Directions for Historical Linguistics: A Symposium


Appendix A: INDEX

  • ablaut, Indo-European: 69-71
  • actuation (problem): 102, 112, 137, 186-187
  • age-and-area hypothesis: 29-30
  • analogy: for Saussure, 11; for Kuryłowicz, 15; for Malkiel, 16; a spark of sound change, 62-63; as an ad hoc explanation, 139-140
  • arbitrariness of the linguistic sign: 19, 32
  • archaic/innovating oppositions: 156; coexistence of, 160
  • auxiliation: 92-94
  • avalanche mechanism, in change: 112-113
  • bilingualism within its social context: 158-159
  • Bloomfieldian descriptive linguistics: 122-125
  • Brugmann: 77-78, 115-116
  • categories: 85
  • causation in sound change, multiple vs. simple: 27
  • chain: 14
  • change of language: for Saussure, 11; definition today, 14; for Malkiel, 16, 25-33; theory of, 99-100, 103, 126, 174-175; empirical principles for, 102-103, 183-187; spontaneous, 107-108; adaptation, 107-108; causes of, 110-112, 114, 121-122, 127; regularity of, 115-117, 187; explanation of, 123-124, 177, 180-181, 184, 186-187; constraints on, 126, 183; through borrowing, 129-131; coexistence of archaic and innovating forms, 149-150; general principles for, 187-188
  • change of sound: 30-31, 111, 117
  • chess, in comparison by Saussure: 13, 15, 128
  • clarity as a force in change: 31
  • code-switching: 164-165
  • coexistent systems: 159-165
  • competence: 99, 101
  • conformity of speakers in change: 112-114
  • constraints (problem): 101-102, 183-184
  • contact, languages and dialects in: 155-165
  • covariation: 169
  • custom, language: 106-108; change in, 107-108
  • determinants of sound change, primary vs. secondary: 27-28
  • détresse morphologique: 50
  • détresse phonologique: 33-34
  • diachronic linguistics, for Saussure: 120-122
  • diachronic phonemics: 123
  • dialects, in change: 121-122, 184
  • diasystem, language as a: 162-163
  • diglossia: 134
  • distinctive features: phonological, 17, 19, 127; of meaning, 18-19; and phonological change, 141-143, 148-150
  • dominance: 71, 73, 78
  • drift: 140-141, 187
  • economy, principle of, in change: 24-25
  • embedding (problem): 101-102, 153, 158, 171-181, 185-186
  • espaces de temps: 7-9
  • etymology: for Szemerényi, 12
  • evaluation (problem): 101-102, 132, 165, 186
  • fluidity of usage: 25
  • founded forms: 74
  • frequency of use: 26
  • functional yield, used in explaining sound change: 133-134; inadequacy as formulated, 137
  • generations, in language change: 114
  • generative phonology and the economy of grammars: 143-144
  • Gothic gen. pl. ē: 18
  • grammar, psychologically internalized: 105
  • Halle, application of generative phonology to historical explanation: 143-150
  • heterogeneity in language: 100-101
  • homogeneity, of speech community: for the Neogrammarians, 99, 125; for Chomsky, 125
  • hypercorrection, as mechanism in transmission of patterns: 181
  • idiolect: 106-108, 124; change in, 107-109; importance of, for Paul, 107-109, 119; use by Bloch, 160
  • innovation: 118, 122; opposition to archaic patterns, 156
  • irregularity, causes of: 26
  • isogloss bundles: coincidence with political boundaries, 153-154; result of linguistic incompatibility, 154; location predictable on linguistic grounds, 154; unaccountable, 154-155
  • language: change of, 11, 14, 103; as a state, 13; in operation, 13, 15; custom, 106-108; learning, important in change, 108-109; design, discreteness vs. continuity, 109-110; as a differentiated system, 150-183
  • Latin Ĕ and Ŏ, diphthongization and subsequent monophthongization: 56-62
  • Latin -RǴ-, -LǴ-, -NǴ-, development of: in Old Spanish, 33-39; in Old Italian, 39; in French, 40; in Provençal, 40, 43
  • law: 14
  • lenition: 72
  • linguistic geography, findings of, used by historical linguistics: 151-155
  • linguistics, diachronic: 5-7; for Saussure, 10-11; prospects of research, 23-33
  • linguistics, synchronic: 5-6; for Saussure, 10-11, 120-121
  • marked vs. unmarked: 67-68
  • Martinet, on explanation of sound change: 133
  • mechanism of sound changes: 47-49, 156-157
  • merger, phonemic: 128
  • morph: 67
  • morpheme: 67, 80
  • morphoneme: 67-81
  • mutations of linguistic categories: 85-95; innovating, 85-86; conservative, 86
  • neogrammarian heritage: 119-120
  • nonprivative opposition: 68
  • onomatopoeia: 31-32
  • paradigm, as a stimulus to change: 27, 33-63
  • Paul, Hermann: on theory of change, 98, 104-120, 121, 126, 128, 139-140, 155; on distinction between origin and propagation of change, 112-113, 129
  • performance, variable: 110
  • periphrasis: 86; of the Latin perfectum, 86-89; yielding futures, 89-92
  • phonemics, diachronic, limits of: 55
  • phonétique: for Saussure, 10
  • phonological change, strong vs. weak: 29
  • phonological space: 149
  • Port-Royal, grammar of: 11
  • privative opposition: 67-68
  • processes of language: 16
  • productive patterns, conflicting: 138-140
  • proportions, linguistic: 74-76
  • provincialism (clocher) in change: 122
  • purposefulness of change: 30
  • rection: 71
  • regularity, specious: 26; of sound change, 32-33, 115-117
  • reinterpretation of phonemes: 142
  • replacement, subphonemic, of lingual by uvular r: 131
  • resistance, paradigmatic, to sound change: 26-27
  • rule, phonetic: 116; simplistic exercises with, 144
  • sandhi, Old Irish: 72
  • Saussure, Ferdinand de: on synchonic vs. diachronic linguistics, 5-20, 78, 98, 120-122, 128
  • Saussure's law: 73
  • sensitivity to subphonemic variants of /θ ð/: 131; to raising the vowels of off, lost, 131
  • sentence, basic unit of language: 16
  • significant, for Saussure: 9, 12
  • sociolinguistic studies, contributions for understanding sound change: 132, 161-162, 176-181, 187
  • sound change, of Latin -RǴ-, -LǴ-, -NǴ-: 33-43; mechanism of, 47-49; morphological interference with, 49-50; accounting for, 49. SEE ALSO change
  • Spanish, Old, development of Lat. -RǴ-, -LǴ-, -NǴ-: 33-42, 43-49, 52-55
  • split, phonemic: 128
  • Sprachgefühl, as a generative device: 105, 128
  • stages of language: 6-9, 12; for Streitberg, 16. SEE ALSO espaces de temps
  • Stammbaum: 152
  • structural features, transmission of: 152-153
  • structure-history antinomy: 98-99
  • style switching: 160, 161, 164
  • substratum influence: 49
  • successive generations, as mechanism for change: 144-146
  • switching between idiolects: 156
  • symmetry of sound systems, explanations for: 142-143
  • synchronic linguistics, for Saussure: 120-122
  • syntagm: 86
  • theory of language change: 99-100, 103, 126, 174-175; empirical foundations for, 102-103, 183-187
  • trajectories: of rival forms, 25-26; of change, 114
  • transition (problem): 101-102, 153, 170-171, 184-185
  • trends, long-term, in change: 140-141
  • union-vowels and consonants: 71-72
  • universals, grammatical, formulation of: 138-139; as determinants in sound change, 138, 143
  • variability, structural: 148, 169
  • variable, linguistic: 167,169
  • variable intensity of change: 32-33
  • wave model of change: 152
  • weak sound change: 16
  • Weinreich, Uriel: 97-98
  • Yiddish vowel changes: 135-137

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