun Fawenu, Department of Islamic, Christian and Comparative Religious Studies, Kwara State University, Malete.
Climate change and it attendant debilitating effect on humanity is a global phenomenon. Industrial carbon emission, pollution, improper waste disposal and poor waste management plus wrong agricultural practices are some of the human activities if not over activities that have evidently resulted in the depletion of the ozone layer, flood, earthquake, global atmospheric warming etc. The need for humanity to rise to her responsibility of stewardship of the environment for a sustainable development of the community becomes emphatically germane. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the extent of awareness of the Christian Church about the challenge of climate change as well as ascertain her involvement in the fight against the threat. Building on the fact that the Bible teaches environmental stewardship as well as the religious nature of the Nigerian society especially the city of Ilorin propels the thought that advocacy on climate change and measures to checkmate it could be advanced using the religious platform and in this instance the Church. Historical-grammatical method of exegesis will be used to interpret relevant Bible passages. Empirical method through structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from members of selected Churches in Ilorin to know how much emphasis is given to environmental stewardship in the teachings and sermons of their Pastors. The study is expected to add to existing body of knowledge on environmental stewardship in a more empirical term.

“Messiahs” and “Outcasts”: Cameroonian Exiles and their Quest for a Status and a Space of Intervention?
    Ramon Abelin Fonkoue, Michigan Technological University
Being a developing country, Cameroon hasn’t been spared by the phenomenon of immigration, and it has been suggested that with the exception of the African countries that were plagued by war or large scale disaster, Cameroon is the country with the highest number of its citizens, in relative terms, living abroad. The large majority of these exiles are found in Europe and North America. As these émigrés, most of whom left their native country for economic reasons, settled in their host countries and achieved social and economic stability, their contribution to the development of their home country has been, for the most part, limited to remittances. But over the last decades, Cameroonian living abroad have increasingly sought a more significant role in the affairs of their country, and have taken various initiatives not only to gain recognition, but  more importantly to carve out a space of intervention back home. Such attempts have encountered a variety of reactions in their country. Drawing from legal documents, political discourse, news articles and online forums, this paper analyzes the relationship between Cameroon and its diaspora, arguing that what predominates in the perception of Cameroonian émigrés at home is a combination of legal uncertainty and ambivalent feeling. It suggests that in their struggle for a status and a role, Cameroonian exiles are view at once as “Messiahs” and “outcasts”.

“Messiahs” and “Outcasts”: Cameroonian Exiles and their Quest for a Status and a Space of Intervention?
    Ramon Abelin Fonkoue, Michigan Technological University

This paper draws from theories of institutionalism to approach the question of development in contemporary Africa, suggesting that from its inception, the African state, for the most part, did not view itself as an agent of development. Using Cameroon as a case in point, the paper argues that due to an ill-conceived philosophy of development, the post-colonial project of nation building resulted in states whose self-preservation seems to be the primary raison d'être.

Excellent Aid: An Analysis of Two Charitable Foundations’ Medical Philanthropy in Six Urban Areas
    Heidi Frontani. Professor of Geography, Elon University

This study describes advances in the understanding and control of yellow fever, West Nile Virus, typhus, malaria, and HIV/AIDS stemming from medical research institutes and laboratories that were established in Khartoum (1903), Lagos (1907), Accra (1920), Entebbe (1936), Johannesburg (1941), and Cairo (1946); it takes the position that these medical facilities are examples of effective development because they have continued to thrive decades after the cessation of aid from the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) and Wellcome Trust (WT) which offered them early support. Each continues to attract the brightest staff, obtains considerable government and external funding, serves as an important training ground for new generations, and has been recognized as national or regional center for disease control. From their beginnings, the successes stemming from these state-of-the-art facilities derived from the RF and WTs’ shared vision of excellence, which included capacity building, collaboration across laboratories, transparency, efficiency, accountability, public-private partnerships, and an emphasis on results that led to research staff accolades from knighthoods to the Nobel Prize. Although many 21st century conferences on aid effectiveness champion a similar vision, frequently the research-based, long-term, targeted aspects of the RF and WT approach are missing. Evidence of the potential of the RF’s and WT’s early 20th century giving to serve as a model for future development comes not only from the medical facility case studies presented, but also the successes of present-day entrepreneurs that emphasize excellence in the realm of education, from Ashesi University founder Patrick Awuah to Fredrick Swaniker's African Leadership Academy

Development on the Fringe of the Forest: Encroachment & the Rules of Engagement
    Kathleen Gallagher, Assistant Professor, Graduate International Relations St Mary’s University

This paper deals with how squatter encroachment is all about maintaining a delicate balance between appeasing local authorities and knowing how to slowly infringe upon the forest edge without appearing to do so and especially without making local authority look bad. Development on the ground present challenges rarely foreseen by the theorists and investors. People on the ground are often left to figure out ways that can promote development for their communities while not upsetting the delicate balance imposed by authorities especially in areas where political regimes do not provide spaces for the voices from the community to be heard. This research explores processes of exclusion and dispossession with a special interest in the relationship between political instability and marginalized communities, particularly settlements that encroach on the forest.

Education and Insurgency: The North East Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria
    Jacob S.K. Gandu, Department of Sociology, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

Since the return to democratic dispensation in 1999, Nigeria has witnessed relative deterioration of internal security. The insecurity situation in Nigeria obviously took different dimensions as a result of the activities of militant movement in South, the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) and in Northern Nigeria the Jama’atu Ahli Sunnah Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad popularly known as Boko Haram. The social fabric of the society, social practices, values, ethics, norms and culture of the people are destroyed. Children being the most vulnerable group in the community are greatly affected. The Boko Haram group adopts asymmetric warfare aimed at instilling fear and siege mentality in the citizens. Of much concern is the target of education institutions by the group. The immediate impact of such attacks include: damage to buildings and facilities, injury or abduction of children and the loss of life. The recent abduction of the Chibok school girls has generated wide concerns for children education most especially the girl-child education. This paper will explore the views of parents and education management to identify the effects of attacks on educational institutions on the functioning and development of education in North East Nigeria.

Ethnic Politics and Insecurity in Nigeria: Consequences for Economic Development
    Omokeji Ganiyu Rasaq, Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria
    Oladele Adeleke, Department of Sociology and Psychology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria; and Goke Abidemi Lalude, Department of Political Science and Industrial Relations
    Fountain University

Nigeria, Africa’s most populous black nation is a multi-ethnic society consisting of several interest groups. Unfortunately, due to the multi ethnic nature of its politics, Nigeria, once touted as a shining example of democracy has been mired in a political crisis since the inception of this present administration in 2011. Quite apart from various insurgent attacks being carried out in all of the major cities in the northern areas that were previously peaceful, there have equally been incidences of communal clashes among ethnic groups. This has been on the increase in recent years. In real terms, Nigeria has never really been an integrated nation. Most of the time what is described as harmonious co-existence between groups in the country is often very fragile and as soon as there is any slight provocation what follows afterwards are violent clashes in which lives are lost, socio-economic activities paralyzed and valuable properties destroyed. Fear of domination of one group of the country by another and the distribution of “national cake” among the regions have resulted in mutual distrust and inter-community conflicts, which have hampered efforts at national development. This has been particularly so with the political dimension of the Boko Haram insurgency believed to have intensified due to a political arrangement that did not favour a section of the country. This paper therefore examines the direct relationship between Nigeria’s muti-ethnic state, the insecurity that it has introduced into the nation and fundamental implications it has had in the country’s national development.

Challenges Facing the Sustainability of Entrepreneurial Development in Nigeria: 1994 to 2014
    Sulayman Olubunmi Ganiyu, Department of Fine and Applied Arts, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria

It is fast becoming obvious and largely acceptable in today's Nigeria that an average citizen would not be able to make ends meet without recourse to one vocation or the other in the bid to become economically independent. However, this laudable dream, for many Nigerians, dies prematurely due to various somersaulting policies of Government pertaining to the provision of support facilities, pre and post training of curriculum developers and implementers, erratic energy supply and sponsorship to scholarly workshops, conferences and the absence of an enabling atmosphere and conducive environment that would aid successful realization of dreams. This paper takes a cursory look at the development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria, tracing its dearth or stunted growth between 1994 to 2014. Curricula developed and used in the teaching of entrepreneurial related courses like: Fine and Applied Arts, Home Economics, Agricultural Science and Business Education in four tertiary institutions in South Western Nigeria were reviewed in line with available infrastructures, post qualification trainings for teachers availability of adequate and relevant equipment and facilities. The paper concludes that inconsistency, dormancy and the inability of government to provide and sustain material and human infrastructures are the bane of the low level achievement in the sector. It recommends availability and accessible of appropriate resources for national advancement through indigenous technology and entrepreneurial development.

The Indebted Subject: A Reading of Mahamat-Saleh Haroun’s film Daratt
    Carmela Garritano, Associate Professor, Africana Studies and Film Studies, Texas A & M University

This presentation considers debt as a component of the dominant discourse of development as it relates to Africa. According to this discourse, debt is a necessary step in Africa’s development trajectory.  Mahamat-Saleh Haroun’s film Daratt (2006) challenges this narrative through its portrayal of the destructive and violent debt-relation at the level of the subject, or individual. Daratt, like Haroun’s Abouna (2002) and Un Homme qui Crie (2010), concentrates its lens on the unprecedented instability mobilized by neoliberal capital and its war economies in Chad and looks closely at the abstract injury inflicted on fathers and sons whose somatic and social selves are determined by debt and labor relations. I draw on Maurizio Lazzarato’s The Making of the Indebted Man (2012) to theorize debt as “the subjective paradigm of modern-day capitalism” and to explore the film’s condensation of the debt relation, which always imposes a morality and demands a promise of repayment, onto familial relations. Daratt, I suggest, examines debt, here inherited by the son, Atim, and articulated as a promise to avenge his father’s murder, as a mode of state governance and as a psycho-social condition imposed on the subject.

Idolatry is not Culture, It is Sin against God: Pentecostal Religious Polemics against Òrìsà Worshippers in Ilé-Ifè
    Enoch Olujide Gbadegesin, Department of Religious Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria

This paper critically looks at the ways in which identities are formed and maintained through the use of symbolic and affective religious sentiments. The paper uses the theory of purification to show how Pentecostal Christians have engaged the public space in Ile-Ife. The paper argues that Pentecostal Christians not only engage the public and media space with their conceptual dimension of spirituality such as ideas, rituals and belief systems, they even go as far as undermining other modes of apprehending spirituality. Their evangelism is thus, in part, an assault on the explicit contents of what is construed as false knowledge. As a result of this they aim to transform local practices in order to make them conform to their perceived correctness of worship. It considers how the Pentecostal religious sentiments are used to challenge and contest Traditional African Religious beliefs and practices. In fighting for their fundamental human rights however, the African Traditional Religions’ worshippers are using the same public and media space to respond in dynamic and aggressive manners to curtail the perceived excesses of Pentecostal Christianity. The paper concludes by proposing that each religious group should not only be allowed to exist but to also be able to express itself within the content and context of its religious experience.

Pentecostal Christians’ Leadership and Responsible Democratic Practice in Nigeria
    Enoch Olujide Gbadegesin, Department of Religious Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

This paper uses anthropological, historical and theological approaches to challenge the Pentecostal Christian’s leadership in Nigeria to revisit a serious human social problem, namely: the political corruption and undermining of the effective practice of universal human rights. For my purpose, I contextualize this apparent universal phenomenon in Nigeria in particular, focusing on the shameless identification of the democratic ethos with the personal enrichment of political leaders to the detriment of the poor and the disinherited. I argue that any policy –sacred or secular—that ascribes more worth to the rich than the poor or to political/religious leaders than their followers in any nation is bereft of righteousness. The spirituality of many Nigerians has not led them to the God of Scripture who through the prophets chastised political and business leaders and encouraged the poor and the oppressed. Contemporary prophets, on the other hand, are more likely to assure those living in comfort and affluence that their prosperity, including those illicitly acquired is a sign of the favor they enjoy in the eyes of God.  This paper highlights the concern that religion in Nigeria has been appropriated by the individualistic and materialistic conscience, and concludes with a call to the Pentecostal leaders to rise up to their responsibilities not only in shaping the democratic process in a meaningful and responsible way, but to also positively influence it for the better.

The Factors Responsible for Executive and Legislative Conflicts in Nigeria Political Development
    Ihemeje Chidiebere Godswealth, Department of Government and Civilization Studies Universiti Putra Malaysia

A current trend in societal development, urban space and human rights has gathered greater momentum from academics, policy makers and development organizations as well as researchers. Political dimension to development has contributed immensely in defining the multicentric nature of urban space. Human right abuses in Africa are traceable to personal neglects by political leaders that enact laws which protect the bourgeois. African development has been hampered by the conflictual political relationship existing between the key actors of policy making and policy execution. The harmony expected from these key actors results to institutional stability, social order, urban development/structures as well as defined legal institution that protect all aspects of the African nationals globally. This paper among other things, explores the following issues: the factors responsible for the executive and legislative conflicts which impedes on African development; the legal activities of the organs of government in preventing human right abuses in Nigeria; and the major constraints, challenges and prospects to Nigerian political development.

The social work of narrative: human rights and the literary imaginary in Africa
    Gareth Griffiths, Emeritus Professor, University of Western Australia and Professorial Fellow, University of Wollongong, Australia

This paper argues that in the late 20th and early 21st century human rights issues were profoundly influenced  by the narrative forms they employ. It pays especial attention to the role of literary narratives in this process in Africa. In an increasingly globalised world the discursive and critical means to address repressive state structures remain weak. The court of human opinion, though, continues to be shaped and enhanced by the many worlds of imaginative narration and the reading and analysis of how the stories of human beings are told and silenced, enabled and appropriated. Narrative here encompasses not only written forms but oral accounts and the increasing use of visual media to tell “stories” and make claims.  The idea that how we tell the stories of human rights is marginal to the processes of human rights is clearly disputed by these claims. The idea that imaginative representations are idealistic, even utopian as some would claim is contested by the power these imaginative forms have exercised in recent decades in recording and defending human rights. This paper suggests ways in which the literary imagination addresses issues of human rights, and the increasingly important role imaginative representation plays in asserting human dignity and worth in Africa.

“We Will Be There For You”: African Academics in North America for the Development of Research in Africa
     Abdoulaye Gueye, University of Ottawa

This paper examines the investment of North America-based African academics in the development of African universities. Its relevance is grounded in two facts. First, since independence, socioeconomic development of Africa has been subjected to the production of academic knowledge, hence African leaders’ unanimous decision to multiply the number of universities. Second, as from the 1960s, an influential literature contends the relation between high education and development. For decades, this literature was dominated by a Marxist-inspired theory, which disparages the expatriation of highly educated arguing that it dooms Africa’s prospect of development. In the 1990s, a new theory labelled « diaspora option » emerged. Contrary to the previous one, this theory posits that the presence of an African diaspora could become a chance for Africa, if this diaspora mobilizes for the development of the continent. Although fertile, this theory still remains mostly ungrounded and needs to be tested empirically. This paper intends to do so. It results from a four-year research project carried out in Canada, US, Nigeria, South Africa, Niger and Ghana. 174 interviews were conducted with African academics in North America as well as with their peers and university administrators in the aforementioned African countries. The paper addresses decisive questions: What ideological factors and professional criteria draw expatriate academics to specific universities or colleagues and persuade them to help the latter thrive? To what extent nationality, research interest, the existence of local institutional support for research excellence determine expatriated academics’ relations with colleagues and academic institutions in Africa?

Emergency contraception in post-conflict Somalia: Assessing awareness and perceptions of need
    Faduma Gure, Canada
    Mohammed Koshin Dahir, Marian Yusuf, Angel M. Foster, DPhil, MD, AM

Following nearly two decades of civil war, Somalia continues to grapple with the effects of a national health system crippled during years of conflict. Somalia’s high
total fertility rate and maternal mortality ratio coupled with low contraceptive use and severely restrictive abortion laws make aggressively addressing family planning services a significant priority. In conflict/post-conflict settings such as Somalia, emergency contraceptives, which are medications or devices used after sex to reduce pregnancy risk, have the potential to serve an important role in pregnancy prevention. Yet Somalia remains one of the only countries in the world without a registered, dedicated progestin-only emergency contraceptive pill. We conducted a qualitative, multi-methods study in Mogadishu, Somalia with the aim of exploring awareness of and perceptions of need for emergency contraception (EC) among a variety of stakeholders. The project was comprised of 10 formal, semi-structured interviews with key informants, structured, in-person interviews with 20 Somali pharmacists in a range of neighborhoods, and four focus group discussions with married and unmarried Somali women. Our findings revealed a profound lack of knowledge of existing family planning methods, in general, and EC, in particular. However, once EC was described, all stakeholders involved in the study expressed tremendous enthusiasm for expanding access to post-coital contraceptive methods in Somalia and identified a number of facilitators for incorporating EC into the health system. Results from this study shed light on why Somalia continues to be a global exception with respect to a dedicated product and suggest possible avenues for overcoming existing barriers.

Aid and the Help: Domestic Service and International Development
    Dinah Hannaford, Assistant Professor, Department of International Studies, Texas A&M University

In recent years, social scientists have begun to fill a troubling silence in the study of international development regarding the production of development knowledge. By turning attention to how expertise is formed among development professionals, they are disrupting a troubling misconception that development itself is entirely technical, apolitical, and coherent, and exposing the contradictions and inconsistencies that constitute so-called expert knowledge. This paper argues for the study of a key element of the lived experience of development practice, namely the relationships between development practitioners in the field and their household staff. In this paper, I argue that although these relationships represent some of the most intimate relationships that aid workers form with local people in the developing nations where they work, they remain virtually unexplored in discussions of development practice. Through ethnographic cases of aid worker-domestic worker relationships from Senegal, I demonstrate the role that these relationships can play in shaping development policy and in representing the development project to local communities.

African Cinema and Human Rights
     MaryEllen (Ellie) Higgins, Associate Professor of English, Pennsylvania State University

“I have a thirst, a desire, to decide my own development…” --Ousmane Sembène. Sembène (and many others) rejected the developmentalist teleology that positions “developed” nations, assumed to have already come of age, as the mentors of “developing” apprentice-nations.  Much like the theory of modernization critiqued by Jean Comaroff and John L. Comaroff, developmentalism posits a hierarchy in which “other modernities” in the Global South are interpreted as “either transplants or simulacra.” As Joseph Slaughter observes, human rights incorporation reads like the Bildungsroman, or “coming of age story.” It can also, however, narrate “the failure of incorporation and the corruption of the democratic egalitarian imaginary.” My paper examines how African filmmakers challenge the democratic egalitarian imaginary as they dismantle the very discourses in which tales of cinema development are typically expressed. With the emergence of booming media technologies and global distribution networks in the form of shadow economies (Roberto Lobato), pirate modernities (Ravi Sundaram), and rhizomatic spaces such as global Nollywood (Matthias Krings and Onookome Okome), it is inadequate to characterize filmmaking in Africa as “coming of age,” or peripheral. This paper considers concepts of “coming of age” in films by Chadian director Mahamat Saleh-Haroun and the Zimbabwean director, Ingrid Sinclair. Building on critiques of human rights intervention narratives by Tzvetan Todorov and Wendy Hesford, my paper considers how the filmmakers challenge developmentalist versions of human rights.

Policing Humanity: Revisiting Human Rights and Human Trafficking in South Africa
     Typhanie Hill

On June 1, 2012 the International Labour Organization, a United Nations agency located in Switzerland, estimated that 20.9 million people, across the world, are victims of forced labor, sexual exploitation, and other forms of organized crime. Out of these statistics, 4.5 million are forced into sexual exploitation. According a BBC report in August 2014, South Africa maintains its status as having Africa’s strongest economies. The economy has managed to avoid recession since 2008. However, it continues to be a major violator of human rights. According to the African National Congress Women’s League an estimated 100,000 men, women, and children are trafficked into the country annually. The high underemployment rates in South Africa and the continual fear of recession can be attributed to the high amount of people being trafficked in for forced labor and sexual exploitation. This study will explore the different structures of human trafficking in South Africa and questions the historical roots and continuity of these violations. This study argues that the South African government must continue to create laws that address all forms of human trafficking, begin enforcing the laws already set in place, and address the corruption within the civil service departments. This argument is supported by primary documents from laws and policies from government officials, newspaper articles, and organizations.  Finally, this study attempts to shed light on important measures that must be put in place in order to eliminate the exploitation of people through human trafficking in South Africa.

Extra, Extra, Read All About It: South African Indian Newspapers in an Era of Growing Social Activism in Durban, South Africa
     Cacee Hoyer, History Department, The University of Texas at Austin

Print media has frequently been credited with facilitating the creation of national identities. Indeed, much academic work has analyzed Benedict Anderson’s assertion that places print media at the center of creating ‘imagined communities’. My paper examines local South African Indian newspapers in Durban, questioning their place in the development of a national identity of post-World War II South Africa. As the state increasingly limited the rights of people of color, how did the newspapers represent Indians in these limitations? How did local newspapers illustrate ideas of social justice in relation to nationalistic identity? And how did its marginalized readership interpret and internalize these notions? I contend that South African Indian newspapers in Durban were essential in the transmission and transformation of the ideal of social justice in South Africa. Not only was this forum able to attack local rights issues, such as limited movement, education, and employment, but most notably addressed issues of citizenship. Additionally, South African Indian newspapers were able to incorporate international sentiments, which contributed fundamentally to the emerging anti-apartheid movement. As a result, these local papers were essential in changing international, national, and local activism for social justice in post-World War II Durban.

Gender Dynamics and Entrepreneurial Development in South Eastern Nigeria
     Grace I. Ibe-Enwo, Department of Business Administration, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Nigeria

The role of women in social, economic, religious and politics of any nation is indispensible. Nigeria has a population of about a hundred and twenty million (120 million) people. Females constitute 45% out of the 70% unemployed population. The paper identifies the constraints and challenges facing women entrepreneurs. It is disheartening that women are victims of societal vices, stereotype, constraints and norms, like widowhood practices, single parenthood, religious and cultural alienation, preference of male employers and all the negative impact of developing economy. The work examines the role of women as entrepreneurs in national development. It seeks to explain how gender construct and culture, influence women in national development. The finding reveals that gender, ethnicity and religion are pivotal in the perception, construction and value of women entrepreneurs. The work therefore suggests that the government have a role to play in ensuring that implementable policies geared towards the fair participation of women entrepreneur as well as creating access and enabling environment to improve the female entrepreneurs in the generation of employment and wealth creation.

Analytical Views on Past and Present Official and Cultural Narratives of Asmara
    Mussa Idris, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Elon University

This paper provides analytical views on past and present official and cultural narratives of Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea, in East Africa. From indigenous oral storytelling, the city is known as Asmera (“united”) because it grew out of four clans that lived in the area and united at the insistence of the four village women groups in the 12th century. When Eritrea was declared an Italian colonial state (1890-1941), massive Italian settlements and modernist buildings emerged, and the colonial city started to be known as Piccola Roma (Little Rome), partly due to Mussolini’s political agenda of forming an Italian Empire in East Africa. Asmara was divided then into four segregated zones (Indigenous, Italian, Industrial, and mixed race). Later, Asmara was under a British protectorate (1941-1952), with narratives of an uncertain future. From 1952-1991, the city was no longer a capital, and it was ruled by Ethiopia. A legendary narrative of the region where the Queen of Sheba gave birth to the son of King Solomon, Menelik I, was applied during Emperor Haile Selassie’s rule (1952-1974). From 1974-1991, the socialist military regime of Mengistu took power and narratives of “revolution” dominated. After Eritrea’s independence in 1991, narratives of preservation and “development” focused on the agenda of the elite rulers, the financial resources of transnational Eritrean migrants, and the attraction of tourism, rather than establishing and defending indigenous human and cultural rights. This means that an official “development” narrative of Asmara that serves the interest of all its citizens is needed.

African Writers and Human Rights Related Violence: A Historical Analysis of Related Literary Works, 1960-2012
    Benard Steiner Ifekwe, Department of History/International Studies, University of Uyo,Nigeria

Human Rights related violence in Nigeria and Kenya since the 1960s, attributed to the activities of their political leaders in democratic and military settings, have provoked an avalanche of fictional works historically related which are germane to this essay. Proponents of this genre include Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka and Ngugi wa Thiong’o. Belonging to different ideological orientations, these fictional writers and their works, supported by other related literatures, have deepened our understanding of the multiplicity of historically related events which had undermined the inalienable rights of both Nigerians and Kenyans and encouraged the culture of impunity, war, tenure elongation, land expropriation, corruption and personality cult perpetrated by their leaders. Their intervention in Human Rights violations in their countries of origin, which were in the past neglected by their critics who explored more on their contributions to the development of African literature and politics, is the focus of this essay. Consequent upon this, this essay will deepen our understanding of the relevance of literature to historical studies.

The Place of Human Rights Organizations in Democratic Nigeria
    ‘Gbade Ikuejube, Department of History, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria

In Nigeria, since independence people had suffered untold hardship, there were social and political oppression, socio-economic inequalities and denial of civil rights. The abuses of human rights by the governments have often degenerated into violent repression and widespread. massacre of civilian population. Hundreds of people were detained for years without trial and many other violations of fundamental rights of Nigerian people. The quest for the lasting solution to the gross violations of human rights necessitated the formations of different Human Rights Organizations. In this paper efforts are made at various stages to explain the key concepts embedded in human rights and democracy. The paper also focused on the role of Human Rights Organizations in Nigeria. It examines the problems of Human Rights Organizations and solution to these problems. The paper equally tries to establish the place of Human Rights Organizations and strategies adopted in enlightening the Nigerian people. The paper calls for independence of judiciary from constant interference by the executive. This will facilitate dynamic interpretation of sections of the constitution relating to fundamental rights.

Crucial Issues in Sustainable Development in Nigeria
    F.E. Iyoha, Professor of Public Administration, Dean, Faculty of Management Sciences Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria
    Walter Idada, Associate Professor of Public Administration, Director, Institute for Governance and Development, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria

The crux of this paper revolves around crucial issues in the achievement of sustainable development in the Nigerian society. What is sustainability? What is development? What is sustainable development? The paper looks at these concepts and espouses the essence of sustainable development. The importance of sustainable development is underscored by events, awareness, and consciousness in its historical development. Adopting re-distribution with growth and basic needs theories, the writers discuss particular phenomena such as education, health, poverty, employment, economy, and good governance among others that are crucial and germane to sustainable development. Furthermore, the paper looks at issues such as graft by government officials; prebendal politics; unbridled ambition and insatiable quest for power; phantom democratic practice; weak civil society; poor public-private partnership; and ill-motivated international partnership among others as challenges of sustainable development. The writers conclude by proffering measures that could be adopted in ensuring sustainable development in Nigeria.

Entrepreneurship and Development: The Nigerian Experience
    F.E. Iyoha, Professor of Public Administration, Dean, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria
    Patrick Osa. Oviasuyi, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria

The crux of this paper revolves around crucial issues in the achievement of sustainable development in the Nigerian society. What is sustainability? What is development? What is sustainable development? The paper looks at these concepts and espouses the essence of sustainable development. The importance of sustainable development is underscored by events, awareness, and consciousness in its historical development. Adopting re-distribution with growth and basic needs theories, the writers discuss particular phenomena such as education, health, poverty, employment, economy, and good governance among others that are crucial and germane to sustainable development. Furthermore, the paper looks at issues such as graft by government officials; prebendal politics; unbridled ambition and insatiable quest for power; phantom democratic practice; weak civil society; poor public-private partnership; and ill-motivated international partnership among others as challenges of sustainable development. The writers conclude by proffering measures that could be adopted in ensuring sustainable development in Nigeria.

The Imperativeness of Transcending the Neo-liberal paradigm in Africa quest for Development
    Lexington Izuagie, Department of History and International Studies, Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria

Irrespective of the semantics that please the individual, Africa has been in the shadow of the West since its colonial invasion in the closing decades of the 19th century. The return of self rule in the 60s did not ultimately enthrone internal autonomy of the African states. The dawn of neo-liberalism, starting from the 80s, compounded what now seems a dilemma for the continent. Consequently, Africa has continued to suffocate and groan under the pressure of international hegemony. In the circumstance, the continent is left with a narrow framework to resolve its crisis of development. Unfortunately, this has been with bleak result, and yet prospect. Various scholars at different times have examined the issue, precipitating a feeling in some quarters as having been over-flogged. But African continued backwardness perpetually put it on the front burner of academic debate. This research thus examines the continued implication of neo-liberalism for African development; and the need to proceed beyond its limited paradigm. It is therefore an addition to the existing works attempting diverse prescriptions for African socio-economic liberation. The work is segmented into five sub-headings in the following order: introduction; a brief examination of the concept of neo-liberalism; an analysis of its manifestations and impact on African political economy; and a comparative historical analysis between Africa and some more develop countries with special focus on the role of internal autonomy in their economic evolution. The last segment concludes the work.

Developing Success? Theoretical Concerns & Practical Challenges in Rwanda
    Céline A. Jacquemin, Political Sciences Department, St Mary’s University

Rwanda is often hailed as a miracle in development or a success story in East Africa. However, some in the field of development have been very critical of what they have called the price of success in Rwanda. Over twenty years after the 1994 Genocide that decimated over a million of its population and left over 600,000 orphaned children, Rwanda has at least found some ways of capitalizing on development and intolerance for corruption. Despite an explosion of its population in two decades in the capital city, Kigali, its public service levels have come to rival those in European cities with the added bonus of internet wifi access everywhere in the city for mere pennies a day. Is the type of development Rwanda followed simply meeting the expectations of the theories of development by minimizing the distortions of corruption and ill-conceived foreign investments? Or is there something qualitatively and intrinsically different about its development? This research examines the projected outcomes of development theories and compares them with measures of development indicators in Rwanda. The analysis seeks to explain what are some of the most likely predictors of success? Can lessons be learned from Rwanda?

Abuse of Citizen's Demands in African States: A Study of Security Challenges in Nigeria
    Yakubu Haruna Ja'e, Department of Political Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

The paper examines the postulations of Social Contract theorists in relation to the security challenges confronting Africa as a whole with a special focus on Nigeria as a State. After reviewing the basic tenets of the theory which primarily maintained that the State is the result of an agreement entered into by men who originally before had no any form of governmental organization and that as such the role of every independent State is to safeguard the Security of its citizens and territory. The research found out that the agreement entered into by men and women of many African States are often violated by the policy makers. Nigeria like most African States is faced with security problems due to the failure of the policy makers or State officials to fulfill the agreement they entered into with their citizens. The paper recommends that for Nigeria and other African States to solve the security problems confronting them, they must strictly adhere to the basic postulations of Social Contract theory, and improve in good governance and to make sure they fulfill the desires and aspirations of their citizens.

Minority Languages and the Goals of MDGs: Intervention Models for Sustainable Development in Nigeria-Africa
    Terseer Jija, Department of Languages and Linguistics, Benue State University, Nigeria

Nigeria is noted as one of the African countries, with multiple cultures, traditions and people who have heterogeneous backgrounds. As a result, Nigeria is a harbinger of many languages which number is not precisely ascertained. Linguists and scholars have continued to differ on the exact estimates and figures of languages that are indigenous to Nigeria, with the recent declaration of over 500 languages by the Nigerian Educational Research Council (NERC). Of the number, three languages namely Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba are rated ‘major’ languages with the rest pejoratively ranked as ‘minority’ languages. This linguistic trend has influenced the neglected and continuous relegation of the latter to the background and even exclusion of same, from Nigeria’s Educational Curriculum; which is the mandatory foundation and spring board for development - a prime objective of the MDGs. What then is the fate of minority languages (including Tiv language) in a multilingual setting like Nigeria? The paper which is situated in sociolinguistics adopts the Language Development Theory and employs the qualitative analysis as advocacy for the use and adoption of the prospects of the minority and major languages as a joint venture towards fostering National Unity and National Development in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular.

African Socialism, and the Social Struggle in Social Capital Theory: Development Discourse in Tanzania

Loyce Gayo James, African and African Diaspora Studies, The University of Texas at Austin

The history of economic development in Tanzania is backdropped against an anti-market, socialist framework that was driven by a nostalgic illusion of self-reliance. The economic development plan employed during the days of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere’s Ujamaa, drove the economy into crisis, and further deepened its dependence on foreign aid. Mainstream international organizations and policy makers alike have since tried to use innovative strategies that can generate growth and translate it into poverty reduction. Among these strategies, are the once marginal approaches that rely on theories of social capital, such as the now-popular microfinance. The potential of such theory lies in its recognition of the social facets of economic growth claiming that social networks and associational life is a resource for propelling development from the bottom up. In assessing the implications of these recent developments for the nation’s objectives of social and economic transformation, this paper looks at some of the prevailing ideas on social capital contrary to the Marxian social capital theories of Pierre Bourdieu. Bourdieu’s perspectives examine power relations and other exploitative dimensions of social capital and its role in maintaining social hierarchies. This paper will then consider the rhetoric of unity and solidarity in the Arusha Declaration of 1967, which prescribed too much of the Marxian theories of social capital, juxtaposed to the concept of social cohesion in Tanzanian development dialogue today. I conclude by bridging these ideas together to help fashion a practice of development that can engage the poor to challenge prevailing socioeconomic problems.

Potential Application of Indigenous Knowledge Within the Context Urban Transport Planning and Development in Developing Countries
    Steven Jones, Director, Global Impact Lab, Department of Civil, Construction & Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama

The late 1970s and early 2000s witnessed a burgeoning interest amongst academics, community-based organizations and other development partners on the issue of sustainable development through public participation. This was predicated by failures of conventional development interventions aimed at improving the life of the ordinary people on sustainable basis. Studies began to emerge and to make explicit the need for incorporating indigenous knowledge. This included studies on indigenous land-use systems, agricultural practices and environmental management. This paper provokes discussion on the idea of incorporating indigenous knowledge into urban transport planning and development. We consider paper consider indigenous knowledge can be translated and understood in terms of urban transport. We offer observations on the potential influence of culture and social belief systems on transport infrastructure planning and development and the need to promote its inclusion in the formal planning processes. We present a prototype for integrating indigenous knowledge with formal scientific knowledge of urban transport and display the process and results through a case study of Accra, Ghana. The case study compares the results of a prototype urban transport project screen framework to those obtained by data-intensive, conventional transport planning means that focus more on quantitative benefit-cost aspects than human-centered end user perspectives.

Examining State-Society Relations and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Kenneth E. Kalu, Deputy Director, Finance, National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Nigeria

Several studies have traced Africa’s underdevelopment to the nature of institutions prevalent in the region. It is well established that Africa’s economic and governance institutions are generally weak.  This paper acknowledges that Africa’s present institutional configurations have been defined, in large parts, by the two major historical epochs – slavery and colonialism – that pervaded the continent for centuries. Consequently, this paper proposes strategies for transforming Africa’s institutions, which include the promulgation and enforcement of coherent international codes and guidelines for state-society relations across Africa. A coherent code for state-society relations backed by international mandate, perhaps under the auspices of the United Nations or other multilateral framework, could help African states to begin the critical task of institutional transformation for inclusive and enduring growth and development. International backing and enforcement of this code is necessary because the political leaders and the elites who currently enjoy privileges under the prevailing predatory state structure cannot willfully change the status quo at the risk of undermining their privileges and personal gains. On the other hand domestic actors, such as civil society groups in respective African states do not have the capacity to confront an entrenched elite that has amassed stupendous wealth at the expense of the citizens and that has control of the instrument of force. The abject poverty and the depravation that torments majority of African citizens can rightly be seen as human rights violation by an inconsiderate state. Therefore, international interventions to correct this human right abuse through redefining and enforcing inclusive and mutually beneficial state-society relations should be seen as efforts to address human rights issues, not encroachment or disregard for state sovereignty.

The Devil’s Cycle: Diverting Rivers for Economic Development and Male Suicides in Central Kenya.
    Njoki M. Kamau, Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies, University of Minnesota Duluth

In the name of national development, many rivers have been diverted, and dams have been constructed with an express aim of meeting both the human and industrial water needs in the burgeoning African cities, under the guise “common good”. In this paper, I examine the impact of construction of Nairobi Thika Dam on both men and women in Central Kenya. I examine how powerful local, national and international male elites collude, collaborate and deprive rural communities of their livelihoods by robbing them of land and water rights. Once the lands are partially or whole acquired, some men are killed as they try to resist forcible acquisition of their land while others acquiesce and commit suicide. While a few women owned land and were defacto heads of household, and their lands were acquired, not a single woman committed suicide. This paper raises an important question: why did men take their own lives? The Paper problematizes masculinities and femininities: What is it that makes a man commit suicide in the face of an economic downturn while the women remain resilient; what does it mean to be a man in an Agikuyu society; what does it mean to be a woman in the same society? I argue that there are different narratives and sometimes what has been marketed as development at times contains seeds of death. Depending on who has to make the most sacrifice for the “common good” and who benefits most from the” common good” development remains a devise agenda. I conclude that when majority of stakeholders are excluded from conception, planning and implementation of the development project, the affected community cannot be expected to be care takers of the project. A development agenda born out of local needs and aspirations may be one step towards sustainable livelihoods.

Subjects or Agents? An exploration of policy diffusion processes within the African Union
    Jacquelin Kataneksza, PhD student at The Milano School of International Affairs, Management and Urban Policy, The New School

This paper explores policy convergence theories as applied to development policymaking within the African Union (AU), in order to understand which international or domestic forces, in the era of globalization, drive policy diffusion within the AU. Two complementary frameworks are investigated– the external pressures and the normative imitation frameworks– in an attempt to explain the apparent hegemony of a neoliberal strand of development policy, which appears to have diffused into African policy discourses and practices. The hypotheses explored in the paper are designed to provide an entry point into questioning the appropriateness of the current orthodox, neoliberal development agenda presently being formulated by the AU. I argue that both frameworks lack analytical nuance and I propose a third supposition, which asserts that the AU’s conciliatory tone towards neoliberal hegemony is a strategic engagement with the dominant discourse-- one that is premised on the notion that hegemonic constructs can be disrupted without necessarily appearing to be overthrown, by the same sub-hegemonic actors that appear to be subsumed by that construct, thereby introducing a counter-hegemonic agenda.

Informal Citizens Residents’ Perceptions of Space and Place in a South African Informal Settlement
    Melissa Kelly, Postdoctoral Fellow, The Department of Sociology, University of the Free State, South Africa

Despite the post-apartheid government’s commitment to resolving South Africa’s housing crises, today millions of people continue to live in makeshift shacks at the edges of urban areas. Typically termed “informal settlements”, these communities are meant to serve as a temporary solution to housing shortages; in reality, however, many people spend long periods of time, or even their entire lives living informally as they wait for their own land and house. The residents of these settlements therefore occupy a precarious position in relation to the city: they are simultaneously included and excluded from the larger urban areas they live outside. While the South African government, scholars and NGOs have tended to view informality as a problem that needs to be addressed, fewer studies have considered how the residents of informal settlements themselves relate to space and place. This paper aims to build an understanding of the experience of living informally by drawing attention to the spatial attachments of informal settlement dwellers. The study is based on in-depth narrative interviews conducted with individual residents and observations made through ethnographic research in Khayalitsha, a settlement outside Bloemfontein. The paper argues that while the study participants have been denied many of their basic formal citizenship rights, they have nevertheless seized limited opportunities to enact their own sense of belonging to specific spaces and places over time. The findings of the study may be useful to academics, policy makers and development practitioners interested in understanding the issue of informality from a new perspective.

Globalisation and the Challenges of Development in Nigeria
    Irhue Young Kenneth, Department of Political Science, Ambrose Alli University

The growing global interactions in trade, foreign investment, capital market and technology have brought in their wake increased competition and strangulation of weaker economies. As capitalism shares world economic power inequitably, the dominant powers corner the greater proportion of available resources while developing countries struggle endlessly for survival. Their policies are unduly influenced to erode national sovereignty and enhance the power of capital. This process increasingly subjects the Nigerian state to the dictates of market fundamentalism and a deepened crisis of development and poverty exacerbated by IMF/World Bank-imposed economic reforms. These reforms have drastically weakened the autonomy of the periphery of global capitalism, rendering Nigeria’s contribution in global production, investment and exchange minimal. Little wonder that Nigeria relies heavily on loans and foreign assistance for its development. And through apologetic concessions granted the private sector and multinational corporations on questions that border on self-reliance, the social foundations of the state are fast collapsing, resulting in reduced social commitment of the government and rising unemployment, hegemony of private initiative, inequalities in income distribution and dampened confidence of the people and external partners. The state has soldiered on without stability but to succeed in addressing this problem, the state must assume its role as a vanguard of development within a democratic platform that would reconstitute its fabric. More importantly, the current concept of development needs to be fundamentally reconstructed to reflect human essence. Finally, the new approach must be internally evolved so that its strength would be derived from the people.

Hip Hop Politics: Agitation Through Film and Music in West Africa
    Rita Keresztesi, Associate Professor of English, University of Oklahoma

This paper discusses the role of music and film in recent political debates and events in Senegal and Burkina Faso. Focusing on documentary films by the Senegalese rapper Didier Awadi, I examine how hip hop and reggae artists mobilize a new generation of African youth for political action. While previous generations of African filmmakers contributed to the debates on the postcolony through political –social allegories through visual storytelling, Awadi’s films, The Lion’s Point of View (2011) and Les Etats-Unis d’Afrique: Au-delà de Hip Hop (2012), use a reggae inflected hip hop soundtrack to punctuate their message through journalistic imagery, mixing news clips with archival footages and music video-style segments. Awadi and fellow musicians present a Pan-Africanist vision but also their angry disappointment with the state of Africa 50 years after in-/dependence and challenge their audiences to see the history of West Africa from the “lion’s point of view, not from the hunter’s.” Awadi addresses a “Génération consciente” to look to African and African diaspora leaders who still inspire, among them Thomas Sankara, the murdered president of Burkina Faso whose legacy inspired the latest uprising that resulted in the resignation of Burkina Faso’s President, Blaise Compaore who stayed in power for 27 years. The protest group Le Balai Citoyen responsible of instigating the regime change in Burkina Faso was founded by musicians in Ouagadougou, who modeled themselves after the hip hop inspired social movement Y’en a Marre that also successfully fought for democratic elections in Senegal.

Urban Space, Biopower and Human Righst in Aminata Sow Fall’s La grève des battu.
    Gérard Keubeung, University of Tennessee Knoxville

Aminata Sow Fall’s La Grève des battu tells the story of beggars who are marginalized from the society they live in for reasons of sanitation. In fact, the authorities decided to clean the streets and the principal avenues of the city. By doing so, they chose to deport those beggars at the periphery, far away from the city. As a consequence, these very beggars who are supposed to accept charity from rich government officials as a condition for the politician’s success will enter a strike and refuse to be used as mere foils. By analyzing the ways in which this transgression of the social and political orders stands out as an ultimate manifesto against politics as expenditure in the postcolony, my paper will raise key questions about the paradox of necessity and expense. It will be my ultimate contention that by affirming itself as a group that escapes anticipation by the sovereign power, the beggars, sick, and disabled of Sow Fall’s novel displace the boundaries of politics, thereby centering the human at the heart of the mechanisms of governmentality. My paper will conduct a reading at the intersection of critical theory and political studies to raise important questions about the value of human life in contemporary Africa.

Literacy: A Human Rights Issue
    Rosalie B. Kiah, Professor of English, Norfolk State University

A special report on education in Africa gives some rather grim and sober statistics about literacy in Africa (New African, November 2012). According to the article, Africa is still the home of 45% of the world’s out-of-school children. The figures further identify these as primary school age children who do not attend school on a regular basis. It goes on to state that 54% of these out-of-school children are girls. The article predicts that unless there is intervention, this trend will continue indefinitely. On 8 September 2000, a resolution was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations under the leadership of Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The resolution yielded the title, “United Nations Millennium Declaration.” The committee generated eight Millennium Development Goals(MDG) to be achieved by the target date of 2015. Secretary-General Annan describes these goals as “people –centered, time-bound and measurable(“The Millennium” ). This paper seeks to focus on Goal Two of the MDGs: Achieve universal primary education. Literacy for all is a human rights issue and the work of the United Nations in this regards should be recognized. Therefore, the paper will discuss the target set by the UN Committee and the progress made thus far. Further it will share statistical achievements and compare these with other regions of the world identified by the UN Committee. Most importantly, it will look at interventions that are helping to achieve universal primary education.

Can the ‘African Metropolis’ be framed in Urban Theory
    Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, University of Nairobi, Kenya

The geographical manifestation of the  ‘African Metropolis’  in Nairobi is represented in four distinct spaces including the slum, urbanized Villages, African Indigenous markets and the  City outer fringe zones of individual self developments.  In these spaces, instead of flower gardens  there are likely to be gardens of maize, beans, bananas, vegetables or animals such  cows, chicken, pigs or both. The spaces consist of strong social bonds of family, friendship or ethnicity between the residents.  This discussion paper makes an attempt to situate the ‘African metropolis’ in the urban theory. To a large extent, urban theory as it exists may not adequately explain the evolution of the African metropolis. Most often than not, urban theory conflicts with the logic, norms and values of the ‘African metropolis’. One of the areas where it conflicts, is in relation to the existence of strong social bonds and the application of African logic, norms and values of self provisioning and  developments, frugal living  and low cost and shared  transactions in business as well as inclusion of margins.  There has been slow development of individualized lifestyles as evident in the classical urban theory. People interact on the basis of family, religion, friendship and ethnicity. These bonds are important in the flow of capital, labour and goods in the city. While theorists observe a certain type of dystopia in the ‘African metropolis’, the residents live and celebrate life as evident in ceremonies of birth and death, marriage and graduation as well as religious ceremonies. The residents are not on a dress rehearsal awaiting ‘real urbanization’ as prevails  in urban theory.

Human Rights and the Debates Over Dignity and Social Order in Africa
    Edward Kissi, Department of Africana Studies, University of South Florida

This paper looks at the idea of “human rights” and the debates it generates about human dignity  and social order in Africa in the 21st Century. As a set of claims and aspirations that individuals and groups in a nation-state assert to protect their dignity as human beings, “human rights” have become the legal and moral criteria of modern nationhood and global citizenship. Yet, as a set of aspirations, human rights continue to generate controversy over what constitutes “dignity”  in contemporary plural societies.  In many African countries, the idea of human rights has stirred up dangerous tensions over the meaning of   individual and group aspirations as well as national identity and global citizenship. They have also complicated the collective sense of a shared social space. Through a  comparative analyses of some of these human rights debates in Africa---especially in Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda and Ethiopia,  this paper  points to the pathways through which the tensions over human rights can be mediated and the social and economic benefits of mediating them in plural societies.

Remembering Amadou Diallo and the Other “Diallo” Cases: What is it About Human Rights and Blackness?
    Mickie Mwanzia Koster, Department of History and Political Science, the University of Texas at Tyler

On February 4, 1999 the twenty two year old unarmed Guinean immigrant, Amadou Diallo was shot forty one times with nineteen bullets killing him in the Bronx, New York by four police officers. According to the testimony of the coroner, “Diallo was already paralyzed on the floor as cops kept firing.” The officers involved profiled him as a rape suspect and believed he had a gun. Both claims were unwarranted. Like many similar cases, the officers were not charged for Diallo’s wrongful death. Yet, the case because of the number of shots fired and unwarranted accounts continue to serve as a reminder of a broken and unfair system that often wrongly profiles and murders based on skin color. Unfortunately, Diallo’s case is one of too many cases. Africans and African descendants worldwide have suffered injustices under systems and practices which unfairly profiles, criminalizes, abuses and murders based on blackness and fears. This treatment requires global analysis. Using Diallo and other similar cases as a framework for inquiry, this study explores the complex relationship between human rights and blackness. The study argues that human rights for Africans and African descendants in the African Diaspora is a problematic because the existing political, economic, and social systems continue to discriminate based on race, class, and gender. Furthermore, this study explores the contradictions and agency attached to the statement of protestors that “Black Lives Matter”. There is a need for scholars, politicians, and activists to remember, track, document, and process the shared discriminatory experiences of African people in a world that sees and acts, often violently and indifferently, to blackness.

Pathways of Women’s Empowerment: Global Struggle, Local Experience: A Case Study of a Women’s Empowerment Project in Zanzibar
    Zuzanna Kucharski, Masters in Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada

In the field of International Development, increased attention has been given to the concept of women’s empowerment as it has been recognized as a potential driver for change.  Classified as a global struggle, commitments to this concept have been at the core of many development interventions, whether they be small NGOs working in a single community or large-scale international aid agencies with presence all around the world. Despite its international recognition, women’s empowerment has been largely left unquestioned within development practices and especially with regards to the impact it may have on local beneficiary communities. This paper will address how universal ideas such as this one become meaningful in the local setting through a case study of CARE-International’s Women’s Empowerment in Zanzibar project that was implemented from the years 2008-2011. In applying Sally Merry’s (2006) concept of vernacularization, as a theoretical framework, it will be shown that international aid organizations do not simply adapt women’s empowerment to the local arena. Instead, various local actors are involved in a dynamic process of translating, negotiating, and making the concept more meaningful to the beneficiaries and, thus, cause a new hybrid understanding of women’s empowerment to emerge. This new concept draws more extensively on local institutions, knowledge and practices that have been interweaved with Islamic practices which play an important role in the lives of Zanzibaris. This paper will illustrate how NGO culture converges with and diverges from the local communities and expose the realities that exist within the greater development discourse.

Recipe Standardization and Proximate Composition of Locally Consumed Dishes in the South-South Zone of Nigeria.
    Atinuke Lano-Maduagu, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Food is a fundamental need and right of man; it must be available and accessible to attain sustainable development. The general objective of this study is to promote health and quality of life through an integrated and comprehensive awareness on the nutrient benefits of two locally consumed dishes among the people of Edo state. To achieve this, the study standardized and determined the proximate composition of two sampled locally consumed dishes in the study area. The standardized recipes were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 100 indigenous housewives in Edo state, south-south area of Nigeria. Ten recipes were randomly sampled for each dish, the mean for each ingredient of the dishes were calculated and used in the preparation of the standardized dishes: Ukpo Ogede and Uloka. Sensory evaluation and proximate analysis were determined using AOAC (2005) method. The result revealed that the standardized dishes were highly rated in terms of colour, flavour, appearance, texture and general acceptability. The selected proximate analysis results revealed that Ukpo Ogede and Uloka are rich source of carbohydrate (28.64 and 47.35 respectively) but Ukpo Ogede is low in protein while Uloka is average (2.24 and 5.31 respectively), Ash (0.34 and 1.89). The fat content of Uloka is relatively high, while that of Ukpo Ogede is low with high moisture content. Generally the two products are good and the consumption of local foods should be encouraged and be incorporated in the popular food chain of the world rather than replaced with junk foods.

Urban Fragmentation and Gated Communities in Lagos, Nigeria
    Taibat Lawanson, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Socio-spatial transformations of the urban landscape are increasingly determined by various factors manifest in several phenomena including the rise of gentrification, free tax zones and gated communities. This paper contemplates on the rising phenomenon of gated communities in Lagos, Nigeria. It examines the concept from the angle of landscapes of exclusion, inferential sustainability and architecture of fear. The proliferation of gated communities is seen as an indicator of increasing levels of socio-spatial segregation; creating new barriers between rich and poor and introducing cities of walls.  Perspectives from some gated communities along the emerging Lekki Peninsula are presented and the institutional dynamics as well as interactions of gated communities with the larger societies in terms of infrastructure flows, the changing urban form and resultant social consequences are explored.  Furthermore, the effects of these islands of exclusion on the emerging cities of the future are considered and the paper concludes by reflecting on how to conciliate urban processes for inclusive and sustainable cities.

Urbanizing Africa: What do Women really want?
    Taibat Lawanson, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Lagos, Nigeria

In a largely patriachical society and a fast urbanizing continent, African women have a major stake in the emerging urbanism. A liveable city being the ideal, this paper presents a situation assessment of the most important indices for liveability from the perspective of African women. The paper adopts the the Liveable City and the gender differentiation concepts as theoretical underpinnings. A purposive online questionnaire survey of 311 African women of medium income, living in cities in Africa was conducted to elicit their perspectives on the most important indices for a Liveable African City as well as the major challenges they face in the urbanizing African city. Variables considered include urban governance dynamics, safety and security issues, culture and identity i.e. local versus international, as well as basic amenities and environmental indices. The study revealed that 67% of all respondents consider governance to be the most important determinant of city liveability. Cultural heritage and city image were considered the least important. A ranking of factors determining the choice of where to live revealed that the most important indices were security, child friendliness and quality of nearby educational facilities. The study concludes that among African women, irrespective of income, the city must be a safe place and must provide opportunities for child development. As such the study concludes by recommending the adoption of child friendly urban management strategies as well as the improvement in urban security mechanisms.

Architecturing Invisibility, Security and Spatiality in South Africa’s Landscapes and Artscapes
    Prudence Layne, Associate Professor of English, Elon University

Many of South Africa’s urban spaces continue to reflect the racial, class and ethnic divisions so deliberately engineered by its apartheid government beginning in 1948. Contemporary urban planning in South Africa presents a scarier proposition because renderings of the country’s cities now and well into the 21st century may continue to entrench separatist values and agendas and render the young democracy impotent in its ability to forge the rainbow nation of Mandela’s dreams and the liberal ideals of its 1994 Constitution. Where people live, how they live and the quality of their lives in those spaces are the fulcrum of many artistic endeavors. Considering urban planning as an extended dimension of “art,” traditionally defined, this paper interrogates some of the following questions. How is urban space represented in some of South Africa’s artscapes, specifically in the visual, performing and literary arts? How does the design and representation of urban space in other artforms evolve between 1948 to the present? What do these artistic renderings reveal about South Africa’s future development? This paper hypothesizes that a survey of South Africa’s artscapes within their particular social, political, cultural and racial contexts and epochs reveals the realities of South Africans’ relationship to the land, their conceptualization of space, and their architecturing of order, security and self-determination in the face of current and emerging global realities. Umless new ways are found to bridge South Africa’ divides, South Africa’s artscapes and landscapes will continue to betray the nation’s deeply entrenched divisions, reveal a fundamental lack of understanding about the 21st century morphology of those cities, and solidify the increasing chasm between rich and poor.

The Pan-African Objective and the African Human and Peoples’ Rights Movement    
    Clyde Ledbetter Jr., Cheyney University

Chris Maina Peter in Human Rights in Africa, cites the earliest official dialogue on human rights in independent Africa as being the First Conference of Independent African States in Accra, Ghana in 1958. In the conference resolution, the countries present affirmed to adhere “to the principles enunciated at the Banding Conference” and namely to the “Respect for the fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations”. This event outlined by Peter is important not just for the fact that it provides the origin of official human and Peoples’ rights discourse in Africa, but also because it connects human and Peoples’ rights discourse firmly with the movement to achieve the Pan-African objective as articulated by Nkrumah. For Nkrumah and other African revolutionaries, this objective was the
concluding task necessary for the “fulfillment of the aspirations of Africans and people of African descent everywhere”. What has occurred since the time of the Conferences of Independent African States has been a separation between the movement for human and Peoples’ rights and the movement to achieve Pan-Africanism. Activists pushing African states to adopt and implement human and Peoples’ rights statutes have rarely articulated a desire to achieve the unification of Africa and revolutionaries pursuing the Pan-African objective have not included human and Peoples’ rights discourse in their mission. This paper seeks to reconcile the two movements by re-establishing their historical connection and exploring the ways activists in both movements can utilize the instruments and institutions of the modern African human rights system to meet their ultimate goals.

Rebirth of a Nation: The Evolution of Women's Rights in Rwanda
    Benjamin Linzy, Murray State University

The year 2014 was the twentieth anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide. Since those horrific 100 days in 1994, Rwanda has rebuilt economically and socially by integrating women into government at an unprecedented level.  Rwandan women now make-up half of the Nation’s Supreme Court Justices, over half of the seats in the lower House of Parliament, and eight of ten cabinet seats, making Rwanda the top ranked parliament by percentage of female participation. Investigating this incredible transformation in the role of Rwandan women may provide clues in how post-conflict societies can address their own gender disparities. This paper will seek to examine the evolution of women’s rights in Rwanda following the genocide, as well as current conditions for women within the country, with an eye towards identifying lessons that can be used to pursue gender equality in other African nations.

Digital History and Global Africa: Using “Big Data” and “Historical GIS” to Inform Development and Create New Curricula
    Henry B. Lovejoy, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Texas at Austin

Digital Humanities initiatives are implementing new methodologies and technologies related to the history of Africa and the African Diaspora. “Big Data” and “Historical GIS” have the potential to influence the present and future development of Africa, as well as introduce a new generation of teachable knowledge. Providing a historical background to Global Africa through the use of digital technologies and data visualization can provide a context for understanding dialectic change on both the macro and micro levels. This fundamental shift in humanities research will not only increase collaborative scholarship, but also inform rural and urban development, illustrate border issues, as well as expand curricula and introduce comprehensive educational tools into the classroom. This paper will examine the current state of the Digital Humanities in the discipline of African and African Diaspora History by focusing on approaches, strategies and challenges to integrating Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, African Origins, Slave Biographies: The Atlantic Database Project with “West Africa Historical GIS.”

‘Urban Man in Jos’: Growth, Transiting Power and Authority in a Conflict Prone City
    Henry Gyang Mang, Centre for Conflict Management And Peace Studies University of Jos, Nigeria

Space and opportunity have helped to influence the growth, nature and character of cities and
 their budding neighborhoods, not only sociologically or politically; but even the economic  psyche of the peoples within them. African spaces gain value also from their primal origins like autochthony, ethnicity and religious identity. These in themselves present another set of variables to which space is fought for. Forty seven years after one of the early ethnographic studies on the colonial city of Jos, this work seeks to study the transitions and transformation that have emerged over the years in the area since Leonard Plotnicov. No doubt, and expectedly so; quite a lot has changed about the city, both socio-politically and developmentally. A major underlying factor for this has been the determination of how the city grows and develops. Who controls it? The problematic has been about ‘…the owners of the land’, and ‘…the growers of the land.’ This work explores this dynamic and argues that even though the city had the potency of being an influential model for heterogeneous coexistence, violent conflict became inevitable with time due to more or less suppressed aggressions of disparity in both identity economics and the politics of space as the city grew.

Comparative Study of Diaspora Engagement Policies in Africa
    Jack R. Mangala, Associate Professor, Brooks College of Interdisciplinary Studies & Department of Political Science, Grand Valley State University

Over the past decade, the question of migration has come to the forefront of the international agenda through a number of important events and policy initiatives devoted to what has been referred to as the migration-development nexus. Against this backdrop, many governments in Africa have developed policies and strategies aimed at engaging their diasporas in the development process. Diaspora engagement policies have thus become a primary channel through which migrant source states are interacting with their diasporas. The paper seeks to offer a comparative analysis of these national efforts and assess their soundness in regard to the best practices and the body of knowledge that has emerged from the field of diaspora engagement policies research.  Using Alan Gamlen’s typology of diaspora engagement policies in comparative research, the focus of this paper is on three high-level sets of policies aimed respectively at a) building capacity; b) extending rights to the diaspora; c) extracting obligations from the diaspora. I contend that these diaspora engagement policies are not only changing the political landscape and institutional architecture of many states, they are also subtly reframing the basic terms of citizenship and sovereignty to which we have been accustomed.

The Rise, Fall, and Reemergence of Ponte City
    Gregory Marinic, Gerald D. Hines College of Architecture, Assistant Professor and Director of Interior Architecture, University of Houston

Ponte City is among the most iconic modernist buildings in South Africa, the tallest residential tower on the continent, and the third tallest building in Africa. Within walking distance of downtown Johannesburg, it soars 54-stories and looms sublimely over the city. Ponte City represents a legacy of the gold-fueled boom years of the 1970s and Apartheid, illustrating modernism lensed with racism, misguided utopianism, and the emergence of dystopia. The convergence of architecture, class, race, and politics have shaped the volatile history of Ponte City, yet its massive scale has rendered the building, in many ways, too big to fail. It has been transformed, more recently, into a safer, cleaner, and more affordable vertical community that remains true to modernist principles. Emerging from an urban nightmare, Ponte City’s fortress-like confines provide an island of peace within one of Johannesburg’s most dangerous suburbs. This essay examines the rise, fall, and adaptation of Ponte City.  As an iconic work of modern residential architecture in Africa, it presents how middle-class life has emerged within a found space—a liminal utopia—existing somewhere between past extremes to allow new dreams to be dreamt in place of the old.

Promoting Health and Nutrition Education Among Households in the Urban City Umuahia
    Patricia Etuna Mbah, Department of Home Economics/Hotel Management & Tourism, Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Nigeria.

Adequate food supply and good health is a pre-condition to confirmed nutritional status among individuals, households and communities. Efforts to achieving nutritional wellbeing have been very complex tasks among urban dwellers due to multi- and intersectoral factors that are involved. FAO equally identified a multisectoral and multifactoral causes for improper nutrition habits resulting in malnutrition.. It is therefore pertinent that national development will be hindered if the nutritional status of households that make up the communities are not taken into cognizance. This paper will critically examine and identify intersectoral factors militating against nutrition education in the city of Umuahia in Abia State Nigeria. A survey design will be used for the study. Multistage cluster sampling technique will be adopted to elicit information from 450 respondents from 90 households comprising residential houses, institutions and establishments. A structured oral interview will be used as the instrument for data collection. Available secondary data will also be used to support estimated level of nutrition education among households. Inferential statistics will be applied in analyzing all information collected. Recommendation for enhancing and sustaining national development would be proffered based on the results of the analysis. Implications for further research and contribution to knowledge would be identified.

Disabling Donor Demands: The Coercion of the International HIV/AIDS Agenda
    Emily Mediate, Africana Studies student, University of Notre Dame

Within the last ten years, external funding for HIV/AIDS in Uganda has decreased, underscored by the recent foreign backlash from the Anti-Homosexuality Act in February 2014. The decreases in funding highlighted the ways in which community-based organizations want to combat the disease and the influence of international funding on these organizations. Through a set of 2600 archival data entries, interviews with 45 patients, 19 doctors/clinicians, 2 Ministry of Health officials and 36 civil society organizations, and 2 meeting transcripts, I analyzed the funding environment and various interventions for HIV/AIDS in Uganda. I argue that there are three main ways in which international HIV/AIDS funding has constrained local efforts. First, international HIV/AIDS funding has driven local organizations to undertake a singular approach, which propagates “buzzword strategies” and misperceptions about different HIV/AIDS interventions. Second, resources for HIV/AIDS have directed attention and resources away from other equally or more important health challenges and the general development of people and communities in Uganda. Third, international funding has biased the interventions toward material solutions for HIV/AIDS. The research also revealed that the social effects of HIV/AIDS and the chronic nature of the disease necessitate a long-term plan for foreign resource provision that is in contrast to the current transient nature of international funding. These preliminary findings are critical for the ongoing discourse around the role of foreign aid in healthcare in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Nigerian Structural Adjustment Program and Neglected Tropical Disease
    Steve Meregini, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine Houston Texas

This paper intends to explore the effects of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) on Nigerian public health.  SAP, a system of loans implemented by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), is meant to help struggling colonized countries by promoting long-term economic recovery. While this system was a conscious effort to improve the situation, necessary staples of society suffered as a consequence. This paper will be discussing how this system of loans has affected funds that should go toward important institutions such as hospitals and schools since health and education often go hand in hand. With education in Nigeria becoming more of a privilege instead of a necessity, the awareness of neglected tropical diseases declined. This helps promote an unnoticed and dangerous proliferation of these diseases. The focus of the paper will primarily be on hospitals and how SAP has affected the availability of their resources, especially in treating neglected tropical diseases. SAP has also influenced the people’s access to adequate health care in the country, which may explain how such neglected tropical diseases are able to proliferate. In a country with such a high population density (184 per sq mi), this is a problem that cannot be neglected.

A Dramatization of Women in Politics and Leadership in Nigerian Literary Drama
    Jeremiah Methuselah, Department of English and Drama, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

Most African nations have always been patriarchal in nature. This presupposes that the reins of power has always been in the hands of men. A dramatization of this has manifested severally in many plays which vilify or vindicate many of these leaders in time past or within the recent socio-political arrangement. Plays like A Dance of the Forests, Kongi’s Harvest, A Play of Giants, King Babu all by Soyinka; Kurunmi and The Gods are not to Blame by Ola Rotimi etc have all been used in time past to indicate the power and glory of men in positions of power. But women have also held positions of power among their communities. A number of them have had immense influence on their polities. Some of them have been dictators, some were benevolent while some others were martyrs. However, women in politics has somehow been viewed as an aberration within the nascent political arrangement. It has become even more ludicrous when statements are made like kallabi a chikin rawani (a headtie among turbans) to indicate women’s leadership as an aberration; as a departure from the norm and that only men’s leadership is acceptable and normal. This paper investigates the phenomenon of leadership by women taking a panoramic view from the ancient past to the present with examples of dramatizations by many playwrights of these leadership status of women. Plays by both male and female playwrights will be explored to foreground this phenomenon.

Street activity patterns and development in Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria
    Irene D. Mngutyo, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Benue State University, Nigeria

Streets are a good index for assessing the level of development of an urban area. Streets in many African cities depict problems and conflicting uses .This study aims to inventory the patterns of street activity in the context of a typical Nigerian city as a first step in evaluating the level, constraints and potentials for development. Two commercial, residential and mixed use streets in ten of the eleven wards that make the built up area of Makurdi will be purposively selected to form units of measurement. All observable activity on a total of sixty streets will be documented. Activities that cannot be observed readily will be documented using structured questionnaires. Hence 10 questionnaires will be randomly distributed on each street giving a total of 600 questionnaires. Multivariate statistical tools such as factor analysis and regression will be used to show emerging streets use patterns and variation among the ten wards. Expected findings include dominant streets patterns and spatial variation.

Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and the Way Forward in Post-MDG Sub-Saharan Africa
    Peter Morrison, Global Policy at LBJ School of Public Affairs, the UT School of Public  Health, The University of Texas at Austin
    Christle Nwora, Innovations for Peace and Development Research Affliate, Humanities and Urban Studies Department, The University of Texas at Austin
    Saumya Wali, Innovations for Peace and Development Research Affliate, Public Relations Department, The University of Texas at Austin

Maternal and child mortality worldwide has dropped by nearly fifty percent over the past twenty years, including in many of the 75 priority countries that make up 95% of all maternal and child deaths. However, progress has been uneven. Nine of the 44 priority countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have experienced overall increases in maternal mortality. Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 aims to reduce under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015. MDG 5 aims to reduce maternal mortality by 75% and achieve universal access to reproductive health care. These goals have served as effective focal points for donor support to Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH). After MDG targets expire in 2015, there is risk that donor support will wane in the absence of such visible, broadly supported targets. In this context, it is important that donors reaffirm their commitments to improving MNCH and ensure that existing aid is used effectively and efficiently to promote improved health outcomes. By synthesizing trends in MNCH aid, assessing the challenges donors face in identifying the most effective interventions, and reviewing three case studies of current donor strategies, this presentation will provide a foundation for discussion about the way forward with MNCH aid commitments and policies in post-MDG Sub-Saharan Africa.

Development, Poverty and Inequality in Africa: Are they Compatible?
    Ukertor Gabriel Moti, Department of Public Administration, University of Abuja, Nigeria

The relationship between development, poverty and equality in African countries seems to flow in both directions. After 50 years of democracy in most African countries, there are reports of setbacks in terms of development, prosperity, political rights and civil liberties. Can these democracies survive in situations of high poverty and inequality? The per capita income in some countries has declined and poverty and inequality have continued unabated. Is poverty and inequality compatible with development in Africa? The difficult coexistence between poverty, inequality and development has been accompanied by a rival of political participation. This paper examines the relationship between development, poverty and inequality, arguing that increasing levels of poverty and inequality present a real threat for elected governments and sustenance of democracy. African countries need to address the popular demands for social welfare which depends on avoiding political and social polarization conflict.

The Idea of a Developmental State: Conceptual and Empirical Considerations
    Shadrack W. Nasong'o, Department of International Studies, Rhodes College

Prior to the 1990s, international political economy literature on issues of development focused largely on comparing and contrasting the performance of free market capitalist economies of the Western world and the statist communist economies of Eastern Europe. However, in 1994, Chalmers Johnson introduced the concept of the ‘developmental state’ to describe the process of Japan’s industrialization. Subsequently, the industrialization of a number of countries in East Asia, including South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong is also explained in terms of the effectiveness of the developmental state. This paper explores this idea of a developmental state from a conceptual and empirical perspective. It juxtaposes it with the concept of a ‘predatory state’ that is said to be the bane of Africa’s development with a view to delineating the developmental lessons for African countries.

Challenge of Sustainable Urban Development in the Third World
    Victor Etim Ndum, Institute of Public Policy and Administration, University of Calabar, Nigeria
    Stella-Maris Okey, Faculty of Education, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

It is a truism that the twenty-first century has been marked by a significant shift, a new urban revolution with more than half the world’s population living in towns and cities. In the Third World, the trend of urbanization is very fast so that the urban continuously outgrowing the rural. Today, the largest urban agglomerations in the world are mainly in the South. More importantly, based on the UN-Habitat, cities in the developing world will absorb 95% of urban growth in the next two decades. One in six people live in disgraceful conditions in overcrowded urban slums, around one-third of urban dwellers, or one billion people, live, or rather, survive with no decent housing and no access to basic services, in precarious conditions that threaten their existence. Crucially, the primary concern of the poor is to earn a living rather than look after the environment. This paper therefore examines the challenge of sustainable urban development in the Third World. It indicates that the impact of urban growth on the natural environment is, and will continue to be far-reaching. Patterns of urban development followed in the so-called developed countries over the last few centuries are not likely to be sustained in the Third World. The paper recommends amongst others that since the effective and efficient operation of cities is essential to economic, technological, social, cultural and political development in the Third World, new, perhaps radical, approaches as well as cooperation of all stakeholders are needed to ensure that the natural environment at local, regional, national and global scales can be conserved, restored, protected and left as a legacy for future, largely urban, generations.

Strategic Diffusion of Mobile Technology in Agriculture
    Hotensia Ng'ang'a, St. Paul’s University, Kenya

In most developing countries, agriculture remains the most affordable source of livelihood for most households. Increasing Population and emergence of Mobile Technology (MT) applications inoculate a strategic platform for agribusiness to harness innovative mechanisms to produce, process with optimal resource utilization. The livelihoods of the world’s poor rise and fall with the outcome of agriculture. Ensuring that the smallholders connect with vital knowledge, networks, and institutions necessary to improve their productivity, food security, and employment opportunities is a primary development challenge. Success in greater application of MT in agriculture will require addressing obstacles to adoption and distribution. Such obstacles include the lack of awareness, illiteracy, infrastructure deficiencies (e.g. lack of electricity to charge electronic gadgets), language and cultural barriers in mobile technologies usage, the low electronic-inclusivity and the need to cater for the special needs of some users. The paper introduces the building ingredients of   innovative mobile technologies to promote agriculture in developing countries with Kenya as working example. The paper prototypes a platform to demonstrate the possibility of dramatic reductions of transaction costs in agriculture with the use of a Collective Mobile Application (C-Agric) that will guide the farmers starting with cultivation to marketing of products (Cultivation, Planting, Crop Care, Harvesting, Seed Storage and Marketing). C-Agric will reduce information costs and in turn enable greater farmer participation (in rich and reach) in agricultural markets as opposed to limited informal participation that continues to force so many farmers in developing countries into poverty.

National Conference and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
    Joseph Okwesili Nkwede, Department of Political Science, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria.
    Udoikah Joseph Michael, Department of Political Science, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria.

The aspirations of the founding fathers of Nigeria at independence to build a stable and virile country were hinged upon the perceived efficacy of sustainable democracy in Nigeria. But within few years of independence, these aspirations and great expectations dissipated into national confusion and ultimately crisis. The various crises of nation building (the 1976-70 civil war being the gravest) experienced by Nigeria since 1960, coupled with current demands for a general redefinition of the Nigeria federation via  a sovereign national conference all go to show that federalism has not worked successfully in the country. This paper seeks to conceptualize sovereign national conference, not as a tool to stabilize an existing system or regime, but as a transitional phase in the process of mass struggles to carryout fundamental system or regime change. The study employed both historical and descriptive analytical methods; where in data collected through secondary sources were descriptively analyzed. Thereafter the study revealed that the structure of Nigeria’s economy has remained weak virtually unchanged for almost four decades. Greed, indiscipline and corruption have bee identified as serious monsters of policy reforms amongst others.  The paper therefore recommends that the sovereign national conference is not an automatic solution to the problem facing Nigeria, that it is only a rational transitional demands, to which ordinary people can relate, as a basis for attaining the broadest involvement of the majority in determining their political life, with a view to determining its impact on socio-economic development and sustainability in Nigeria.

Textile and Fashion for Identity: a narrative of cultural Development in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria
    Ginigeme Uchechi Nnochiri, Department of Visual and Creative Arts, Federal University, Nigeria
    Umana Ginigeme Nnochiri, Department of visual Arts and Technology, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.

Textiles and fashion make up part of socially transmitted behaviors and patterns, along with arts, traits, mode of expression, with other products of human work and thought which culminates into cultural development. Textile and fashion in the Niger-Delta region which dates back to pre-historic times adds to the sum total of ways of living which has been built over time and transmitted from one generation to the other. It has played a mega role as a mode of tribal identity and has been a useful tool in bridging cultural, political and even political divide.T he history, beliefs, cultures, status and aspirations of the people are readily interpreted by what they wear, the various colours, styles, patterns, and their place in cultural development and identity propagation cannot be overemphasized. This paper thus delves into the history, use of textiles and fashion in the Niger-Delta, current trends and developments within the sector, with a view to discovering how it has contributed to cultural development in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria

Costuming the Carnival Calabar: An Index for Gender Empowerment and Entrepreneurial Development
    Umana Ginigeme Nnochiri, Department of visual Arts and Technology, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria.
    Ginigeme U. Nnochiri, Department of Visual and Creative Arts, Federal University

Gender marginalization and other gender sensitive issues have become a global issue. Research has shown that lesser number of women go to school and many women are socially, politically and maritaly marginalized such that they either do not contribute to development and if at all they do, their contributions are very minimal. This largely, is due to the fact that women are not educationally or economically empowered and so cannot make the meaningful contributions they are expected to. This paper takes a look at the possible reasons that women are not empowered as they ought to be and considers skills acquisition and artistic participation of women in the calabar carnival costumes production as a means towards economic independence for the women of Cross River State.

Youths and Electoral Democracy in Nigeria: The 2011 Ughelli North Senatorial Elections
    Ejikeme Nonso, PhD student at the University of Victoria

Ahead of the 2015 general elections in Nigeria and contrary to popular perspectives, this paper views skeptically the possibility of a free and fair election to be conducted by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) assisted by the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC). The central argument is that the involvement of the Nigerian youths in the country’s electoral process since the 2011 general elections exercise is a sharp deviation from the central goal of the youth corp scheme established for the purpose of deepening educational and nationalistic values in the nation. Based on available secondary sources and the author’s field experience as a polling officer in Ughelli North Federal Constituency during the 2011 Senatorial Elections, and on the evidence of the general economic situation of the average Nigerian Youth, the author concludes that the NYSC scheme can remain valuable, but launched a new debate on the efficacy of the Nigerian Youth in conducting a free and fair Elections given their vulnerability (economic Status) to corrupt practices.

Echoes of (Under) Development: Voices from the Niger-Delta of Nigeria
    Ijeoma C. Nwajiaku, Department of Languages, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Nigeria

Literary activity on the African continent has largely maintained its characteristic feature as a major tool for social engagement. Evidently crucial, as social engagement remains a constitutive feature of development in itself. The term ‘development’ in itself is currently one of the most bandied words in contemporary African societies as the countries independently and collectively continue to fall below standard indices for assessing progress and identifiable growth. Repeatedly, expectations of burgeoning and robust social, political, economic and cultural landscapes crumble as mounting leadership challenges invariably stem the strides of developmental endeavours. Writers relentlessly respond through their works to these anomalous conditions. One sensitive subject currently garnering public attention within and beyond national boundaries is the grave situation in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A defining challenge in contemporary times, the unsupervised cum unrestrained activities of wealthy multinational oil companies leave in their trails distressing stories of despoiled landscapes, polluted waters, devastated farmlands as well as impecunious, disease stricken villagers. The execution of the activist Ken Saro Wiwa, from the region only seems to have escalated interest in the happenings in the area. Especially, creative writers have employed all genres of literature in a concerted attempt to capture and represent the reality of gross underdevelopment in the oil producing but ironically impoverished region. Our study seeks therefore to examine texts by Kaine Agary, Chika Unigwe and Sefi Atta, with the aim of highlighting their own contribution to this front burner discourse.

The Mass Media and National Development : The Case of ‘Baby Factory’ Activities in Nigeria
    Onyinyechi Nancy Nwaolikpe, Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Nigeria

The mass media play vital role in the national development of any nation, they provide information, education, entertainment, integration and social interaction in a country by giving insight into the happenings in the society and helping with the development of a nation. The media are also seen as an agent of change instilling new values and behaviours in the society. This paper examined the mass media, national development and ‘baby factory’ activities in Nigeria. It examined the role of the mass media in national development and the need for the mass media to raise campaign programmes to combat the proliferation of ‘baby factory’ activities in Nigeria. It explored the development media theory and explained that the media should be used for nation building. This paper argued that though the mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change, they do not perform their functions and objectives fully in Nigeria due to political, economic and social conditions, and that they should be allowed to promote national identity. The mass media as agent of change and promoter of national identity should therefore ensure that issues that pose a threat to the national development of Nigeria are tackled and addressed and raise strategies to promote, advocate and mobilize support on ‘baby factory’ activities in Nigeria.

New Routes to the African Diaspora: “Naija Bites” and Other Televised Cultural Productions by Nigerians in the United States
    Olaocha Nwabara, Ph.D. Student, African American African Studies, Michigan State University

Cultural producers such as Mary Shittu illustrate new ways to examine the African Diaspora. They use cultural and literary prisms to represent themselves as members of a  New African Diaspora; or members of contemporary, postcolonial and imperial  diasporas; and are able to articulate the way that their identities transform as a result of straddling multiple locations of home, such as Nigeria to the United Kingdom, Nigeria to the United States, and back again. It is in this space that the term “Naija” emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States, embodying a social construction that captures the Nigerian Diaspora identity and distinguishing itself culturally from other African diasporas. Mary Shittu’s transnational Nigerian cooking show, Naija Bites, teaches its audience how to cook authentic Nigerian dishes with, in the case of the Atlanta season, “an American twist”. The show stars host Shittu who is a UK based Nigerian, a Nigerian descendent chef based in the country the season is shot, and an African descendent celebrity guest who learns to cook and pronounce “Naija” dishes alongside the audience.  Naija Bites is globally broadcasted through networks such as “DSTV Africa Magic and EbonyLife TV in Africa, OH TV on SKY in the UK, The Caribbean and The Africa Channel in the USA”. Using in-depth interviews and content analysis, this paper analyzes episodes from the third season of Naija Bites, based in Atlanta with chef Rasheeda Omolade Sule, in order to reveal some of the distinctive cultural life-styles and characteristics that “Naijas” bring and contribute to their hostlands. As part of my dissertation project, this paper contributes analyses of cultural productions that provide examples of how Nigerian Diasporas negotiate both acculturation to hostlands as well as maintenance of ethnonationality, while living as transnational subjects of Africa and its Diaspora.

Electoral Violence as Impediment to Political Stability and Development in Africa.
    Aondowase Nyam, University of Pretoria-South Africa

Elections have become regular exercise in many countries of Africa and this is demonstrated by the large number of elections conducted in recent years. Elections provide to citizens the right to select and hold their leaders accountable, and by so doing, they contribute to the identification of the type of development they would like to achieve. Yet, the rise of elections in African politics has not eliminated election related violence. This phenomenon does not only impede the political stability and development of Africa, but similarly pauperizes the franchise and breaches the tenets of universal adult suffrage of the people. Electoral violence has other multifaceted consequences which include insecurity in the polity and lack of acceptability of leaders. Using secondary data and adopting Hoglund analytical framework to analyze electoral violence in Nigeria, the paper argues that electoral violence which take the forms of vote-rigging, thuggery, kidnaping, assassinations, and manipulation of electoral institutions, especially the judicial process by political gladiators is attributed to stakes of electoral competition, patrimonial politics and inadequate punishment of offenders. To eliminate electoral violence so as to attain political stability and development in Africa, there is a need to penalize those involved in the act of electoral violence irrespective of political status. Particular attention should be focused more on strengthening election related institutions essentially the judiciary.

Electoral System and Electoral Violence in Africa: The Experience of Nigeria Majority Systems.
    Aondowase Nyam, University of Pretoria-South Africa

Different electoral systems have been adopted by countries of Africa. They are conventionally classified into two types: Majoritarian systems and Proportional Representation (PR) systems. Electoral system represents how votes cast in a political system are translated into seats won by parties. It includes the seats to be contested, how votes are cast and counted, what formula or rules and regulations govern the voting process. In a representative democracy, electoral systems remaine a key variable for democratic stability, legitimacy and an indicator that electoral violence can be eliminated. It is also one of the key elements that shape instability and electoral violence on the African continent since the electoral system is the fault line of inclusion and exclusion. This paper examined the electoral system in Africa with particular reference to the Nigerian 2003 and 2007 electoral violence. The paper argued that the majoritarian system as espoused by Nigeria, established to facilitate political stability, good governance, representative and accountability of public officials in the country as suggested, is instead a major source of electoral violence. This is rooted and aggravated by the winner-take-all-syndrome which leaves little room for political inclusion, but electoral fraud and other illicit ways to landslide victory. To overcome electoral violence, the paper recommends that the country adopt a modified electoral system design that embraces some elements of proportionality

Underdevelopment and Human Development Programs for Africa
    Akua Anyei Obeng, Universita’ Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore Placenza, Itality
    Dickson Obeng Asiamah, Nanchang University, China

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in the last decades many of the African countries have grown at higher rates than those of the Asian countries. For instance, Angola’s economic performance “outpaced that of China from 2001 to 2010, expanding at 11.1 per cent” (Cerier, 2011). Growth in the continent is driven mainly by the exportation of natural resources, such as oil and minerals, especially to China and India. The rise in the economic growth in these last years is significantly due to the contribution of other sectors such as: banking, communications and technology, consumer goods, and so on. In addition, most of the African states have substantially obtained a debt relief from the international funds and also from the African Development Bank. Further, 40 percent of Africans now live in cities, compared to 28 percent in 1980, compared to the same period; there has been 3.8 percent increase in technology, 3.9 percent increase in foreign investment, 4.95 percent in higher education rates, and lastly, 6.1 percent of improvement in public health. (Slattery, 2013). Despite the radical recovery in the African economy, most economists argue about why other emerging countries like Malaysia, India, and China were able to raise their economy from a poor level to an acceptable state before African states.  This paper analysis the new economic improvements in the African environment, then we analyze multinational imperialism as a factor of underdevelopment of the African economy and finally we propose new human rights development programs and governmental policies to promote growth in the continent.

Acculturation of Knowledge through Sustainable Language Engineering for National Development: The Case of Igbo.
    Chinwe Obianika, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria.

This work sets out to find out ways of domesticating knowledge gained through western education by the Igbo through sustainable language development to make the knowledge accessible in the Igbo language for national development. The need for this work is born out of the observation that the Igbo, as well as other peoples of Nigeria are rich with internationally known scholars in various fields in foreign languages. These achievements have increased the relevance of such languages to the relegation of the scholars’ own mother tongues and invariably their own peoples. Using the descriptive and inferential methods, the paper presents some neologism processes which non linguists can apply in their various academic fields and come up with terminologies in the Igbo language for presenting relevant academic materials for use in teaching and learning in the Igbo language. These terminologies would present research and technological advancement in the Igbo language. Previously, metalanguage development efforts had bypassed these professionals resulting in the terminologies not being accessible to the intended end users. This paper therefore among other things suggests that the acculturation of knowledge and its processes be made public in all institutions of higher education in the Igbo culture area and extended to the Igbo in diaspora. However, the co-ordination of the formalization processes should be left in the hands of the official regulating body: the Igbo Studies Association (ISA) to ensure maintenance of professional standards and uniformity of usage.

An Analysis of the Effect of Banking Sector Reforms on Credit Supply to Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria
    Ali Ocholi, Agribusiness Department, College of Management Science, University of Agriculture, Nigeria

This study reviews credit supply to small and medium scale enterprises by Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria with a view to determine if there is any effect of banking sector reforms on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing in Nigeria. The specific objective is to compare the effect of banking sector reforms on the supply of credit to SMEs before and after the reforms (2001-2004, 2005-2010). The data on deposit money Banks loan to SMEs was sourced from the CBN statistical bulletin for the period of ten years. (From 2001-2010). The result using descriptive statistics and sample t-test shows that the banking reforms in Nigeria has led to decline in credit supply to SMEs. The credit supply declined from about 6 percent to less than 1 percent on the average in the study period. It is recommended that Banks should conduct market research on the need of SMEs so as to identify the financing gap and develop a number of specific products to meet their credit needs. In addition to fund allocation, the government must consider interest rate regulation as a venerable tool for making credit accessible to SMEs at affordable levels. SMEs on their part should keep proper financial records to help reduce information asymmetry in their business. This will enable SMEs obtain more credits and improve their financial position which will in turn create opportunities for more jobs thereby reducing high rate of unemployment, reducing the challenges of poverty and insecurity in Nigeria.

The Role of Women in Agriculture in the Development of Entrepreneurship in Benue State Nigeria
    Hope Ladi Ocholi, National Defence College Abuja, Nigeria

The problem with agriculture and agro based business in Nigeria is lack of entrepreneurs with the right entrepreneurial spirit,skill, attitude and philosophy. For Agriculture to play its traditional roles of providing food for the people, supply of raw materials for industrial sector etc. for the nation, entrepreneurs with the right entrepreneurial characteristics of innovativeness, decision making in the midst of uncertainty,risk-taking, and self confidence and with sense of originality and leadership spirit are highly demanded in the sector. Women have long maintained a key role in the Agricultural Sector producing up to half of the world’s food. This research aims at identifying the roles of women in Agriculture in the development of entrepreneurship in Benue state, Nigeria. It focuses on identifying the socio-economic background of the rural women; their roles in Agricultural activities, the problems limiting their activities and possible solutions to the problems. Structured questionnaires and oral interview were used on 100 women. Data was analyzed using frequency distribution and percentages. The study revealed that women played vital roles in the production of crops and performs major farming activities that encouraged entrepreneurship. However, it was found that women are not given same opportunity as their male counterparts. Some are not adequately educated; no access to bank loans and most of the time land is seen as inheritance of their male counterparts. Hence the study recommended that if women are given the same opportunity such as access to land, equipment/machineries, credit facilities, they will produce more and thereby contribute to the development of entrepreneurship in Benue state, Nigeria.

Impact of Land use Change on Surface Temperature in Ijebu-ode, Nigeria
    Folasade Oderinde, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria

Rapid changes in Land use which is one of the most visible results of man’s modification of the terrestrial ecosystem   has transformed a large proportion of the earth’s surface thus influencing the climate within the immediate region. There is also a growing concern that rising temperatures over developed areas could have negative impact on the local environment and increase living discomfort within city boundaries. Due to the fact that the built environment absorbs and stores solar energy, the temperature in cities can be several degrees higher than in adjacent rural areas. This study examined the impact of landuse change on the temperature in Ijebu-ode, Nigeria. Remotely sensed data of the Landsat imagery were utilised to examine the landuse/landcover change for a period of 30years (1984-2014). Land surface temperature (LST) which is one of  the most important variables measured by satellite remote sensing was obtained by converting the thermal band to a surface temperature map. A zonal statistic analyses was performed to examine the relationship between landuse and temperature emission and a surface temperature trend was observed for the time period.  The results showed that the area covered by settlements increased by 39.27 km2, wetland reduced by 6.92 km2 while the area covered by vegetation also reduced by 32.36 km2 during the study period. It was also observed that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. This study provides an opportunity to observe the effects of city growth on the temperature in a tropical environment.

Assessing The UN’s Force Intervention Brigade in Eastern DR-Congo
    Brian O’Donnell, LBJ School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas at Austin

The recent introduction of a Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) has been hailed as an innovative step for proactive peace enforcement in the DRC’s conflict-plagued Kivu region. By examining the context and execution of joint MONUSCO and DRC national army operations against the Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23), this paper evaluates possible explanations for the eventual surrender of the Kivus’ dominant rebel group. It also quantitatively addresses the positive correlation between the Force Intervention Brigade’s deployment with improvements in the Kivus’ humanitarian situation. The paper finds the FIB delivered only limited support to the DRC national army during the final weeks of battle against M23. Therefore, the FIB must still prove itself against other Congolese rebel groups before being considered a model of success for peace enforcement.

Towards a Result-Oriented Development Framework for Nigeria: A Critique of President Jonathan’s “Transformation Agenda”
    Tola Odubajo, Department of Political Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria

The attainment of development status is unarguably the most critical element on the agenda of human condition, hence, the quest for development justifiably guides the policy direction of nation-states. Extant statistical data is however indicative of pervasive underdevelopment of nations across Africa, Latin America and Asia. Despite the abundance of human and material resources in Nigeria, the country is plagued with relative chronic underdevelopment as evinced in its stunted growth, high unemployment figures,  abject poverty, lack of basic necessities of life, among others. Premised on Nigeria’s alarming underdevelopment condition, the government of President Jonathan instituted the ‘Transformation Agenda’ upon assumption of office in 2011. The main objective of the ‘Transformation Agenda’ is the total overhaul of Nigeria’s socio-political and economic landscape by 2015, thereby laying the foundation for the fulfilment of the country’s potentials. This essay takes a critical look at the performance of the government against the yardstick provided by the ‘Transformation Agenda’. The tentative result of the assessment is that after more than four years, the ‘Transformation Agenda’ is yet to ameliorate the human condition in Nigeria. It is therefore argued that the capacity of the ‘Transformation Agenda’ to meet Nigeria’s development aspirations is weak. Thus, a holistic approach to development strategies, which takes cognizance of Nigeria’s history, political-economy, diversity, values, among others, is required for laying an enduring foundation for Nigeria’s development.

Displacement and Dislocation: Some Lessons for Development of the Significant Other.
    Anuoluwapo Ebunajinde Oduwole, Sociology/Law graduate of Carleton University, Canada

This paper aims to analyse debates surrounding the changing dynamics of displacement and dislocation of people in urban societies such as North America and Africa (or in comparison to) and certain factors that help normalize this. Immigrants from developing countries come into developed countries trying to avoid being displaced and dislocated, yet they end up displaced and dislocated. Most times, individuals’ lack of skills or knowledge on how to survive in the cities they move into creates crisis in their way of living. Affected by the process of urbanisation such as resettlement and development they become subject to various disadvantages. The paper will assess these changing dynamics with a particular focus on urbanisation, exploring the factors that affect them such as violence, lack of documentation, lack of benefits, inequality and development. The paper argues that the available evidences suggest that the displaced and dislocated “Others” are often confronted with additional risks when compared to the less fortunate in the society. Giving the theoretical against the statistical evidence and the current reports in the media, the paper draws up its arguments that marginalized groups’ continuous segregation as the “other” only serves to further displace and dislocate them. It is argued that both national and international levels respond to interrelated challenges for humanitarian action. More so, the paper argues that large corporations invited to help foster development, often focus on their personal corporate goals at the detriment of the displaced and dislocated. Therefore, the paper opines that developing countries need to be aware and actively ensure steps that can protect the displaced and dislocated while fostering development.

Strategic Entrepreneurship, Collaborative Innovation and Business Development in Africa: A Study of Nigerian SMEs
    E.O. Oduwole, Department of Philosophy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria
    Ogunkoya O.A., Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria

This study examines the impact of strategic entrepreneurship and collaborative innovation on the development of businesses in Africa with Nigeria as the scope. It explores the relationship between wealth creation, collaborative innovation and strategic entrepreneurship. This study adopts a survey research design with a sample size of two hundred and forty- eight (248) top-level managers, drawn from forty-three (43) medium-scale firms. Primary data were gathered from the respondents using a structured questionnaire of five scales of twenty items. The data were subsequently validated with reliability Crombach Alpha value of 0.875. The analysis involved the use of regression analysis, correlation coefficient and Analysis of Variance. The finding shows that there is a significant relationship between strategic entrepreneurship, collaborative innovation and business development among firms in Africa. It further reveals that firms that collaborate with others in terms of innovation have better entrepreneurial growth. The study therefore recommends that organizations should understand the recognition and application of collaborative innovation as a tool to be strategically entrepreneurial, especially with the current dwindling revenue from oil and rising unemployment. In addition, African managers must learn how to discover opportunities faster than their competitors and how to exploit them collaboratively and effectively. Finally, for organizations to meet up with the standard of strategic entrepreneurship in Africa, their employees have to be adequately current with trends in the entrepreneurship and innovation world through continuous training, workshops and seminars.

Ebola Outbreak in West Africa: An Urban Nightmare
    Onaiwu W. Ogbomo, Africana Studies & History, Western Michigan University

In 1976, the outbreak of Ebola in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo - DRC) signaled the emergence of a new disease in Africa. Since then outbreak of the disease has occurred in a number of other African countries – Uganda, Gabon, South Sudan, Republic of the Congo, and South Africa. Until the recent outbreak in West Africa (Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal) the largest number of people killed by Ebola in a particular time was 425 in Uganda. Scientists have suggested that because Ebola virus are carried by forest animals such as  monkeys and fruit bats, its outbreak have been in isolated places that were easy to quarantine.  A number of reasons have been advanced for the outbreak and the speed with it has spread in since March in West Africa. In West Africa, the outbreak of Ebola has become an urban nightmare for the three most affected countries – Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Researchers have advanced reasons like change in ecosystem, socio-cultural practices, lack of health care facilities as reasons for the spread. This paper seeks to examine the different reasons including urbanization and increasing movement of population in West in order to example the differences between the spread of Ebola in West Africa and East or Central Africa. The paper will also focus on the efforts made by the international community to contain and eradicate the Ebola disease.

Public-Private Partnership as a Model for Community Development in Nigeria
    Silk Ugwu Ogbu, Pan-Atlantic University, Nigeria

The concept of Public-Private partnership (PPP) in the development of communities has been attracting tremendous attention from policy makers and the academia for quite some time now. As a model and a development strategy, the PPP approach provides exciting new possibilities and opportunities for developing countries in Africa to bridge the huge gap in the provision and maintenance of basic infrastructure and services often created by inadequate resources and the inherent inability of governments to meet expanding obligations and increasing expectations amidst dwindling revenues. However, in spite of its obvious advantages and increasing popularity in other climes, the PPP model is still relatively unused in Nigeria. This paper is an attempt to interrogate the issues affecting the success of the PPP model as an approach to community development in Nigeria. The paper examines the basic elements, merits and constraints of the PPP and also proffers recommendations on what the government must do to make it work. Although the limitations of the model are considered, the paper concludes that the PPP represent the way to the future for community development in Nigeria.

The Igbo and Community Development in Nigeria
    Ogbuagu Joy Ogoegbunam, Department of Igbo African and Asian Studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

The thrust of the argument of this paper which says, “Methodologies of Development: Igbo Example” is that individual and town development enhances the development of a nation. This paper further argues that an individual will pass through some methodologies of development like, educational, emotional, physical, spiritual, social, etc. in order to contribute effectively to Urban and national development; while urban development need to encounter cultural, economic, infrastructural, government, spiritual, linguistic and educational methodologies of development for the urban development to affect national development. Despite the fact that poor all round education of individuals and towns hinder these methodologies of development, Nations cannot be static in developmental issues. Hindrances to these developmental methodologies are mentioned and suggestions for improvement are also made. Empirical methods such as a literature review was conducted.

Modernization in Africa Equals Underdevelopment: Making the Case for a New Paradigm
    Akin Ogundiran, Chair, Africana Studies Department, Professor of Africana Studies, Anthropology & History, Univerist of North Carolina Charlotte

I start with the premise that much of what we call modernization in Africa is indeed underdevelopment. I will demonstrate why this premise is valid, and will then argue that bad intercultural translations have created this conundrum where that which colonized Africans aspire to accomplish has become the source of their underdevelopment. From there, I proceed to argue that if Africans are indeed determined to reach the promised land of development, the path of modernization is not going to take them there. There is the need for a new paradigm of development. I will use the artifacts of archaeology, history, and philosophy to construct what this new paradigm (new path) ought to look like. Although I refer to Africa broadly, my case studies will come mostly from Nigeria.

The Challenges of Boko Haram Insurgency and Development in Contemporary Nigeria
    Segun Ogungbemi, Department of Philosophy, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

Nigeria has become more frequently known in the world news today than ever before because of Boko Haram insurgency which began as a mere religious sect, which nobody thought could cause so much damage to life, property and development in some northern parts of the country. The kidnapping of over 200 hundred school girls on April 14, 2014 at Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria and the initial inaction of the Federal Government to respond decisively to rescue them further exacerbated the infuriation of Nigerians, world leaders, human rights organizations, Women groups, School Children in several parts of the world etc because it is the rights of Nigerians to be protected by the Federal Government. The condemnation of Boko Haram Islamic sect all over the world and the show of action to rescue the school girls have not yielded any fruitful results because most of them are still in captivity of their captors. It has become imperative to have a philosophical discourse in a religious pluralistic society like Nigeria to unveil the contents of faith, the relationship between faith and reason, its limits and the need to have tolerance, accommodation and respect for opposing views without resulting to conflict and violence. In other words, the paper explicates the role of faith and reason in human understanding with respect to human rights, human dignity and value, which ought to be key in religious propositions. This paper therefore, examines how the Islamic sect began, their leaders and supporters, and its aims and objectives in relation to the general concept of freedom, human rights, development and general well being of a nation with the view to providing pragmatic and moral solutions to the insurgency.

The Humanities versus Development in African Higher Education: Reflection on Ugandan Experiences
    Okello Ogwang, Office of the Deputy Vice Chancellor, Makerere University, Nigeria

There is unnecessary tension in contemporary African higher education, between its policies, rhetoric, practices, and realities on the ground, that needs interrogation, reflection, and recasting. For one, most current African higher education policies generally cast the humanities in largely hostile terms, as unsuitable or even irrelevant to the Africa’s development.  If this suggests or reflects a call, even a cry, for relevance, still, it is a form of epistemic misconstruing, with several implications. This instrumental figuring of the humanities in African higher education invokes a notion of development that constrains the humanities in higher education, and in development. Such casting of the African humanities as unsuitable to the Africa’s development needs also postures by offering as remedy the sciences (STEM) and the business disciplines and fields. However, this binary of the humanities versus the sciences compounds the situation and offers little remedy. It suggests a negation of questions of citizenship and governance from the development projects of African nations. By examining policy documents that relate to Ugandan higher education scenario in this paper, I trace the trends that have created this narrative about the humanities, and also explore their implications addressing the development needs of Uganda, and how the humanities in Ugandan higher education can play its role in the development needs of the country.

Optimizing the Concept of Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Environmental Management
    Jonathan Ogwuche, Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi Nigeria

The 1972 Stockholm Conference focused on the human environment, and reflects the present day sustainable development paradigm which reflects the integration of development and environmental concerns. The linkage between environmental and human right concerns is often envisaged in terms of the protection and conservation of the environment. This right requires States to adopt and enforce policies that promote the conservation and improvement of the environment. Green infrastructure (G.I) is one of such policies, first introduced in Sweden in the 1990s, and is directed towards urban environments, where an increasing majority of people live. G.I has origin in two concepts – linking parks and other green spaces, and preserving and linking natural areas, and includes parks and reserves, backyards and gardens, wetlands, greenways, orchards and roof gardens. The convictions for G.I arose from the fact that existing urban green spaces are increasingly occupied by infrastructure and other urban facilities, in addition to other trends influencing a shift to a systematic G.I. This paper shows mounting evidence demonstrating the contributions G.I can make to social, psychological, physical, environmental, economic and ecosystem services. G.I has gained acceptance among professionals in the built environment – urban planners, landscape architects and urban designers, who are driven by theories of G.I, based on politics, consensus and consumer ethics. It is envisaged that the guiding principles and strategies, in this paper, will guide more efficient and sustainable urban land-use and development patterns as well as protect urban ecosystems.

Harmony Between Two Worlds: Urhobo Laments and Communal Development
    Felicia Ohwovoriole, Department of English, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Songs abound every facet of the activities of Urhobo people. The custom of wailing and singing for the dead is age-old and world-wide. The attendant beliefs and practices are similar in many cultures in Africa. Funeral dirges are performed for a departed loved one. The dirge is not just a formless cry of bereavement.  The laments apart from expressing grief are found to be a high order of poetic and musical expression. They are a highly stylistic form of expression that is governed by specific recitative conventions used to express the feelings of the mourners in a determinate form and performance procedure. In addition the performance of the laments serve an effective tool for communal integration, unity and development. Some laments are individualized while others are general comments about diverse subjects especially those related to religio-philosophical matters. The songs under study reveal peculiar formal and structural patterns that reflect the traditional society from which they emanate. We have used the functionalist approach as the conceptual-analytical framework. The paper presents the results of a field study on an aspect of the funeral dirges of the Urhobo people found in the Niger Delta Province of Nigeria. The study regards the Urhobo as a culturally homogenous people in spite of the different dialects of Urhobo spoken in different clans of Urhobo land.

A Sociological Analysis of Feminine Gender as Perceived in Nigerian Hip Hp Culture
    Albert Oikelome, Department of Creative Arts, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Hip hop music has taken a very unique dimension in the Nigerian music scene. It has emerged as a means of expression among the youths on a wide range of issues. Since its emergence in Nigeria in the 90’s, the music has gone through a lot of transformation.  However, a worrisome trend in this development is the fragrant display of women as sex symbols. The degree of violence against women and misogynistic ideologies being expressed in the lyrics has been a subject of scholarly enquiry in recent times. The paper therefore takes a look at the use of women as mere tools and objects claimed and cascaded around by hip hop artistes in Nigeria as a means of enhancing their celebrity status and commercial viability. It will also examine its implication on the Nigerian society.

Are we really end in ourselves: An ethical investigation into the politics of human rights, development and its actualization in Nigerian context
    Nneka Ifeoma Okafor, College of Humanities (Ethics Department), University of KwaZulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg Campus, South Africa.

The fundamental assumption that guides this paper which I build my case is the contention of intrinsic dignity or right of dignity  and what development means for most Nigerians. This leads to my claim to the existing reality of some unethical and babaric manner of most citizens which is arguably based on their sense of self-worth which is a  resultant effect of how they are treated. As Simone Weil has argued, when people are treated as if they were subhuman, they cease to think and behave like human beings......(1957:28). This paper will also go back to ethically link the common plight of both development and  human rights for all to colonialism which left the institutions of oppression, resentment, abjection etc. to the few tyrants who continued to view their subordinates as mere means. My objective in this paper is  to  attempt to establish, reconstruct and discover a safe place on how a considerable human rights and development  can be  actualized by all Nigerian citizens which will also kick off with human rights debates.

Adult Education a Mechanism for Sustainable Development: The Nigerian Perspective
    Jane Okebiorun, Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos Nigeria

This article presents the roles of Adult education in enhancing full participation in our community, national and global development through voluntary efforts towards the conservation, protection, preservation and sustenance of the environment. It orientates people about the hazards caused by innovations in their environment. The respondents for the study were drawn from four local governments selected randomly from the twenty local governments in Lagos state, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to two hundred respondents selected from the local government through simple random sampling technique. Three research questions were raised with two formulated hypotheses. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of chi-square were used to analyse the data. All the formulated hypotheses were tested at 0 – 0.5 level of significance. It was observed that adult education programmes have played significant roles in sustainable development in Nigeria. It is recommended that sustainable development in Nigeria require creative thinking and all stake holders should be involved. Government should pay attention to an exceptional role of Adult education in the personal, community and national development in Nigeria.

Philosophy and political development: How does satisfaction become opinion in Africa?
    Karen Okhoya-Inyanji, PhD Candidate, Public Policy Program, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

In comparative studies on citizen satisfaction with public service delivery, accountability and responsiveness in government institutions are frequently cited ideals for democratic and transitioning African nations. Nevertheless, it is not clear how citizens can beneficially evaluate government performance as a collective without some agreement on the values and benchmarks that they expect their governments to uphold. Meanwhile, Africans have been cautioned against intellectual passivity and disunity, which leads people to blindly drift with other societies’ changing ideological modes; and to adopt unrealistic foreign ready-made solutions to local problems. This paper therefore discusses the relationship between philosophy and political development in Africa. Specifically, I discuss political development arising from African philosophies that affect citizen satisfaction and public opinion on government performance. The areas identified for active consideration are: nation building; administrative development; and mass participation. These facets of political development directly affect both the nature and quality of public services, and citizens’ willingness and ability to provide feedback on those services. Thus, in order to better understand African ideology and standards on public service provision, I sift through contemporary African thought on the following questions: What does philosophy do for public opinion on government performance? What collective sensibilities exist in Africa regarding government performance and public opinion? What political attitudes are credited to “cosmopolitan” experiences in urban Africa? In what ways does philosophical fragmentation affect the expression of those sensibilities and the inclusion of citizens in government performance evaluation?

Party System and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment in Nigeria
    Antonia T. Okoosi-Simbine, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Nigeria.
    Dhikru Adewale Yagboyaju, Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

This paper attempts a critical examination of the broad and deep connection between a vibrant party system, democratic rule and overall development. As exemplified by several advanced democracies like the United States of America, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Canada among several others across the world, it has so far been proven that there is a correlation between widespread participation in governance and public affairs, transparency, accountability and the provision of the good things of life, and the vibrancy of the party system. Meanwhile, in spite of the great promise, which accompanied Nigeria’s Fourth Republic at its commencement in 1999, the fifteen-year old democratization is yet to yield significant dividends in terms of the concrete deliverables that characterize these advanced democracies or even the young and emerging ones like Ghana, Botswana and South Africa. Although the paper acknowledges the multiple political parties that exist, it argues that the evident lack of internal democracy in the operations of most of the prominent political parties as well as “ideological purity” or clear-cut ideological differences, likens the multiplicity to a mere numbers game. The paper traces the roots of these major deficiencies in the party system to the dynamics of socio-political and economic formations as well as the overbearing presence of the state in Nigeria. It is essentially a literature-based study. Its framework of analysis combines salient explanations on key concepts such as clientelism, prebendalism, state capture and leadership failure, and their effects of the development process in Nigeria.

Migrant Empire Building in some Urban Centers in North Central Nigeria: A Comparative Study of the Hausa and Igbo Ethnic Groups
    Okpeh O Okpeh, Department of History, Federal University Lafia.

Since Abner Cohen's 1969 path-breaking publication and Eghosa E. Osaghae's 1994 monograph on the intersections between migrations, urbanization and ethnicity, studies on migrant ethnic empire building has rapidly increased over the years. Recent developments in heterogeneous societies across the globe has shown that as a phenomenon, ethnicity is particularly elastic and can change according to the dynamics of the societies and groups involved, what is in contention between groups and the nature and character of the change process itself. Thus, while migrants are always on the move in search of alternative social and economic opportunities, prevailing realities in where they migrate to and the kind of relationships they have with their host communities generally define the type of identities they construct and reconstruct. Against the above background, this paper examines the phenomenon of migrant ethnic empire building in North Central Nigeria with the Hausa and Igbo examples. In doing this, the paper isolates and examines the factors that pulled these groups into the region, how they related with their host communities and the emerging patterns of relationships. It also discusses how overtime, claims and counter-claims over valued assets and other resources have implicated the security of the region. The paper concludes by drawing far-reaching conclusions on policy issues as they affect possible solutions to the problems arising from this.

Migration, Urbanization and Poverty in North Central Nigeria: Implications on women and Children
    Okpeh O Okpeh, Department of History, Federal University Lafia

2nd abstract: Since the last twenty years, the North Central region has experienced sustained population movements from virtually all parts of the country, as a result of which its towns and cities have witnessed immense population inflows and overpopulation. The concentration of migrant groups in this part of the country is altering the region's ecosystem with profound consequences on its stability. For example, as more and more migrants drift into the region so is agricultural land shrinking, and because farming is the main economic activity of the indigenous populations, this is already generating some anxiety. There is also the question of rising poverty associated with neglect and the low level of industrialization of the region. Indeed, poverty is said to be responsible for the backwardness of the region compared with others in the federation. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the dynamics of population increases relative to available supportive resources and the process of urbanization is multiplying poverty in North Central Nigeria. The paper also interrogated the implications of these on women and children. Drawing on a rapidly increasing data on the subject, the paper concludes with practical recommendations on how to arrest this situation in the short and long run.

In the Discourse of Nigerian Popular Music in the Urban Space
    AdeOluwa Okunade, Department of Music, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Modernity, Technology, and Urbanization are keywords that make the ego of a nation robust in many spheres. These keywords in one way or the other affect culture of the society, and to defend the dynamics of culture theory of continuity and change comes as solicitor and advocate. The Nigerian Popular music just as its Art music has its bedrock on the traditional music of the society of which a lot of development has taken place to meet the ‘demands’ of its audience. However, one of the issues coming out of it still raises query on identity via mores and norms of the society. This paper looks at the societal values that are fast diminishing with popular music as its agent.  In addition to the empirical effort, bibliographical evidences suffice for the submission made in this paper.

Ayipada-Otun: Revisting Africa Cultural Value towards Africa Development.
    Sunday Layi Oladipupo, Department of Philosophy, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

The need for value reorientation is a recurring issue in the contemporary age. Scholars of different orientations have been calling for the need to revisit some of the African value system, which seems to have been going to extinction in modern world. How to achieve this is generating a continuous debate among scholars. It has provoked two major schools of thoughts, namely the backward looking and forward looking. This discourse, in its philosophical outlook, attempts a revisit of African traditional values towards the development of Africa. In a bid to achieve the thesis of this discourse, the paper adopts critical and analytic methods of philosophical inquiry to advocate a moderate theory/thesis that encapsulates the Yoruba word, Ayipada-Otun, a call to revisiting Africa traditional culture in such a way that, Africa will reclaim and repackage the past, set appropriate boundaries to contain and curtail the western ideologies that has denied Africa her identity in curbing her developmental problems.

The Poverty of Female Traditional Rulers in Africa: A Comparison of Nigeria, Ghana, and the Republic of Benin
    F.A Olasupo, Department of Local Government Studies, Faculty of Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University

The world has become borderless and so have nations, cities, towns and villages such that there is top-down spread of information just as there is bottom-up movement of information and spread of ideas.  Urban areas are the first lines of contact for rural dwellers for models of developments in all ramifications just as cities serve as models for urban areas. Areas of benchmarks which urban areas provide for rural dwellers include roads, water supply, electricity, etc. These are tangible developments that rural dwellers strive to copy in their own little ways from urban areas; but there are important intangible developments that underpin these tangibles e.g. good education, electronic communications and governance. In the area of gender balance in governance however, much as United Nations has tried to promote it, it is not going down sufficiently well among the nations not to talk of cities, towns and rural areas, especially in Africa long exposed to gender equality before the advent of colonialism. For instance, in Ondo, there is Osemowe of Ondo and the great Lobun. In Benin Republic there is Sina Boko of Niki and Yong-Kogi of Niki. In Ghana, there is Nana Amuah Afenyi VI and Nana Kwesi. These are modern day equivalent of male Governors and female Deputy-Governors found at some states level e.g. Anambra, Lagos, Osun and Ogun States. How colonialism dispossessed Africa of this ideal and the need to embrace and resuscitate it as shining example to our increasingly global village is what this paper is about.

Assessment of Products from Nigerian Composite Flours for Local Consumption and Sustainability of Food Culture
    Cecilia A. Olarewaju, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education, Nigeria

The culture of people in every climate around the globe is embedded in their food and food consumption pattern, clothing, language and other aspects of material culture. This study observes the need to prevent perpetual consumption of junk foods from synthetic sources by upgrading the processing of flours from locally available cereals and tubers for sustainable consumption. The study was carried out to produce composite flour for bread making from wheat, soya, maize and cassava to reduce the money spent on importation of wheat into the country through alternative flours. Flours from the local grains and tubers were combined using different ratio in the production of bread. Products were subjected to level of acceptability by thirty respondents, 10 senior civil servants (5 males, 5 females),10 junior civil servants (5 males, 5 females) and 10 students (5 males, 5 females). Seven hedonic scales were used to determine acceptability of appearance, texture, taste, flavor and overall acceptability. Data was analyzed using frequency tables, percentages and bar charts. Results on acceptability test show that wheat-soya beans bread (sample B) had the highest percentage (100%) in all the organoleptic test followed by wheat bread (Sample A) (96.67%). Based on the findings it was recommended that the Federal Government of Nigeria should encourage flour millers and bakeries in the country to include 20% soya flour into 80% wheat flour for production of bread and other confectionary products. Farmers should be encouraged to plant soya beans in large quantities.

Regional Integration and the development conundrum in Africa: A Comparative analysis of SADC and ECOWAS
    Samuel O Oloruntoba, Thabo Mbeki African Leadership Institute, University of South Africa

Regional integration has been long recognised as a sure path to development in Africa. It is in recognition of this possibility that post-colonial states in Africa have embarked on one form of regional integration or the other. Across the length and breadth of the continent, there are various regional blocs that have been formed to facilitate economic linkages and aggregation of capacities among African states. However, several factors have continued to militate against the realisation of the objectives of regional integration and development on the continent. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Economic Community of West African States are two of the most prominent regional economic blocs on the continent. While these regional organisations may have similar objectives, they vary in the level of institutional development, economic structures and achievement. What do these variations portend for regional integration and development in Africa? What are the lessons that each of the RECs can learn from each other in terms of institutional development, labour mobility and harmonisation of policies? In view of the new global trend towards regional integration, how can Africa achieve the goal of integration within the context of the Abuja Treaty of 1991? This paper examines these issues from both theoretical and empirical standpoints.

Euro-Africa relations and development in a multi-polar world: Nigeria and South Africa in comparative perspectives
    Samuel O Oloruntoba, Thabo Mbeki African Leadership Institute, University of South Africa

Europe and Africa have relations that date back to over five centuries. It is a relationship that has been defined by the paradox of mutuality, exploitation, predation and benign partnership. While the end of colonialism presented opportunity for redefinition of the basis of this relationship, the possibility was lost due to both internal and external factors. These factors include the nature and the character of the state, as represented by the political elites and the type of engagement that they crafted with Europe at the eve of independence, the Cold War and globalisation. The type of institutions that the colonial governments established and their continuity after independence are also contributory factors to the dynamics and complexities of the relations. However, the changes in the global geography of power, especially in post 2007-2009 global economic crisis, in which the emerging economies of Asia and Latin America are increasingly playing more prominent roles in Africa presents yet another opportunity for African countries to redefine their relationship with Europe in areas of trade, investment and general development cooperation. Taking Nigeria and South Africa as case studies, this paper employs comparative method to analyse the dynamics of relations of Africa with Europe. The choice of these countries is informed by their status as the two largest economies with one, being the most diversified and the other being the largest market on the continent.

Language Policy, Foreign Language and Proliferation of Private Nursery and Primary Schools in Nigeria
    Fasanmi Olufunso, English Department, Tai Solarin University  of  Education, Nigeria
    Giwa Akintunde, French Department, Tai Solarin University of Education

Nigeria, a  multilingual nation with multicultural background has  continued  to grapple  with the problems  of colonial languages  used  in official  situations like: education, international relations and business transactions. English Language, the  first  official  language  and its  attendant  problems is  still  a serious uphill task for  English  as  a Second  Language  Learner  ( ESL),  especially   at the  pre primary  and  primary  levels  of  Education in Nigeria. The proposed   adoption of French  Language  as the second  official language  has  continued  to generated controversies by different stakeholders. However,  the  proprietors of  private nursery and primary  schools  are having a field day,  as they  continue to build more schools, using  French Language as  a bait  to  draw parents’  attention  to the  need of  enrolling their children in schools   where  French Language  is  taught,  albeit  by unqualified  teachers. This study looked into  the language policy  statement, English Language as  the first official Language  and French, second  official  Language to establish the missing link or merits  that  can be  derived  from  such preposition  by the  Nigerian  government. Ten  Nursery and primary schools  were  used, ten pupils from each  school ( Primary Basic 5) to ascertain  the level of  performance of  pupils,  available facilities  and facilities and appropriate  teaching methodology. Most of  the pupils performed  below  expectation in French Language. Their proficiency in  English Language is not  encouraging  either.

Women Chastity in Pre-Colonial YorubaLand and Development
    Victoria Kikelomo Olugbemi, Department of History and International Studies Faculty of Arts, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

This paper takes a look at the issue of women virginity, as a means by which, the Yoruba society inculcated chastity into their daughters during the pre-colonial period to enhance stability, peace, security and rapid development. The paper discusses the issue of virginity as an antidote to pre-marital sex, panacea to adultery, sustenance of family life and protector of the society and the methods adopted to establish it in the pre-colonial period for the common good of the community. It also highlights the belief in Yorubaland which states “that when a bastard grows up in a family, disintegration sets in, hence, there would no longer be peace, cohesion and development”. And since the family is the nucleus of the society, the Yoruba focus much attention on the building of individual’s marital life on sanctity, with onus placed on the woman that would be married into the family. The paper further appraises the effects of women virginity on the society, to see how it had contributed to social, economic and political development in the pre-colonial period in Yorubaland through the use of oral interviews, archival materials and literatures on Yoruba history. On the other hand, the paper also discusses the social, economic, and political factors affecting the issue of virginity from the colonial period to the post-colonial Yorubaland and the gradual transformation of the Yoruba society to Western-oriented culture. The discussions concluded that women chastity in family life is very essential for the common good of the society, and if it is reenacted, it would definitely make tremendous contribution to social, economic and political development of African society.

Entrepreneurship: A Tool for Sustainable Development among Women in Akokoland, 1900-1960
    Faboyede Olusanya, Department of History & International Studies, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

Worried by the culture’s gender definition among women in Akokoland and generally in every community in Yorubaland, the paper points out that since pre-colonial period, women had capability to perform functions for sustainable growth in arts and craft with which they supported the society. The paper examines aspect of women skills in indigenous economy in Akoko region. However, it notes cultural constraints of women in participating in indigenous economies of Akokoland. It discusses women’s entrepreneurial in Akokoland, but argues that the girl-child was neglected by the society, which had some adverse effects on the growth of Akoko society. It finds out that entrepreneurship was emphasised among the rural women in Akokoland, which enhanced steady economic progress during the period and even beyond. The paper unveils women’s role in indigenous creativity for sustainable development through traditional strategies. It adopted thematic approach and concludes by emphasising that women’s values and aspirations could be fully realised in the 21st century.

Abeokuta and the Social Problems of Urbanization: 1960-1990.
    Balogun O. Olumuyiwa, Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria    

Since independence, Nigeria has become increasingly urbanized. However, despite this apparent and visible outlook of urbanization, which cuts across the length and breadth of rhe country, the rapid rate of urbanization has unfortunately not been uniform. Most cities in Nigeria, including Abeokuta, have experienced a considerable degree of unevenness with the process of urban growth and development.  This has largely been a direct consequence of the predominance of a number of factors such as, patterns of social and economic growth, pattern of population distribution, patterns of transportation, geographical location and government policy, to mention just a few, have in no small measure, affected adversely the notion of urban growth in Abeokuta. Therefore, in the light of the above, the major standpoint of this study is to concentrate on the social problems of urbanization in Abeokuta such as the lack of, if not , a total absence of essential social services. Unlike Lagos State, which is the commercial hub of Nigeria, has distinguished itself in the provision of essential social services, Abeokuta has not been able to achieve such a feat. The State has paid lip service to the issue and is thus struggling to be at per with Lagos in this regard. This paper therefore, seeks to underscore the need for a critical examination of the prevailing circumstances militating against the lack of, or in some cases, a total absence of essential social services in cities like Abeokuta.

Entrepreneurship as a Mechanism for Economic Development: Reflections on the Nigerian Experience.
    Alao Oluwadare, School of Liberal Studies, Department of Social Science,  Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

This article examines the role of entrepreneurship in Nigeria economic development. It equally examines how entrepreneurship has contributed to the economic development of the industrialized economies. The paper juxtaposes government efforts and supports on SMEs and in developing individual abilities towards self reliance and nation building. Descriptive survey research was used and questionnaires were used to collect data from two hundred respondents in Lagos state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Gronbach Alpha method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments which yielded 0.82 and 0.95 respectively. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, range and standard deviation and inferential statistics of chi-square. The study found out that entrepreneurship is an important cause of economic growth and development. It is concluded that entrepreneurship may spur economic development if supported by government. It is recommended that government should take cognizance of entrepreneurship as a means of solving the national economic problems.

Tourism and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Attractions and Limitations of Carnivals and Festivals.    
    Adetola Omitola, Department of Transport Tourism Studies, Redeemer’s University, Nigeria

Nigeria is blessed with several cultural features, which are reflections of the country’s cultural diversity and historical trajectory. Prominent among such carnivals and festivals are the Grand Durbar Festival, the famous Argungu Fishing Festival, the Atilogwu Dancers and the New Yam Festival; the boat Regatta in Lagos and Yenogoa; the Olofin Festival in Idanre, Ondo state; the Olojo Festival at Ile-Ife; the Osun Festival in Osogbo, Osun state; Lagos, Abuja, Calabar and Rivers carnivals among others. In spite of the benefits that are to accrue to the people and government through attraction of foreigners and locals to these events, there are deleterious consequences of tourism especially on human security which needs to be addressed. These include various environmental impacts on the events sites, people and surrounding areas, displacement of people and worshippers from such sites and lack of access of people to the economic resources such as water and land. The paper concludes that government should stimulate partnership with private individuals, groups and organisation in hosting such festivals to ensure sustainability and people’s access to derivable socio-economic benefits of the events. Also, there should be adequate regulation and control by government agencies to ensure sustainable usage of the tourist potentials of such carnivals and festivals for the overall developmental interest of the country.

Transnational Organised Crimes and the Challenges of Security and Development in Nigeria
    Bolaji Omitola, Department of Political Sciences, Osun State University, Nigeria

The increasing cross border movement and activities of individuals, groups and communities in the West African Sub-region is already reaching a juncture that is threatening to undermine the continuous existence of Nigeria as a sovereign polity.  The movement and activities by migrants and border communities in search of better choices and conditions of living which appears initially harmless and are conditioned by factors such as drought, famine and conflicts are now overshadowed by terrorism and crimes.    The paper argues that the spill-over of terror and conflicts from neighbouring West African countries including the Sahel is feeding into structural inadequacy in the design and operation of Nigerian federation. This is further worsens by the various socio-economic and infrastructural challenges facing the country. The effects therefore resonates in the increase in arms trafficking, human trafficking, drug trafficking, kidnapping, vandalism, piracy, money laundering among other organised crimes in the country. Crimes thus become strategy of circumventing marginalisation, negotiating inclusion and meeting other needs by the people. The paper concludes that while the country stands to benefit from improved African Peace and Security Infrastructure (APSA) and other stringent security measures to curb transnational organised crimes; much importance however, should be devoted to the building of necessary capacity to mitigate structural and socio-economic challenges thereby guaranteeing the urgently needed human security and development. This may involve addressing the various fault lines within the country’s institutional framework and providing basic infrastructures, increasing employment opportunities and standard of living of the people among others.

The Art of Producing Brass Basins and Combs for Traditional Marriage Ceremony Among the Efik Speaking People of Cross River State, Nigeria as an Entrepreneurial Opportunity for the Youths
    Emekpe Okokon-ita Omon, Department of Visual Art and Technology, Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

Nigeria is a land blessed with diverse languages and cultural practices. This is the natural result of diverse tribes and tongues and modes of communication and ways of life. This paper seeks to highlight the Arts and Aesthetics that is displayed during the marriage contraction and traditional marriage rites among the Efik speaking people of Cross River State in Nigeria. Enhanced opportunities for cultural dialogue facilitated by recent improvement in contemporary modes of communication has tended to force certain practices that were hitherto peculiar to certain cultures and tribes to give way to practices that are perceived to be more -in- touch with modernism and contemporary attitudes. The production of artistically decorated brass basins and combs has been hitherto, the exclusive preserve of very few families among the Efiks, however growing appreciation and acceptance of these items among other cultures begs for other interested persons to learn the art of the production of these items both for their peculiar use in traditional marriages and for decorative purposes. This paper also seeks to highlight the potentials for entrepreneurship and personal development for the unemployed youths of Cross River State in Nigeria.

Western Education as a Panacea for Accelerated Development of Yorubaland, South-western Nigeria.
    Rotimi Williams Omotoye, Department of Islamic, Christian and Comparative Religious Studies, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

The word “development” is a universal word that is applicable to any society, race, religion, politics, social and economic life. Education as a concept has played a significant role in achieving “developmental” growth in the World. This paper is focusing on the importance of Western education which was introduced and propagated by different Christian missionaries in Yorubaland. The methodology adopted in the paper was historical and comparative. It is observed that the establishment of nursery, primary, secondary, teacher training colleges and of course Private Missionary Universities has increased the tempo of western education and man power in the area. Our findings has shown that the number of missionary schools are increasing annually, this is also being used as an avenue to propagate the Christian mission and establishment of churches. The struggle for urban space by the different Christian denominations is also an issue that would be adequately addressed in the paper. However, the impact of western education is affecting the moral values and culture of the people. In fact, traditional education of the people has been eroded and the youths who are styled “as leaders of tomorrow” have imbibed foreign values and mores which are detrimental to African orientation. In conclusion, there is no doubt that western education has contributed significantly to the development of Yorubaland.

The Impact of Modernity in Reinforcing Witchcraft in Africa: The Case of Children’s Human Rights
    Uchenna Onuzulike, James Madison University School of Media Arts & Design

Modernity and development are relatively intertwined within the context of human rights and witchcraft. Even though the concept of modernity is generally perceived as advancement, arguably, it has contributed to social/socio-economic inequality, cultural decadence, and proliferation of witchcraft in some African societies. The aim of this paper is to examine how modernity reinforces witchcraft across African societies, especially in light of children accused of practicing witchcraft in Eket, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This paper argues that the accused children’s human rights have been violated as a result of witchcraft accusations in respect to modernity, specifically, via the modes of Pentecostalism and video film. Equally, these children have been displaced due to some factors including those that are social, political, religious, and economic. Policies with respect to African traditions are encouraged in order to foster “critical” modernity. This paper recommends utilizing modernity as a proactive tool in incorporating African cultures in the quest for development.

The Shifting Identities of the Transatlantic Scholar: Africanness and the Problematics of Intellectual Development
    Chinwe Oriji, PhD Student in African and African Diaspora Studies. The University of Texas at Austin

In the study of African migrations, focus has been placed primarily on the causes of displacement and less on the impact of that spatial dislocation for the budding African scholar in a transnational setting.  Born and raised abroad, the journey to professionalization is mixed with a number of unspoken challenges that force the new “transatlantic scholar” to negotiate shifting identities even as the same subject deals with intellectual development in a setting that is both alluring, rejecting, and often obliging assimitationist imperatives that ultimately pushes the need to recuperate African value systems to the periphery. As a result, the dream of “developing Africa” becomes a farfetched illusion when this subject is still in the process of developing “self” in the proverbial “land of opportunities.”  This paper examines the journey of a US-born Nigerian scholar who has crisscrossed three continents in the process of professional development.  It argues that in order to develop the African continent, the transnational subject must first develop self.  This self-development must involve repositioning ones’ African identities within the context of its origins, understanding one’s position as a diasporic subject, and determine the professional trajectory one must take for the advancement of development work in Africa.

Reframing Human Rights: Hotel Rwanda (2004), L’Homme qui crie (2010), Global Conflict, and International Intervention
    Dayna Oscherwitz, Associate Professor of French and Francophone Studies, Department of World Languages and Literatures, Southern Methodist University

In the past two decades, the growth and emergence of the NGO sector have radically changed the discourse of human rights around the world in general and in Africa in particular. During the same period, the global media, including Western film industries have increasingly fictionalized NGOs and other international agencies, their workers, and their missions, creating filmic narratives that, in large measure, reassert the universalist ideology that underpins human rights-based interventions in Africa and elsewhere in the world, repeating old stereotypes and offering new justifications for old forms of intervention. A wave of African or Afro-centric films has also emerged, particularly post-2000 that similarly interrogates Western interventions in matters of individual and local sovereignty and collective and personal rights, often recasting the roles of Africans and global forces and interrogating dominant narratives of social, individual, and national rights.  My paper proposes a reading of one of the best-known non-African films exploring African conflicts, Terry George’s Hotel Rwanda (2004) and a more recent African film exploring similar questions, Mahamat Saleh-Haroun’s L’Homme qui crie (2010).  Using Jacques Rancière’s theory of the distribution of the sensible, and Giorgio Agamben’s theory of the state of exception, I will argue that the two films explore similar conflicts from similar spaces—that of a multinational or international hotel—which functions as a metonymy for global agencies and their interventions in Africa.  However, as I will demonstrate, where Hotel Rwanda asserts the primacy of classical narratives of Human Rights and property rights and the infallibility of Western notions of individualism and capitalism, even when both demonstrably fail, L’Homme qui crie critiques both individualism and capitalism and by extension classical notions of Human Rights, all of which it sees as mechanisms that contribute to the perpetuation of violence and abuse in Africa and elsewhere in the world.

Historical Sites as Cultural Resources in Lagos State: A Typological Analysis
    Kolawole Oseni, Assistant Director of Culture Lagos State Ministry of Home Affairs and Culture, Antiquities Conservation and Archival Matters (ACAM) Alausa Secretariat, Nigeria

At the Pan African Festival held in Algiers in 1969, cultural leaders and decision makers from most of the African countries proclaim that any African cultural policy should enable the people to acquire knowledge and education in order to assume responsibility for their cultural heritage and development. The recent Declaration of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity adopted by General Conference of UNESCO on 2 November 2001 is also borne out of the conviction that culture takes diverse forms across time and space. As a source of exchange, innovation and creativity, cultural diversity is as necessary for human kind as biodiversity is for nature. In the same vein Governor Babatunde Raji Fashola of Lagos State, in his inaugural address, promised a government with a clear compelling purpose to give Lagos a strong cultural identity, to make it one of the top 10 mega cities in the world in terms of urban living indices. The government realizes that this goal cannot be fully realized without incorporating cultural heritage into the development agenda. Yet, there is no systematic cultural resource database that could guide the formulation and implementation sustainable policy. The goal of this presentation then is to start the process of documenting the diversity of cultural resources in Lagos State. I will particularly purse a typological analysis of historical and archaeological sites, discuss their significance, as well as their educational potentials.

Exploring the Relationship between Religion and Innovation in Africa
    John Kalu Osiri, Carson College of Business, Washington State University
    Boris Houenou, School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University; and Ifeyinwa Onyenekwu, College of Education, University of Illinois

Innovation is a prerequisite for economic growth and there is abundant evidence linking national culture to innovation. Yet, extant research on innovation is essentially devoid of how religion, as a dominant cultural phenomenon, shapes a nation’s ability to innovate. A study of religion and economic growth revealed mixed results, with the following findings: A belief in hell, heaven or afterlife, on one hand, and monthly attendance, on the other hand, were significantly positively and significantly related to economic growth, respectively. As such, higher believing relative to belonging encourages economic growth. We approached religion differently by attempting to capture people’s religious beliefs and the weight of such beliefs on day-to-day living. Therefore, instead of defining religion in terms of beliefs in the afterlife and attendance to places of worship, we relied on people’s response to the question ""Is religion important in your daily life?"" We propose to investigate the relationship between religion and innovation using secondary data on national religiosity and innovation indices. The study will progress in two stages. Firstly, a data set of the two variables comprising of countries all over the globe will be analyzed. Secondly, a sub set of the data comprising of only African countries will be analyzed and compared to non-African countries. We will offer explanations for any differences which may be uncovered, as well as recommendations for developing the capacity for innovation relative to religion.

Salvaging Governance in Sub Saharan Africa: The International Criminal Court and Making Corruption a Crime against Humanity
    Adoyi Onoja, Department of History, Nasarawa State University
   Udo Osisiogu, Department of Sociology, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

The claim by Sub Saharan Africa leaders of unfair treatment by the International Criminal Court put on the agenda the question of salvaging governance from the grip of endemic corruption. Corruption is killing, maiming and impoverishing people and has defied solution even with the seeming improvement in governance from the late 1980s. Measures put in place in individual countries and region failed to curtail corruption. This is until the International Criminal Court began to look into the conduct of the leadership in their countries. From indication, the ICC’s process is yielding result to the extent that leaderships are aware of the possibility of accounting for their conduct in and out of office. In the context of crime against humanity and war crimes, corruption is the biggest killer in the region. This paper, adopting governance perspective and using secondary and anecdotal sources, explores the prospect of making corruption a crime against humanity and war crimes. This way the ICC would succeed in putting the spotlight on the leadership class perpetrating “grand and political” corruption that is beyond the power of internal accounting measures. Once this begins to work, institutions charge with tackling “petty” corruption in the different countries will go after the small officials. To this extent governance and institutions will begin to be regenerated.

Geopolitical Hot-spots in Africa
    Iheanyi N. Osondu, Fort Valley State University

Geopolitics is a word that conjures up different images and meanings to different people in different parts of the world. For example, it is a word that provokes the idea of war, empire building and diplomacy. It is sometimes viewed as the practice of states controlling and competing for territory.  However, there are other scenarios in which geopolitics creates images that are different, whether in theory, language and practice, or in the classification of swathes of territories and masses of people. In Africa, especially after the struggle for Independence, geopolitics has played out in ethnic conflicts between groups of people, with different traditional practices, languages and religions. It is also seen in religious and border conflicts between and within countries in Africa. This paper will examine the application of geopolitics in approximately four for scenarios within the context of Human geography in Africa. It will discuss the reasons why ethnic groups and countries that have hitherto co-existed became embroiled in conflicts and social discontent.

Conflict, Insecurity and Sustainable Development in Africa: the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria
    Chukwudi S. Osondu, Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Nigeria
    Nwabufo I. Okeke-Uzodike, School of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Insecurity has remained one of the major challenges of Africa’s development. Many African states have over the years been caught up in the web of internal conflicts which do not only slow down the pace of development but have actually in some cases reversed developmental gains so achieved. Conflicts in Africa result in the diversion of resources meant for national development to prosecuting wars. These conflicts also result in losses of human and material resources, degrade the environment and expose the continent to undue external actors’ involvement.  The Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria has for the past five years engaged the Nigerian state’s attention following its potential to dismember the polity. In Nigerian history, the level of destruction and loss in lives and property experienced in this insurgency is only second to the carnage during the Nigerian civil war. The national government has not only invested hugely in this conflict but has also thrown its doors open to whichever country in the West that cared to assist it fight the war. This situation has thus exposed Nigeria’s weaknesses, endangered its national security and attracted denigrating global commentaries. The cost of prosecution the war against the Boko Haram insurgents is colossal. This paper reviews the security, economic, social, and political implications of the of the Boko Haram insurgency on the North East of Nigeria and the Nigerian state as a whole. It suggests ways to stave its further spread.

Nigeria and the Quest for Sustainable Environmental Development: Can the Emerging Asian Partners Be Helpful?    
    Adaora Osondu-Oti, Department of International Relations and Diplomacy, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria

One of the important issue concerning emerging powers such as India and China or generally the BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) is the one of reaching consensus with the developed world on addressing the issue of global climate change and green house gas (GHG) emissions. Nigeria, among other developing countries of the world has been saddled with the responsibility of achieving the 8 Millennium Development Goals set for 2015. In respect to the Millennium Development Goal 7 (ensure environmental sustainability) targeted for actualisation in 2015 and Nigeria’s quest for sustainable development, it becomes imperative to assess what the emerging Asian countries (particularly China and India) engagement with Nigeria portends for Nigeria’s actualisation of that Goal. In otherwords, can the emerging Asian powers be helpful? It is noteworthy that China and India have been making a remarkable presence in Nigeria, particularly in the area of trade, manufacturing and extractive sector. Thus, this paper seeks to examine the role these emerging Asian powers could play in Nigeria’s sustainable environmental development quest/agenda. The major question this paper seeks to answer is; can Asian partners be helpful in Nigeria’s quest for sustainable environmental development?

The Issue of State’s Human Rights Abuse in International Relations: Is Economic Power Exonerating China?    
    Adaora Osondu-Oti, Department of International Relations and Diplomacy, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria

It is quite known that the issue of human rights maintenance in many states of the world remain abysmal. Thus, the violations of the human rights of citizens remains, and has continued to receive criticism, and in some cases sanctions from other states in the international system. For instance, during the Darfur conflict, human rights abuse received so much criticism that Western countries such as United States had to withdraw their firms from Sudan and opted for sanctions against the Sudanese government. Nevertheless, human rights violations still persist in different countries of the world. China, for instance, is known to have one of the worst human rights abuses in the world. Right from the Great Leap Forward Policies, the Cultural Revolution, the 1989 Tiananmen Massacre of Chinese students and intellectuals, to the present time of its economic reform, China’s human rights remains appalling. Despite its poor human rights record, China’s rapid economic growth has made China to become the El Dorado of the world, as both developed and developing countries (particularly, Africa) seek either to invest in China or for China to invest in their countries. In other words, countries’ pursuits of economic gains in or with China have continued despite continual human rights violations in China. It is against this backdrop that this paper seeks to address this major question; is the gain of economic power exonerating China from developed countries’ ‘detachment’, as was seen in Africa? This paper will address this, and other arising questions.

Spatial Contest and Citizenship Rights on the Nigeria-Cameroon Boundary
    Professor Leo E. Otoide, Department of History & International Studies, University of Benin, Nigeria.

The spatial contestation regarding land and maritime possessions along the common international boundary between Nigeria and Cameroon was adjudicated by the International Court of Justice [ICJ] on 10th October, 1995. Based on its review and interpretation of the colonial instruments and map evidence including, the 1929/30 Thomson-Marchand Declaration and 1946 British Order in Council, the Court specified definitively on seventeen sectors of the land boundary from Lake Chad to the Bakassi Peninsula. On Bakassi, the Court decided that the boundary was delimited by Articles XV111 – XX of the Anglo-German Agreement of March 1913, and that sovereignty over the Bakassi Peninsula lay with Cameroon. The technical aspect of this contestation may have been addressed, not the consequences of its implementation on the status of the affected border population. This paper posits that the option of a choice of citizenship, which the judgment afforded the affected population, was merely the culmination of the history of a sordid phenomenon of social affront to their collective interests, which dates back to the period of the partition; requiring a re-evaluation of strategy. The paper further contends that the marginalisation of the interest of the people is an indictment of the litigation option as a means of settling African boundary disputes. The paper finally discusses the mandate and operational effects of the Mixed Commission, in particular, the Sub Commission on Affected Population, and the extent to which it is in consonance with upholding the citizenship rights of the people.

Modernizing the Park: Development and the Struggle for Urban Space in Kenya
    Caleb Edwin Owen, PHD Candidate, History, Michigan State University

In 1968 Kenyan President Jomo Kenyatta ordered the Municipal Council to undertake an expensive beautification project of Makadara Park adjacent to the predominantly Swahili area of the city known as Old Town.  The project called for new trees, flowers, fountains, and ceremonial stage within the park. The government’s efforts to “beautify” this space, however, were greeted by protests among local residents who saw the park’s development as a threat to the community’s use of the space.  Residents feared that, after the development of the park, they would no longer be able to use the space for their tradition Eid celebrations. These fears were realized when the Mombasa Municipal Council began denying the Muslim community use of the park for popular celebrations and large scale gatherings, out of concerns that they would damage the new trees and plantings.  This paper will build on discussions of space (Murray: 2008; Soja: 1968, Ferguson: 1999), as well as issues of modernity and neo-liberalism (Harvey 2005), to illustrate how development, modernization, and even beautification of the city shaped struggles between the state, urban elites, and non-elite city dwellers, over access to space and resources. “Modernizing the park” meant denying its access to large segments of the local population, who viewed Eid celebrations as an important fixture of their community life. At stake was whether parks would be truly open to the public for their desired purposes, or if they would serve as aesthetically pleasing sites, but used only for occasional national gatherings and presidential ceremonies.

The Role of Political Parties in the Ruining of Ghana’s Development
    Bright Owusu, Catholic University Of Ghana, Ghana

Politics have become the most lucrative job in today’s Africa. Most African countries have not moved from their colonial era to modern-day world. Ghana, as a third world country, is being deteriorated due to how leaders in the various political parties manage government and national business. As a beacon of hope for Africa in terms of democratic governance, Ghana has seen some setbacks in her development as a result of changes in political parties who rule.  Political parties in Ghana promise the citizenry of Heaven during electioneering campaigns but tend to steal the nation’s wealth and rather worsen the economic plight of their citizens through visionless and idea-bereft leadership style, which retards development of the nation. Leaders of these political parties have become wolves in sheep skin tormenting the progress of citizens. They divert the course of the nation to the one that suits their ‘planned ideologies’. The Western world and most African countries looked up to Ghana to develop immensely in Africa in terms of economic, education, health and infrastructure wise but, what do we see: through thievery, is most leaders of these political parties enact their own personal agendas after assuming power. They tend to reject the laid down plans by successive governments. This paper would therefore touch on how political parties have come to ruin the focus lens of developing the nation, Ghana, and what can be done to reserve this trend to help create a more conclusive and comfortable atmosphere for development in Ghana.

Do Non-Human Animals Know Anything about Moral Rights?
    David A. Oyedola, Department of Philosophy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

Moral philosophy or ethics has come under a revolutionary siege. This siege is predicated on granting moral right to non-human animals, and it was put forward by the animal rights movement. This movement rejects certain things: the degrading perception of animals by humans where they (animals) are seen as objects of study and the way animals are used in science and agriculture. To grant the moral right, animal right activists assert that: non-human animals feel pain, and they can suffer. Thus, non-human animals are to be accorded equal moral consideration with human beings. Those who support this consideration are Singer, Regan, Blanchard, Francione, Gamer, etc. On the other hand, Carl Cohen, George Kathryn, Hans Jonas, Bonnie Steinbock and Oyedola David opine that non-human animals are preferred to human beings when there is the need to use them in science and agriculture. This culminates into the notion that non-human animals are not on the same existential pedestal with humans despite their ability to suffer and capacity to feel pain. However, in this study, it is argued that because animals do not have the capacity for ratiocination, it will be difficult to accord them cluster of moral advantages. Because of this difficulty, the activities of animals cannot sufficiently be said to fall within the purview of morality.

Sustainability of 'Ankara' (African Printed Fabrics) usage among Career Women in Ondo State Public Service
    Temitope C Oyeyemi, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education

Ankara refers to fabrics of elegance and aesthetics that have stood the test of time by waxing stronger in contemporary time among Africans. It comes in different designs, colours and can be worn in different vibrant and trendy styles. This paper observed that despite the fact that Ankara has been used for decades, there are still issues with the maintenance of the fabric in items of colour fastness, gloss retention and sustainability. This study was carried out among two hundred and forty (240) career women across six (6) towns using a close-ended questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Results showed that 60%, 78% and 60% respondents agreed that Ankara is readily available, okay for western and traditional styles as well as affordable. However, results from 57%, 64%, 81% and 84% respondents confirmed that Ankara was not suitable for all occasions, weather conditions, exposure to sunlight, and regular washing with detergents respectively. The paper recommended that textile industries should give adequate labeling to guide consumers on the care and maintenance needed for Ankara and improve on its colours to prevent them from running.

Parents Educational Background and Children’s Career Choice: Case Study of Osun State, Nigeria
    Temitope C Oyeyemi, Department of Home Economics, Adeyemi College of Education

Parents as heads of families in the society are expected to nurture and care for children in all areas of growth and development for them to become responsible and career fulfilled citizens. For parents to give a desirable upbringing to their children, their own academic, professional and cultural experiences must come to bear. The importance of parental education background on career choice of children is consistently important across gender and racial lines. Professions and careers for this study observed that many secondary school students chose careers without much input from their parents and end up in careers that are neither self-sustaining nor relevant to national economic development. Descriptive survey method was used to collect data from two hundred and eight (208) students in thirteen (13) secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Osun State through a structured questionnaire. The data were analysed using a 5 point rating scale. Results confirmed improper counselling for students prior to career choice, hence, the child’s ability was the only basis for his career choice. The paper recommends that parents should encourage and counsel children on their potentialities and personal interests as guide in career choice.

Terrorism and Urban development in the Northern Nigeria.
    Jumoke Oyinloye, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Nigeria

During the past decade, terrorism attack in the Northern Nigeria and her major cities has a profound impact on development, security and confidence of the residents in the urban setting. The loss of life and changes that transform the urban development may similarly transform the structures of the urban economy, many companies that resided in these areas or locations were forced to relocate to other cities. What happened to the firms, industries and their workers? And generally what happens to the economy agents of development in the aftermath of a terrorist attack? This paper address these issues by cataloging a large sample of terrorist attacks in the Northern Nigeria in the past decades and linking the data to new data sets. In doing so the paper examines issues related to terrorism, urban development, sustainable development, and explores the potential problems and trends that might become worse due to future fears of terrorist attack on the major cities in Northern Nigeria. The paper concludes by providing potential and structural solutions to terrorism, urban planning, and development of the Northern Nigeria.

Depeasantization and Proletarianization: Revisiting the Consequences of De-Industrialization and Urbanization in Africa
    Eke Okechukwu Philip, Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

Some of the main features of industrialization are the mechanization of the production process and the prevalence of the factory system, minimal dependence on manual input and reduced reliance on natural factors, the extensive application of scientific methods to problem-solving, and a socially and spatially mobile labour force. Industrialization has been credited with the vastly increased productivity, the expansion of the wealth-creating capacity as well as the invidious living standards in modern societies relative to traditional types. However, industrialization and urbanization, which in all histories and geographies occur in tandem, have delivered and continued to deliver both the good and the bad simultaneously. Especially in Africa, there are ambiguous legacies of the dual trends since the colonial era and capitalist penetration of the continent. Depeasantization - the virtual eclipsing of the peasant’s world, and Proletarianization – the pauperization of the ruralite, have both been spawned by the industrial and urban surge in Africa. This article is set to examine anew the effects of a dubious, in fact obverse form of industrialization, and chaotic urbanization in a post-industrial age on the African continent.

Violence and Criminality as Encountered in Urban and Rural Spaces: Where are you Safe in Contemporary Nigeria
    Eke Okechukwu Philip, Department of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

The city, to many, is the very abode of the devil given the high level of immorality, criminality and violence in there. Rural life, on the other hand, is frequently depicted as idyllic, full of rustic splendor and naïve innocence. Ferdinand Tonnies (1877) used the term gemeinschaft to describe the rural community in which people were bound together by kinship and tradition in a similar manner that Emile Durkheim (1893) used the concept of mechanical solidarity to portray such simple societies where members were firmly united by common values. The shared values, customs, supernatural belief systems, and several mechanisms of informal social control made life more secure, harmonious and stable in the rural setting. Then, Tonnies and Durkheim applied the terminologies of gesellschaft and organic solidarity respectively to describe the opposite experience of life in the urban setting, typified by a dense and thoroughly diverse population, lacking the social adhesives of value consensus, kinship, religion, tradition and communal living. Behavioral theorists of cities like George Simmel (1903) and Louis Wirth (1914; 1938) among others tried to explain how the complex nature of the urban environment is responsible for the distinctive personality traits of city dwellers, the existence of mass culture, and subcultures, which for Claude Fischer (1976) all contribute to make the city the epicenter of gang activities, protests, conflicts and crime. The paper questions the stereotypical characterization of urban and rural spaces and peoples, arguing that in contemporary Nigeria, one is not safe anywhere. Finally, how the citizens can be reasonably protected from the numerous sources of insecurity where-ever they are found will be plumbed in this article.

‘Developmentality’, Language, & Power: a discourse-centric critique of conceptualisations and practices of ‘development’
    Josh Platzky Miller, Centre for Development Studies, University of Cambridge

Outside of the academy, ‘development’ commands extraordinary attention. It has, however, largely been ignored in political philosophy. This is a minor contribution towards readjusting this paradigm, while recognising that any viable attempt to understand ‘development’ cannot be monodisciplinary.  The argument presented is that conceptions of ‘development’ involve a problematic conflation of two families of senses in how the term is used. Firstly, there are transitive senses involving development agents acting so as to ‘develop’ a targeted group. Secondly, there are intransitive senses; these are present in the idea of being at a ‘higher level’ of development, and are emphasised in existing philosophical work on development.  I use two main approaches to explain why this conflation exists, and make clear why that would be problematic. Firstly, the concept of ‘development’ is examined through a Wittgensteinian lens to understand how usage of the term functions. Thereafter, I analyse the social structures that underlie the production of the development discourse, in relations between power, knowledge, and language; using a Foucauldian view of power relations, Miranda Fricker’s work on epistemic injustice, and an idea of conceptual calcification drawing on Wittgenstein, Foucault, and Gramsci. Following these foundations, I present the core claim regarding conceptual conflation; which results in three problems. Firstly, in trying to gain an epistemically-valuable understanding of ‘development’, we are misled by transitive senses, in lieu of intransitive senses. Secondly, transitive senses of ‘development’ are paternalistic and problematic. Finally, ‘development’ may become self-defeating, as transitive senses undermine the ostensibly-desired intransitive senses of ‘development’.

South Africa’s policy vision for black business – the role of entrepreneurship in development
    TK Pooe, North-West University, Vaal campus

The South African post liberation narrative has given way to a new mobilising narrative. This new narrative at its heart has the politically correct lexicon and public policy focus, namely that government and citizens need to develop and seek ways to socioeconomically advance. One of the more recent characteristics of this narrative is the prioritising of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Through exploring the experiences of black (Africans in particular) township business entities, this paper explores whether at policy and institutional levels discussions and plans about entrepreneurship have merely been acts of politicking for capturing the youth vote  among other groups or an agenda linked to a larger socioeconomic development plan or public policy. By socioeconomic development, this paper refers to (Gumede, 2008) a reworked definition of development, argues for improvements in the material (employment, living conditions, job creation) and social (education, cultural preservation) condition of black people. The study will employ a qualitative approach in the main, but also partially use quantitative methods to determine number of policies and monetary value of government support to black (African) entrepreneurial efforts.

The right to narrate African heritage in the diaspora: writing as a political gesture
    Felipe Rodrigues, Visiting Scholar at Dartmouth College / PhD Candidate in Comparative Literature at Rio de Janeiro State University

As an Afro-Brazilian religion, Candomblé has frequently been understood in academia as a result of African traditions that were merged in Brazil by enslaved Africans during colonial times. However, when one looks at the richness of the religious experiences of a contemporary black woman born in Bahia, who occupies the powerful position of a priestess, one could place emphasis on oral narratives told by subjects of their own history in order to keep the African heritage alive in diasporic contexts. In so doing, the use of faith symbols in literary texts is recognized as a political gesture against the cultural devaluation of Yoruba traditions in Brazil. The production of poems and short stories by this mãe de santo defies the odds in a Christian society, which historically associated these spiritual practices with witchcraft, black magic and Satan worship. Even recently, when it is no longer illegal to be a practitioner of African rituals, public opinion actors have classified that religion as a sect on the grounds that it does not have any written document. For these political reasons, Mãe Beata de Yemonjá has created a genre of discourse that identifies herself as a strong black woman, who is willing to fight for her religion and race. That is to say, her literary production provides the readers with the lenses to read it as a site of struggle with and for power. Thus, her narratives redress racist discourses that relegate people of African descent to inferior social positions.

Democratic Governance and Human Rights in Central Africa: An Investigation
         Jayanta Krishna Sarmah, The University of Texas at Austin
Quality of the democratic process depends on the capability and integrity of the organs of the State, institutions of governance and the extent of people’s participation in governance. Unless the most marginalized section of the society feels a sense of dignity and involves them in the process of governance, democracy becomes futile. Democratic governance seeks, in common with good governance, efficient institutions and a predictable economic and political environment that makes economic growth possible and public services effective. However, moving beyond economic growth to human development requires political participation and economic freedom backed by a broader human rights platform. This is nowhere more evident than in the global governance arena, where the processes of and institutions for governing and being governed are far removed from the reality of the vast majority of people in less developed countries. Central Africa comprises eleven republics, namely Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and Sao Tome and Principe. These societies are faced with formidable challenges of democratic governance, human security, human development and human rights. Plethora of social, economic and political issues prevalent in central African countries further complicates the scenario. In the light of globalization, the paper also looks at the new trends and issues that have surfaced in the domain of democratic governance and human rights.

Culture and Women Contribution to Socio-Economic Development: A Case of the Yoruba People of Western Nigeria
    O.O Shada, Federal College of Education (Special), Nigeria

Indices of development in human circles has been described as largely social and economic. Nations who are developed are said to be gender friendly, among other things. It has also been observed that Nigeria's status as a developing nation has remained unchanged despite the seeming efforts of both Government and Non-Governmental organisations towards its development. One veritable means of enhancing sustainable development for a people is to  avail everyone equal opportunities to contribute to developmental programmes. Among the Yoruba people, a major tribe in Western Nigeria, such opportunity to contribute meaningfully to national development is limited for the female gender. This is due to a low social and economic status of many of them, occassioned by discrimination. This researcher traced the source of such discrimination not only to culture, oral tradition and patriarchy, as evidenced in proverbs, wise sayings and traditional religion; but also to a wrong interpretation and application of some cultural notions. It is suggested, among other things, that concerted efforts should aim at disorientating the people from those aspects of culture that are inimical to development and emphasizing the ones which enhance our socio-economic development.

Developing "Agriculture for Engaging “Poverty” in Borderland Pastoralist Community: Futility of Colonial Practice Amongst the Turkana of Northwestern Kenya, 1920-1955
    Martin S. Shanguhyia, Assistant Professor of African History, History Department, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University

This paper examines British colonial notions of “poverty” amongst the pastoral Turkana community of northwestern Kenya, and futile attempts to develop agriculture as an alternative economic enterprise.  The ambitious agricultural practice was predicted on promoting a peasant cultivation economy amongst a section of Turkana pastoralist/fishing community in along the Kenya-Ethiopia borderlands at the head of Lake Turkana. These members of the Turkana community, perceived to be the most poorest in the eyes of colonial officials, were to be oriented towards taking to land cultivation as a main means of raising their subsistence standards, and their cash economy by linking their production to the local and regional colonial markets. The paper analyses the reasons for the failure of this enterprise by questioning poverty as the rationale upon which promotion of agriculture in this pastoral/fishing community was based, and official underestimation of a combination of ecological, cultural, and human security in this versatile colonial borderlands region in northeastern Africa.

Human Spaces and Urban Livelihoods: A Sociolinguistic Study of Ghetto Language in Makoko, Lagos Mainland, Nigeria
    Mojisola Shodipe, Senior Lecturer, Department of English,University of Lagos, Nigeria

This study explores the dynamics of language use in an urban shanty town located on the edge the coastal city of Lagos, Nigeria. In its physical and social constituents, the Makoko community represents a crucial manifestation of the contentions between indigenous settlements and urban development practices in many contemporary cosmopolitan settings in Africa. This paper posits that the notion of development is never equally exemplified in all sectors of  modern society, thus the vivid illustrations of urban ghettoes amid the architectural splendor of glittering skyscrapers. The Makoko coastal community thus represents a glaring picture of inequalities in the distribution of socio-economic advantages in present-day urban Lagos. The implications of this status quo are far-reaching as far as global concern about human rights in urban spaces is concerned. Stripped of the basic social amenities, the people of Makoko daily grapple with the challenges of hostile urban development plans which threaten their collective existence. Private sector development initiatives and palliatives are often frustrated by governmental bottlenecks. The sociolinguistic perspective in this study therefore interrogates the diverse socio-economic and cultural resources which provide avenues for the projection of the individual and collective voices of the Makoko people. This is viewed in terms of their unique expressions of adaptability, resilience and resourcefulness amid the constant quest for space in the pursuit of decent livelihood in a hostile urban environment.

Harnessing the Vast Uncultivated Land in Sokoto State as a Paradigm for Agricultural Mechanization and Economic Development in Nigeria: Making a Case for Farm House Settlement Scheme.
    Attahhiru Ahmad Sifawa, Department of History, Sokoto State University, Nigeria

Northern Nigeria is today faced with myriad of socio-economic challenges, ranging from unemployment, Food insecurity, poverty, street begging, and other indicators of economic backwardness. One of the major causes of these challenges particularly among the rural communities of Sokoto State of Nigeria is the continued scarcity of fertile Agricultural Land to the region’s growing population. In most towns and villages, particularly the Sokoto close-settled zone, more than seventy percent of the Talakawa are not having adequate land to grow basic food requirement, further worsening the level of food insecurity and poverty in the State. Technology then at people’s disposal, Colonial and Post-colonial government’s policies, and contemporary government’s inability to secure these areas with modest security, road, and healthcare and water infrastructure are responsible for this dramatic scenario. In addition however, large scale farmers and investors in Agriculture are competing with the peasants over the scarce inhabited fertile land, further worsening the scarcity of land in the state. This paper suggest for a radical government policy that will secure these areas through the provision of security, basic road, healthcare, water and educational infrastructure for resettlement of landless rural communities and establishment of plantations in the form of farm house settlement scheme. If actualized, the policy will not only address the problem of land insufficiency among peasant farmers, save them from migrating into other similar rural areas and address the problem of food insecurity, but will effectively serve as a means of attracting foreign investors in to the sector and eventual Mechanization of Agriculture in the State.

The Role of Arab Nationalism in the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire: Making a Case for Ethno-Religious Crisis and the Challenges of National Integration in Nigeria in the 21st Century.
    Attahhiru Ahmad Sifawa, Department of History, Sokoto State University, Nigeria

Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and among the longest surviving empire in the history of the World. The empire was Multi-ethnic and Multi-Religious in nature, housing not only the three scripture based religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, but virtually all the major religious groups known to Middle East, some parts of Europe and Africa. Although many factors combined to weaken the empire before its final collapse in the 1920s, ethno-religious sentiment was one of the major factors responsible for the collapse of the Empire. Along this background, this paper examines how ethno-religious crisis are seriously threatening the future survival of Nigeria as a one sovereign and united nation. A part from the large scale ethno-religious crisis in Nigeria, there is the alarming resurgence of autochthonous ethno-regional consciousness and organisations with secessionist agendas, challenging the corporate existence of Nigeria as a united political entity. These problems like in the Ottoman Empire, if not carefully handled, will sadly lead to the eventual collapse of the giant of Africa. It is the argument of this paper that although most of the crisis happening in Nigeria manifested themselves in ethno-religious form, they are largely political. They are mostly the result of unhealthy struggles among Nigeria’s ethno-religious groups to access power, which is the easiest way of diverting and siphoning public resources for self-aggrandisement and the promotion of parochial group interest, as a result of serious corruption which has eaten deep into the country’s socio-political landscape. The paper finally suggested measures through which these challenges could be addressed in order to save Nigeria from imminent political disintegration.

Terrorist Activities and Economic Development in Nigeria
    Adeola Lawrence Sunday, University of Ibadan

There are series of challenges associated with terrorism and Economic development. It is multidimensional; encompassing all facets of human endeavor through inter-personal relationship among people and institutions. Economic growth is a phenomenon entailing the increase integration of goods, labor, capital market and education across the states in the federal republic of Nigeria; these have been facilitated by improvement in technology and application of liberal economic policies. States that applied appropriate measures have benefitted from the economic growth, those that have not, are marginalized. Terrorism in recent administration is singled out as having the most deleterious effect on the Economy development in Nigeria. This paper empirically examines the relationship between terrorist attacks and economic development using data from Nigeria’s geo-political regions. The result revealed that the number of bomb attacks/strikes, violence, and infrastructural destruction vis-a-vis business relation cost increased tremendously. The output lost in terms of growth in per capital real GDP is considerably on an astronomical magnitude. It is established that terrorist activities has significant negative effect on national development. As a preventive strategy, advocacy efforts should be made to reduce terrorist activities by government through appropriate sanction; Revenue allocations should be based on geo-political development. This paper also foresees a danger signal of a collapse of democracy and a severe religious/ethnic war as a result of brain drain of the northern militants. Nigerian government should create a conducive environment for investment that will ensure employment opportunities and reduce poverty. These are the essential ingredient that makes life worth living.

Faces of Contemporary Cosmopolitanism in Nigeria: Thoughts on Nollywood and the Boko Haram.
    Olivier Tchouaffe, Southern Methodist University

This paper, first, addresses  Nollywood and its burgeoning star system, particularly, Omotola Ekeinde, as the expression of Nigerian cinema dominance and how the mechanism of this media notoriety and performativity open up processes of social mediation and physiognomy, perception, visibility, reputation and legitimization of social categories outside of the state and how this processes of recognition formalize the emergence of an ideal sphere of identification, recognition, normativity, rational public sphere and leisure and a new experience economy that reflect the development of a new form of citizenship who re-appropriates information-technology and the resources of social media to broadcast democratic and business values that complicate notion of cosmopolitanism and modern hybridity. Second, within that framework, this paper will discuss the figure of the terrorist, through the prism of Abubakar Shekau of the Boko Haram, as the Janus face of these processes to bring a complexity to the problematic of recognition and sovereignty within these global processes.

State Power, Life, and Death in Postcolonial Africa.
    Hervé Tchumkam, Southern Methodist University

My paper will investigate and analyze the ways in which the life in today’s Africa, the homo africanus has gradually become a homo sacer. In other words, the African citizen can sometimes
become confused with that person who cannot be put to death by the ritual, but whose killing is not considered homicide. More specifically, I will scrutinize the exercise of sovereignty in Africa, and especially in Cameroon, as it has become the power to decide who may live and who must die. In the specific case of Cameroon, the transition to the year 2000 was marked by the creation, by a decree by the President of the Republic of Cameroon, of an Operational Command Unit to tackle rampant banditry in the Douala region. The Unit, with the power vested in them by the sovereign, became responsible for the disappearances or killings of over one thousand people. The following year, nine young men disappeared and all the investigations to shed light in the matter have yielded no result to date. Thus, those young men clearly take the shape of the homo sacer as they were “sentenced to death” without trial, and treated as outlaws who could be murdered without reprisals. Looking retrospectively at what happened in Cameroon over a decade ago, my research will raise the following questions: What place is given to death and how does this place determine the value of the human body? What becomes of the citizen when the boundary is blurred between their sacredness and their expendability, and what state mechanisms function to blur these boundaries?

Imagining Africa’s Future, Interrogating Social Injustice: Power, Informality, and Gendered Patterns of Development
    Bridget A. Teboh, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth

Since the 1980s, African development efforts have been called into question for not taking into consideration the welfare of most African citizens, especially in light of the growing feminization of poverty. It is widely recognized that development process has affected women and men differently and the benefits and disadvantages have been unequally felt. While observers have been quick to decry the slow and uneven pace of development in African states, few have taken the time to examine the changing landscape of Africa, the reasons for such slow progress, and the feminization of poverty analyzed in terms of Scott’s ‘weapons of  the weak’ (MacGaffey 1994). Rothschild and Herbst, use the term “African state and state system in flux,” to explicate the “domestic state weakness” that afflicts most postcolonial nations in Africa. Cameroon is not exempt. At independence Cameroon, like many countries in Africa, embarked on 5 Year Development Plans that were supposed to positively transform the country and provide social services and other basic needs for its citizens. These plans failed woefully and other efforts continue to fail because they ignore the social, political and economic inequalities between genders. This paper examines such political “state weakness” historically in an effort to re-direct Cameroon’s development trajectory and synergy towards nation building. It explores the meaning of development in Africa, the location of women within the process, the intersection of women, capitalism, and power, and addresses critical questions regarding social injustice, and human rights, thereby challenging standard analytical categories and conventional methodologies. It calls for a reappraisal of African development strategies and presents a new paradigm for development and framed by social justice and human rights: one that is more inclusive and gender-sensitive.

Ensuring Effectiveness in the Twenty-First Century Cameroon Civil Service: A Cultural Competence Perspective
    Consoler Teboh, Assistant Professor, St. Cloud State University, School of Health and Human Service, Department of Social Work

Purpose: The locus of this paper is to describe the challenges of the Cameroon civil service (CCS) and to examine methods of ensuring its effectiveness in the 21st century context. Problem statement: 'An effective state is vital for the provision of the goods and services - and the rules and institutions - that allow markets to flourish and people to lead healthier, happier lives, p.1 (World Development Report, 1997). Unlike suggested by the above statement, implementation of policies has always been a problem for many African governments, leading to ineffective civil services (Fagge, 1998; African New School of Thought (ANST, 2010). The CCS for the last 60 years has adopted modalities that were very elegant on paper but have met with failure at the level of implementation. The trend of adopting policies just for that sake of politics seems to be increasing. Additionally, CCS flops have also been blamed on misappropriation, corruption, laxity (by personnel of various government sectors in ensuring that policies are carried out according to stipulated regulations), entitlement, and tribalism (Agendia, 2013). Approach: Data were collected through fieldwork in Cameroon using in-depth interviews with civil servants working in various ministries and through persons who receive civil services. Furthermore, the study made use of existing secondary documents on civil services ordinances in Cameroon and around the world. Results: The study postulates that when civil servants increase their cultural competence, assessing services by citizens will be more effective.

The Black Church as the womb of Black theology of liberation? Why the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa is not a Black Church?
    Rothney S. Tshaka, Department of Philosophy, The Univeristy of South Africa

This article sets forth a controversial thesis which suggests that the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa, although considered a black church, is in fact not a black church in the sense that a radical black church is traditionally understood. A black church, it is argued, is perceived to be one that is a self-determined church which supported initiatives of ameliorating the depressive situations in which black people found themselves. References are made to black theology as a critical theology which was never accepted in the black church due to the dependency syndrome which was brought about by the white benevolence of the Dutch Reformed Church. This it is argued had became innate in the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa which still considers itself as a so called daughter church of the white Dutch Reformed Church.

Hu(man) Rights and Women in Rural Kanungu During the Administrations of Amin, Obote II, and Museveni in Uganda.
    Tushabe wa Tushabe, Kansas State University

Since Yoweri Kaguta Museveni became president of Uganda (1986-present), Uganda’s government and foreign donors’ policies intended to alleviate poverty and improve women’s social and economic status, and human rights, have benefited women who already have access to better and more resources. Women in rural areas who struggled immensely for their survival and that of their children and elders during Amin’s rule (1971-1979) and during Obote II (1980-1984) have continued to be disadvantaged. To date, the struggle of women in rural areas continues to be a struggle of survival and life sustenance in community without support from government policies, and for the most part without the support of their husbands. What secret do these women have? What understandings of human rights do they embody that differ from political-defined human rights? This paper will discuss the struggle of women in rural Kanungu and their indigenous praxis for economic and social well-being for human dignity and sustenance of community life.

Insurgency in Nigeria: A Product of Failure of Liberal Democracy
    Grace Umezurike, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. Nigeria.

In the real sense of the word, democracy entails participation of the demos (the people) not only in the due process of choosing those who represent them or in empowering the leaders, but more about the process of dialogue which see the people partaking in the legislation of the laws that govern them. Regrettably in Nigeria, although theoretically it claims to be an example of a democratic society and as such its goals as enshrined  in the constitution claims to ensure the maximal protection and promotion of the common good of all Nigerians, but the historical, existential and factual experience of its emergence and governance right from the 1914 amalgamation show that Nigeria cannot realistically lay claim to being a democratic society where political participation has been protected, promoted and preserved. Hence the Nigerian democratic experience is merely formal and a complete betrayal to political participation. The point of this essay is that Nigeria as a nation suffers from underdevelopment, high level corruption, insecurity, unemployment, poverty and other socio political and ethnic problems due to the people’s (Nigerians)  alienation and apathy towards political participation and this has made few individuals to dominate the Nigerian political scene. This obvious failure of democracy has brought in its wake socio-economic and political problems, indeed, it is difficult to divorce the rise in ethno-nationalism, the Niger-Delta  agitation, the macabre called Boko Haram and burgeoning insecurity from misrule and non-participation in political process and governance  of the bulk of the citizenry. This work is justified because it is timely and relevant to the current failure of leadership in Nigeria.

Gender Mainstreaming, a panacea for quality service and good governance: An insight into political systems in Francophone Africa
    Gloria Mayen Umukoro, Department of Modern Languages and Translation Studies,  University of Calabar, Nigeria.
   Mary Julius Egbai, Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

We would like to in this presentation begin by asking a simple question. Which of the sexes has the responsibility to govern? At this time, we believe our readers are divided into factions. While many people opine that the males are more responsible because they alone have the natural propensity to govern, there are those who believe that females can as well be given the responsibility to govern, except that they do not have such qualities as the males. Yet again there are those who will belong to the group that says that females should be made to handle less tasking political positions because they are by nature “weaker” than the males. Which school of thought do you belong? While we allow you to ponder  on the above, however,  this presentation seeks to  analyze more comprehensively the need for gender mainstreaming in good governance and seeks to answer the following questions; Is being the President of a country  or the Governor of a state, or the Chairman of a local government area a ‘Sex role’ or a ‘Gender role’? Thus, while we disabuse your mind, this communication forms part of the on-going movements on the need to encourage more participation of females in government to enhance quality service and good governance for effective development in any political system.

Robert Mugabe and the Human Rights Question in Zimbabwe, 1980-2010
    Udida A. Undiyaundeye, Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Nigeria

Raised by a single parent, educated by missionary philanthropy, inculcated anti-colonial sentiments and taught to question the colonial system and having imbibed the marxist doctrine of social development, Robert Mugabe was primed in early and adult life for a violent confrontation with the British residual colonial authorities in his country. Emerging a national leader after a gruesome fourteen year liberation war, the expectations and hopes of compatriots, fellow citizens and the international community was that Zimbabwe would soon became an economic and political El-dorado, which attainment would consolidate her position as leader of the Central African region. These expectations were dashed barely a year after the attainment of independence as a reign of terror and deprivations – far beyond the experience of the minority rule era – was unleashed. This reign of terror engendered mass emigration of critical skills and rendered the country prostrate.

Education for Sustainable Development
    Rexson Igbinosun Uyioghosa, College of Education, Nigeria

This paper evaluates education as the most powerful tool or weapon needed to change our current knowledge base that does not contain the solutions to contemporary global environmental, societal and economic problems. Today, education for sustainable development is crucial to the ability of present and future leaders and citizens to create solutions and find new paths to a better future. In this paper, education for sustainable development (ESD), basic characteristics of sustainable development and aims of sustainable development were discussed. Educational priorities for sustainable development as well as ways of developing sustainable future through education were delved into. It was recommended among others that government should invest more in the education of her citizens since it affects all components of the economy: legislation, policy, finance, curriculum, instruction, learning, assessment and so on.

The Role of Translation in National Development
    Agwu Patience Uzoma, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

Communication is natural, necessary, fundamental and universal to every human being. In our everyday life, we find ourselves in situations that make it compulsory for us to interact on regular basis with one another. People have since realized as well that such human interactions are not limited to people with same linguistic backgrounds and where two people that do not understand each other meet the need for translation arises. Multilinguism then constitutes a hindrance to economic, political and sci-tech exchange of ideas. Translation is therefore necessary for understanding. One cannot underestimate the importance of translation in our numerous/many commercial activities that make up the daily life of every community. Translation therefore plays the lovely but difficult role of spreading of material, linguistic, political, economic, religious and other forms of culture. It therefore plays the role of translating the indigenous literature, which represents the cultural heritage of a linguistic group. This will expose facts, details, norms and images that will explain the world view of a group. By so doing, translation plays a vital part in expanding our world; offering alternatives to the manner and tool of our thought and narrowing the scope of the unspeakable. This paper looks at the role of translation in national development. We will look at the significant roles of translation in a multilingual nation which includes the dissemination of scientific and technological information. This analysis could help to sensitize the public on the great importance of translation as a veritable tool in national development.

A World Without Borders
    Michael Vickers, Independent Scholar, UK

We do increasingly live in “A World Without Borders.” But what exactly do we mean? What borders are we “without”—political, economic, social/  community, personal/ familial, religious—and to what degree? What forms of 'engagement' have emerged  to replace those communities that have been transformed, or superceded? And in looking to the foreseeable future, what are the structures we envisage for engaging life within this globalised world?

The Narratives of Development in The Kanga Metaphor
    Wambui Wa-Ngatho, Rice University

The kanga is a piece of East African cotton fabric with inscriptions worn by women around the waist, shoulders, and head spanning over 200 years. It is originally from the coast and is rectangular with an area of about sixty by forty inches. It usually has a border on the inside bearing simple or intricate designs within the overall design that is normally supported by a written message. Despite cultural interaction and aesthetic alterations, the important metaphoric nature of the message remains Swahili in nature. The function of these inscriptions is in part to spread social norms and idiomatic expressions in brief messages that speak but are not limited to the Swahili people. However, even within this local setting, these messages still need to be deciphered and interpreted to suit individual readers in a variety of ways. Kanga messages are important in understanding the Swahili culture and how development is defined and narrated within this culture. This paper examines these messages by both studying the Swahili metaphor on the one hand and also by studying metaphors to do with what is viewed to be development in this culture.

Global Human Rights Narratives on Somalia
    Amentahru Wahlrab, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Department of Political Science and History, The University of Texas at Tyler

The Somali refugee and human rights situation is impacted by a variety of push and pull factors that began before the 1988 civil war but were exacerbated by it and subsequent political and armed conflicts continuing to the present day.  At present there are roughly one million internally displaced persons and one million refugees.  The majority of Somali refugees live in the region commonly known as the “horn”: Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, Djibouti, Uganda, Egypt, Eritrea, and Tanzania.  This paper asks what the responses are being offered by Somalis in the diaspora to issues pertaining to ending the human rights and refugee crises. Unlike most human rights scholarship, this study adopts a discourse analysis approach in order to reveal the multiple layers of narrative that distort potential causes and effects of global interventions into Somalia.  The dominant narrative regarding Somalia includes the argument that Somalia has not been sufficiently globalized and that with further integration into the global economy Somalia’s problems will be ameliorated.  And yet, Somalia is currently occupied by African Union, Ethiopian, Kenyan and U.S. troops.  Its coastal waters are routinely commercially fished, militarily patrolled, used as a global dumping ground, and otherwise traversed by traders and raiders.  This second narrative reveals not the absence of a global presence, but, rather, globalization’s dark side.  How do Somalis in the diaspora navigate and act within this multilayered narrative?  How do these Somalis transgress and subvert this master narrative of human rights crisis?

The materiality of interpellation: modern roofs in the making of modern subjects in Rwanda
    Delia Duong Ba Wendel, Harvard University, PhD candidate, Architectural History & Cultural Geography

In 2011, the Government of Rwanda (GOR) divested all houses of grass thatch roofs, and thus achieved a modernization objective previously shared by both the Belgian colonialists and postindependence republics. This radical change in Rwanda’s urban and rural landscape was enacted through a transcendent ethics of modernization and equal non-discrimination, which referred to the GOR’s aggressive embrace of development as a post-genocide peacebuilding strategy. As a result, Rwanda’s 2011 aesthetic regime designed a thatch-free environment for a ‘modernized’ subject, divorced from both ethnic and historical associations. The program was moreover implemented within a spectrum of mandatory policy compliance and forced removal, with significant consequences for the country’s poor. By developing an aesthetic ideology of equal-opportunity modernization in the very homes in which citizens dwell, the GOR initiated processes of interpellation between an aesthetic regime and citizen subjects. If subjectivity can be broadly understood as the way in which individuals relate to the world, interpellation captures the part of this process in which subjectivity is constituted when individuals are named as citizen subjects, and in turn acknowledge and transform a system of ideas. Interpellation is in one sense determined top-down by an aesthetic ideology that remakes citizens and landscapes in the image of national unity and progress. But interpellation also develops from below, when citizens endorse, reinterpret, or exploit State development objectives, or become relegated to the realm of not-modern subjects without means to purchase ‘modern’ roofs. These relationships between citizens and State serve to focus my paper, which moves between analyses of architectural aesthetics, post-genocide development politics, and resident perspectives to consider the materiality of roofs in processes of self and society interpellation.

Reinterpreting Medical Violence in Colonial Africa: Fanon and the Regulation of Colonized Health
    Ben Weiss, Department of History, The University of Texas at Austin

Colonialism in Africa has always possessed a history which evokes the conflict of European and indigenous epistemologies. While these worldviews have not always been mutually exclusive, Western medicine saw a particularly contentious entrance into indigenous African societies. From sanitation and vaccination campaigns to compulsory examination movements, European medical knowledge was enforced through strict colonial policies, overwriting traditional epistemes about African health, bodies, and minds. Through a survey of African contexts, this paper examines the nexus between the form of medicalized imperialism implicit in colonial health policy and Frantz Fanon’s articulations of violence. In particular, I draw parallels between Fanon’s argument that the mind internalizes the physical violence of colonialism and the ways in which colonial health policies not only pathologized the African body, but also the African mind and the African identity. Through paying particular attention to both STD relief campaigns and reactions to other forms of disease outbreaks in the African colonial sphere, I frame the conflict between cultural concepts of health and the imposition of Victorian ethics in African contexts, along with the resulting racialized undertones such impositions carried.  Further, the central analysis of this work encourages a dissection of Fanon’s conclusion that colonial violence can only be overcome through the violence of resistance. Instead, this paper moves toward a reevaluation of the implications of indigenous epistemological resistance to colonial epistemological oppression, and ultimately, the sufficiency of such resistance in overcoming ideological domination.

From Shackles to Citizens?: Twentieth Century British Manumitted Slaves in the Arabian Peninsula
    Brittany R. White, Huston-Tillotson University

The Arab slave trade transported countless slaves to the Arabian Peninsula to live a life of servitude supported by Islamic law. After the emancipation of slaves in the Middle East in the early twentieth century historians have yet to pursue the history of the ex-slaves’ integration into society. Well into the twenty-first century the fate of these slaves is still unknown. The purpose of my research is to determine the criteria for citizenship in various countries of the Arabian Peninsula and to assess the possibility of manumitted slaves of African descent being incorporated in society after abolition. My research focuses on British Consulate manumissions of runway slaves from 1926-1938. Middle Eastern scholars reject T.H. Marshall’s construct of citizenship derived from a western European model solely based on the individual’s qualifications. Obtaining citizenship in the Arabian Peninsula is mainly based on paternal-kinship; entry period; religion and language. This research uses nationality laws, the narratives of 100s of runaway slaves, and statistical analysis to reveal how many manumitted slaves in Saudi Arabia and Qatar would have been eligible for citizenship at the time the nationality laws were established. In addition, my research will highlight a major human rights violation for ex-slaves who do not qualify for citizenship, also known as Bidoons (stateless people), given no rights or benefits in their own homelands. In using this array of sources this project will contribute to the field of Middle East history by furthering our knowledge of ex-slave non-Arab communities in Middle East societies.

Understanding the Zongo: Processes of Socio-Spatial Marginalization in Ghana
    Emily Anne Williamson, MIT

The spatial processes of marginalization and ghettoization have been described, labeled, and theorized extensively in the United States and Europe, yet there has been little research dedicated to these processes in the literature concerning urban Africa. Rather than using prescribed Western concepts, this paper interrogates the spatial processes of marginalization by beginning with the local and particular – in this case, the Zongo, a fascinating, and understudied historical phenomenon in Ghana. Zongo means “traveler’s camp” or “stop-over” in Hausa. Traditionally, the inhabitants of these settlements were Muslims migrating south either for trading purposes or as hired fighters. Today, Zongos have become a vast network of settlements and there is at least one Zongo in every urban center in Ghana. Since these ethnic groups were not indigenous to the territory, it is not surprising that many were historically marginalized. This paper, therefore, uses history as the primary mechanism by which to dismantle, complicate, reconstruct, and understand the Zongo phenomenon – to demonstrate how it has evolved over time - with and against political, economic, and religious forces. Rather than a sweeping comparative approach between settlements, the strategy is to deeply investigate its most extreme case of marginalization – that of the Zongo located in the coastal city of Cape Coast. It seeks to answer what combination of historical and social factors have caused the Cape Coast Zongo to become so marginalized. The research identifies five periods - Imperialism, Segregation, Nationalism, Industrialization, and Globalization - that mark important ideological and political shifts in the history of marginalization in Cape Coast and then examines what themes emerge from this particular historical case that may be generalized for all Zongos. Furthermore, the thesis contributes to larger theoretical discussions explaining how, why, and when ghettoization appears and functions in West Africa.

A Concrete Friendship: Turkey’s Emigrant-Developmental Policy in Libya
    Zavier Wingham, NYU Kevorkian Center

In the wake of revolutionary Libya, the Turkish government found itself in strong support of military intervention against its former ally, Muammar Gaddafi. Near the end of March 2011, Turkey joined other powers to enforce an embargo on Gaddafi-held ports as a method of supporting rebel groups, who were ultimately victorious. As a result, Turkey found itself again in the good graces of a newly reformed Libyan government. Nearly three years post-Libyan revolution, former President Abdullah Gül expressed Turkey’s continued support for the Libyan people’s will through various methods such as, specialized training for the Libyan Police Force, justice counsel, and economic aid. Turkey’s ability to strategically position itself, even in geopolitically unstable times, is not unique. However, this renewed friendship warrants consideration, specifically in how Turkey mobilizes assistance for the Libyan government. Often, analyses of this question are informed with attention on pure foreign aid. Through a focus on Turkish construction companies and labor emigrants, I seek to examine how Turkey has utilized both as a developmental strategy in Libya. In attempting to do so, I aim to build upon the previous debates pertaining to migration and development, while arguing for attention to the flow of labor migration. The intent of this paper seeks not to explain Turkey’s entire developmental strategy, but analyze a singular aspect as a form of understanding Turkey’s evolving geopolitical position in Libya and, to a larger extent, North Africa.

The Role of Road Transport in National Development: The Case of Accra in Ghana.
    Agyapong Wireko, University of Ghana, Legon

The effects of transportation on national development cannot be overlooked since mobility and economic productive is inversely proportional.  In a country where the transportation system is not viable, all aspect of development becomes stalled.  Movement of goods, services and connecting people both within and outside the country is made possible by the various transportation mechanisms. Transportation can either boost or hinder In Ghana and in deed most developing countries, road transport is the dominant means of moving goods and services to and from the rural areas and the urban centers. Unfortunately, most of the roads in the cities of Ghana especially in the national capital (Accra) and those linking the city to other nearby towns and communities are in bad shapes.  The poor roads network often results in unnecessary traffic congestion in urban centers especially during the rush hours and avoidable accidents which consequently affects human lives and socio-economic activities.  This paper examines how the poor roads in Accra affect national development and economic productivity especially in an agrarian economy like Ghana and others.  The paper identifies obstacles to improving the road network in the cities of Ghana to include lack of political will, corruption and poor management of the roads.  It recommended that to achieve sustained and accelerated development in Ghana, the government should expand existing roads infrastructure especially in the cities.

Indigenous Knowledge (IK) as a Key to National Development: The Case of Ghana    
    Agyapong Wireko, University of Ghana, Legon

Indigenous knowledge (IK) has been envisaged as the best path for achieving participatory and sustainable development in most developing countries like Ghana. Indigenous knowledge reflects experience and problem solving by a group of people that has been passed down over generations. Though most part of this store of knowledge in not written, it represents immerse valuable store of data that provide past and present generations with deep understanding on how communities have interacted with the changing environment and the practical ways of solving problems at the local communities (Melchias, 2001). The dominance of the western knowledge system in Ghana and indeed in most African countries has largely led to a prevailing situation in which indigenous knowledge is ignored and neglected.  Developmental policies and analysis have failed to recognize the indefatigable role of indigenous knowledge in national development. This paper argues that, since current development models/paths (top-down and economic-centric approaches) have proven not too successful in Ghana, there is the need to project and recognize the important role played by indigenous knowledge to development at the national and regional levels to achieve participatory and sustainable development in the areas of agriculture, medicine, sanitation and resource management. Questions like the role of indigenous knowledge in sustainable development, the perception of development by indigenous people and development experts, the relationships between indigenous and the Western scientific knowledge and several others are addressed. It concludes that, for development (both economic and social) to be sustainable it must be deeply rooted in the ideas of the indigenous people.

Population Dynamics and Development in South Darfur State: From Emergency to Sustainable Development    
    Abdallah I A Yagub, Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Policy and Development Studies, School of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa   
    Khondlo Mtshali, Lecturer, Department of International and Public Affairs, School of Social Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Conflict in Sudan’s Darfur Region started in 2003, as a result there was a population influx to cities putting pressure on limited urban services. Nyala City, the capital of South Darfur State has grown by 250% to be the second largest city in Sudan since 2003. This paper examines the critical issues related to urbanization, land tenure and the rights of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) to return to their villages, resettle or integrate into the city, as well as the status of the provision of services. Drawing on secondary data such as government documents and international organizations as well as primary data obtained through interviews with IDPs, government and international organizations representatives. The paper argues that the government faces challenges in providing services to the IDPs. International organizations provide 76% of services such as health care, education facilities water pumps and sanitation services. 85% of IDPs refused to return to their villages due to lack of security and services, advocating for government to resettle them around Nyala City where they are, because of urban services and potential income-generating opportunities.  Many government officials on the other hand argue that the IDPs must return to their villages. This paper propounds that the existing urbanisation policies lack a vision of “site and services” application. The international organizations have played a positive role in providing services to the IDPs. The challenge is how to resettle the IDPs around Nyala City and integrate them into society in a way that promotes sustainable development and establishing improved livelihood.

Human Rights Issue in Ghana
    Yaa Konadu Yiadom, Univeristy of Cape Coast, Ghana

The increasing rate in urban populations in most developing countries like Ghana has resulted in the growth of slums in our cities. This other face of the urban environment is mostly densely populated with inhumane conditions and treatment which affects the very survival of the slum dwellers. Slums are mostly attributed with high crime rates, prostitution and other forms of illegal activities. Such areas are often characterized by inadequate access to safe water, hygienic sanitation, urban roads, and legitimate power supply, poor structural quality of housing and insecure residential status. From this perspective, slums are synonymous to urban poverty. As environmental awareness grows, there is increasing recognition that life and human dignity can be achieved in a healthy environment with access to adequate physical capital. This paper emphasis that, the unhealthy environmental conditions existing in the slums are human right issues that need to be addressed. It further concludes that the exploitation, socio-economic and infrastructural deprivation of slum dwellers results in exclusion and marginalization which further results in greater vulnerability of this marginalized group to shocks.

Higher Education for Sustainable Development: Nigerian Universities in the Global Eye
    V.E. Yonlonfoun, Department of Educational Management, College of Applied Education and Vocational Technology,Tai Solarin University of Education, Nigeria

Universities are the highest centers of learning where male and female citizens who have the capacity do study to acquire degrees. The graduates are specialists in different skills, which are designed to meet the demands in economic pursuits. Thus great effort is made by governments and societies to find and administer the system to provide the high level manpower required in industries and other sectors of the economy. In Nigeria, as at independence in 1960, there was only one degree awarding institution, the University College, Ibadan. However, between 1960 and 1970, four new universities were established bringing the number to five by 1970. But, by 1980 there were thirteen Federal Universities and by 1983 the number of federal universities had increased to twenty and eight state universities had been established. Today, 2014, there are forty (40) federal universities, thirty-nine 39 state universities and fifty (50) private universities. Despite these numbers of universities, Nigeria youths still travel overseas for their education. The question is why? This paper will look at the Nigeria higher education system, the goals, the standards and the fee in comparison with that of other competitive countries. It will then draw a conclusion as to why the desire for foreign higher institutions. The paper will also look at the factors that attract Nigeria youth to foreign land. Four hundred questionnaires will be drawn to elicit response from 200 respondents in foreign universities and 200 respondents from Nigeria universities. The result will be analyzed and conclusions will be drawn while recommendations will be proffered.

Development and the Youth in Africa: Bridging the leadership generation gap.    
    Adefarakan Adedayo Yusufu, College of Basic Studies, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

The critical place of leadership in various aspects of human endeavors has been acknowledged worldwide. The leadership acts as an important vehicle that shape individuals and cooperate organization toward the attainment of agreed goals and objectives in virtually all societies. While in many cooperate organizations and indeed in most advanced and industrialize nations of the world there is an institutionalized near seamless transition in leadership generation, in most of the African continent the reversed seemed to be the case. In many societies in the continent there is a fixation for old age and preference for the elders largely in many aspects of leadership. There is the prevalent ideology that attributes wisdom to only elders and that it gets better with age. Even though one acquires experience with age and exposure, but the current realities in the world - a vast changing world of information communication technology (ICT) means that the wisdom of the old may not be appropriate for the current objective realities. Consequent upon this, in Africa, the youth are desirable of bridging of the generation gap in leadership. This paper examines the need to make a paradigm shift in leadership to the youth. Many African countries have experienced sit tight leadership and some of the leaders have contempt for the youth using available written materials, the paper argues that there is need for an institutionalized system that consciously integrate the youth into leadership pipeline agreed upon by the society. This it argued is a most credible way of achieving development in the continent.

Trends, pattern and impact of Child Labour, Exploitation, Abuse or Misuse in Northern Nigeria
    Hauwa'u Evelyn Yusuf, Department of Sociology, Kaduna State University, Nigeria

The trends in child exploitation, abuse or misuse under different guises in the world generally and in Africa in particular have continued to engage the attention of scholars both within and outside the continent. With the un-ending conflict and wars unleashed by parochial and self-centered leadership of the continent, attention has been paid to child soldiers recruited by the different factions engaged in such conflicts and wars as a means to an end. We have a growing number of literatures on this phenomenon. However, child labour, abuse and misuse on the major streets in many African towns and cities have not been accorded their much desired attention. But this phenomenon is on the increase in major towns and cities in northern parts of Nigeria and the need for our governments, stakeholders in the future of the youth and sociologist to focus on this category of citizens of this country. It is in recognition of this that this paper examines the trends, patterns and impact of child hawking in the city of Kaduna. It is the outcome of a research work carried out in the metropolitan city of Kaduna. A combination of in depth interviews and questionnaires were used. The research indicates that due to increasing poverty and illiteracy (as more children drop out of schools) street hawking is on the increase with most children of the poor leaning toward the business.

A Panacea to Africa's Development Challenges: Relections and Critique of Democracy as an Over-Realized Eschatology
    Samuel Zalanga, Professor of Sociology, Bethel Univeristy

In the 1990s, there was a strong wave of democratization that spread across Africa. Given the comparative failure of the postcolonial state from the 1970s to the 1980s, it was assumed that the institutionalization of democracy would create an environment for more accountable and fair state institutions and mode of governance. While much was invested and said about the transformational potential of democracy and increased democratization, yet, more than two decades after the spread of the wave of democratization, there seems to be unimpressive progress in terms of the positive dividends of democratization impacting the lives of ordinary citizens in Africa. This paper attempts to interrogate the constellation of factors that might collectively and interactively create a situation where even though a country may satisfy the formal requirements of democracy, the state institutions and people in power may continue to run the affairs of the nation in a manner that is not democratic in substance. The paper highlights the need for careful analysis and evaluation of the workings of democracy, democratic institutions and multiparty politics with a view to accounting for under what conditions can they work to bring about genuine transformation in lives of ordinary citizens by providing public goods? It concludes by stressing the fact that one cannot understand the potential role of democracy and democratic institutions in transforming African societies, without having a thorough understanding of the social structure and social processes of African societies, especially given their diversity. The paper thus asserts that all the declared promises of democracy when not backed by substance might just be an over-realized political eschatology.

  • The Annual UT Africa Conference