Appendix B

Index

Hymn and stanza numbers for Rigvedic citations and line numbers for other citations are in bold-face type; page references are in roman type.

  • -a (Hitt.). See -i ̯a, -a (Hitt.)
  • -a (marker of mass nouns), 72, 202. See also -h
  • Ablative, 42, 44, 47, 191, 195
    • as starting point of action, 46
  • Ablaut: use of, to express aspects, 176
  • Absolute constructions, 22, 210-211
  • Accent, PIE
    • loss of, in finite verbs and vocatives, 50
    • maintained on verb in subordinate clauses, 50-51
    • marks subordination, 100, 136
  • Accusative, 42, 47, 191, 193-194
  • Adjectival lexical units, 231-232
  • Adjective
    • functioning like substantive modified by relative construction, 37-38
    • in marked constructions, 69
    • in PIE, 208
    • as reduced relative construction, 16, 38
    • weak, in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic, 63, 245-246
  • Adverbial
  • Affixes in IE inflectional system, 152
  • Agent, 11, 47-48, 78, 191
    • in passive constructions, 48, 191
  • agnídh- (Skt.), 76, 77
  • Agreement rules, 13, 69-73
  • agricola (Lat.), 69
  • agriókhoiros (Gk.), 76
  • Aitareya Braḥmāna (AB). See Sanskrit: examples
  • akkušk- (Hitt.), 147
  • Aktionsart, 97
  • allá (Gk.), 153
  • Allen, W. S.
    • on affixes in PIE, 236
    • on change of accent in Greek, 249
  • Alliterative verse, Germanic
    • contributions of, to knowledge of intonation, 25
    • conventions of, 51-52
  • amāns (Lat.), 70, 208
  • Ambivalent languages, 22
  • án (Gk.), 179, 186
  • an (Goth.), 179
  • Analysis of sentences, 218-219
  • Analytic character of IE dialects, 247-248
  • Analytic devices, development of, 247-249
  • Ananthanarayana, H. S.: on roots in TB, 225-226
  • Anastrophe, 36
  • Anatolian languages, 27. See also Hittite
  • and (NE), 160
  • anda (Hitt.), 233
  • antí (Gk.), 233
  • ánti (Skt.), 233
  • antuhšaš, antuhšeš (Hitt.), 202
  • Aorist, 107
  • Aorist passive in Vedic, 151
  • apò koinoû construction, 60, 66-67
  • Apollódōrus (Gk.), 82
  • appa (Hitt.), 233
  • Apposition, 23, 82, 86-88
  • Arabic
  • ā́rat (Skt.), 224
  • arēlis (Lith.), 230
  • arhi- (Hitt.), 223
  • árṇas (Skt.), 230
  • arnu- (Hitt.), 148, 150
  • arnuzi (Hitt.), 226
  • Arrangement
    • changes in, 238-247
    • syntactic treatment of, 24
  • aršk- (Hitt.), 227
  • ā́rta (Skt.), 224
  • artifex (Lat.), 61
  • arunaš (Hitt.), 230
  • as- (Skt.), 182
  • Aspect, 96-97, 106-109, 139-148, 186-190
    • categories of, as compounds of features, 188
    • secondary, 146-147
  • ā́ste (Skt.), 127
  • Attributive
  • augēre (Lat.), 145
  • Augment vowel (e-), 108, 145, 155
  • Augustine, Saint, 241-242
  • Autonomy of word in PIE, 41, 248
  • azzikk- (Hitt.), 148
  • Bahuvrihi, 76, 79-81, 84
  • "Basic meanings" of cases, 192
  • Basque verb system, 110
  • bébrūkhe (Gk.), 141
  • Benveniste, Emile: on meaning of genitive, 191-192
  • Beowulf, citations from: 2, 51; 6, 52; 30, 52; 120-123, 161
  • Bestätigungsfragen, 101, 122, 180
  • bhara (Skt.), 130
  • bher- (PIE), 203
  • bíbāmi (Gk.), 188
  • blackbird (NE), 90
  • bonus, -a, -um (Lat.), 70, 248
  • Brugmann, Karl
    • on classification of sentence types, 181
    • on deixis, 207
    • on lack of future tense in PIE, 190
    • on sentence as basic unit, 30
    • on syntactic processes, 24
  • ca (Skt.), 33, 154, 215
  • Case
    • categories, 10, 49
    • conversion rules, 11
    • grammars, 11, 24
    • studies, 3
  • castra (Lat.), 69
  • Category, syntactic
    • definition of, 175
    • expressed with substantives, 190-203
    • expressed with verbs, 177-190
    • means of expression for, 175-177
  • Causative (Caus.), 11, 44, 96, 108-109, 149-152, 176, 183-184, 188
    • increase in forms of, in Sanskrit, 183
  • Celtic, Insular, 54, 119. See also Irish, Old
  • Change, syntactic, 189
  • Chomsky, Noam: on theory of language, 6
  • Cicero, 41, 181
  • Circumstance, case forms for, 45
  • Collectives in PIE, 72
  • Comparative constructions, 15, 22, 246
    • in Vedic, 31
  • Comparative method, 25, 238
  • Comparison, 15, 195, 202, 208, 232
  • Complement
    • case forms to indicate, 48
    • introduced by markers, 242-243
    • Japanese, 164
    • postposed, 243
  • Complementation, 13, 163-167
    • verbal, in Hittite, 35
  • Compound
  • Concord, 198-201
  • Congruence, 109-110, 199-201
    • in SVO languages, 70-71
  • Conjunctions: from particles, 234
  • Connectives. See Sentence connectives
  • Consistent languages, 12, 22-23
  • Coordination
  • Coordinators, postposed, 20
  • Cowgill, Warren: on first-person singular middle endings, 94, 105
  • ču (Quechua), 102, 153
  • Dative
    • to indicate purpose, 45
    • to indicate Receptor, 191, 194
    • for indirect object, 43, 45, 48
  • Declarative (Dec.), 11, 99-100, 113-114, 179
  • dédorka (Gk.), 143
  • Definiteness, 84
  • Deictic elements, 18
  • deídō (Gk.), 145
  • Deixis, 18, 109-110, 207, 231
  • Delbrück, Berthold
    • contributions of, to syntactic data, 26, 31
    • on derivation of genitive constructions, 74-75
    • on IE relative particle, 25
    • on meaning of aorist, 145-146
    • on meaning of optative affix, 137
    • on particles in Vedic, 118
    • on questions, 123
    • on relative-clause formation, 59
  • Deletion, 13, 58-59
  • Denniston, J. D.: on particles in Greek, 54
  • Dental preterite in Germanic, 247
  • Deponents, 128
  • derk- (PIE), 9, 12
  • dérkomai (Gk.), 143
  • Desiderative, 105, 111, 184-185
  • Determinative, 235
  • Determiners in nominal phrases, 82-83
  • deus (Lat.), 4
  • deva-kṛta (Skt.), 82
  • Devoto, Giacomo: on quantitative connotation of aspect, 106
  • deyk- (PIE), 50
  • d(h) affix/determinative, 152, 235
  • dhām (Skt.), 205
  • dheʔ-, dhē- (PIE), 203
  • -dhi (PIE), 130
  • -di (Hitt.), 127
  • dic (Lat.), 130
  • Dillon, Myles: on particles in Celtic and Hittite, 54, 119, 214
  • Directive case in Hittite, 46
  • dō- (PIE), 43, 48
  • Dominance in IE verb, 111-112
  • dona (Lat.), 72
  • Dover, K. J.: on placement in Greek, 125, 152-153
  • Dressler, Wolfgang
    • on aspects, 106
    • on the iterative, 188
  • Drift, 250
  • Dual number, 201-202
  • duc (Lat.), 130
  • Durative aspect (-(Mom.), 140, 147-148, 186-187, 188-189. See also Momentary (Mom.)
  • dúraḥ (Skt.), 201
  • dvandvas, 81-82
  • dvéṣṭi (Skt.), 143
  • dyaus pitā (Skt.), 88
  • e-, 108, 145, 155
  • -ē-, -eʔ- (PIE), 182, 184
  • ê, ēé (Gk.), 123, 154
  • -e (perfect affix), 108, 141-143, 155
  • ea (Lat.), 66
  • earn (OE), 229
  • ed- (Hitt.), 148
  • ʔed- (PIE), 175
  • eg- (PIE), 206, 231
  • egit (Armenian), 189
  • egṓnē, égōge (Gk.), 154
  • eȋnai (Gk.), 153
  • eku- (Hitt.), 147
  • Elizarenkova, T.: on meaning of injunctive, 187
  • Embedding, 12, 57-59, 219
  • Emphatic patterns, 180, 220-221
  • Enclitic, 50-52, 54-55
  • Endings, verb, in IE languages, 104, 155
  • English, Old
    • example, 73. See also Beowulf
    • OV adjective order, 22
  • Ennius, 154
  • entlanc (early New High German), 246
  • -e/o- affix. See Subjunctive
  • éphaskon (Gk.), 148
  • Equational sentence, 115
  • Equivalent NP deletion, 13, 58-59
  • er- (IE). See γer- (PIE)
  • Ergative, 178
  • érkhomai (Gk.), 227
  • erteilen (German), 213, 229
  • es-, ʔes- (PIE), 115, 116, 203, 209
  • eš- (Hitt.), 165
  • et (Lat.), 160
  • Expression, means of, for syntactic categories, 175-177
  • -eyo- (PIE causative affix), 108-109, 150-151, 176
  • fac (Lat.), 130
  • Factitives, 150-151
  • fas (Lat.), 69
  • faurrinnan (Goth.), 229
  • Feature
    • in aspects, 188
    • semantic, 10
    • syntactic, definition of, 175
  • fer (Lat.), 130, 205
  • Finals, restrictions of, in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, 53
  • Finno-Ugric, 116
  • forēs (Lat.), 201
  • Frequentative, 187
  • Friedrich, Johannes: on Hittite particles, 119-120, 125
  • Future tense, development of, 133, 190
  • gā- (Skt.), 234
  • Gaedicke, Carl: on cases, 3
  • Gallehus inscription, 55
  • Gapping in Vedic, 33
  • Gardiner, Alan: on particles in Ancient Egyptian, 209
  • ge (Gk.), 154
  • gégēthe (Gk.), 141
  • gel- (Turkish), 92-93, 235
  • Gender, 198-201
  • Generation of sentences, 216-218
  • Generative
    • approach, defined, 6
    • semantics, 7-8
    • syntax, 7-9
  • Genitive
    • to indicate partitive object, 48-49
    • to indicate relationship between substantives, 190
    • in marked construction, 73-74
    • objective, 191
    • with postpositions in Old Hittite, 212
    • primary function of, 74, 192-193
    • as reduced relative construction, 16, 38
    • subjective, 191
    • See also Attributive
  • γer- (PIE), 148, 223-228, 236
  • German
    • Middle High (MHG): examples, 67, 161
    • New High
    • Old High (OHG): example, 41
  • Germanic
    • grammar, 3, 28
    • preterite-presents, 140, 189
    • subjunctive based on optative, 185
    • verse, 25, 51-52, 100
    • See also Beowulf, citations from; Gudrunslied
  • γern- (PIE), 230
  • gha (Skt.), 154
  • Gimbutas, Marija: on IE culture, 5, 251
  • git- (Turkish), 235
  • gör- (Turkish), 204
  • γorn- (PIE), 230
  • goṣā́ (Skt.), 90
  • Gothic
  • Götze, Albrecht: on particles in Hittite and Celtic, 54, 119, 214
  • gó-vapus (Skt.), 84
  • gravis, grave (Lat.), 208, 248
  • Greek
  • Greek examples:
  • Greenberg, Joseph, typological theory of, 6
  • gu (Sumerian), 236
  • Gudrunslied: 538.2, 67
  • gumakunds (Goth.), 82
  • gwem- (PIE), 147, 225
  • gwōus (PIE), 236
  • -h (PIE), 198, 202, 248
  • ha (Skt.), 155
  • haran (Hitt.), 230
  • Hebrew, 103
  • Heliand: 458-459, 72
  • Hermann, Eduard: on subordination in PIE, 159
  • hḗstai (Gk.), 127
  • hi (Skt.), 185
  • hi- conjugation, 140, 141, 143
  • h- inflection, 141-142, 201
  • híppagros (Gk.), 76
  • Hirt, Hermann: views of, on syntax, 4
  • Hittite
  • Hittite, Late, 27
  • Hittite, Old, 27, 212
  • Hoffmann, Karl: on meaning of injunctive, 179, 187
  • Homer. See Greek examples
  • homō, hominem (Lat.), 206
  • Hortatory subjunctive, 131-132
  • hós, hḗ, hó (Gk.), 65
  • hṓste (Gk.), 242-243
  • huiš- (Hitt.), 239
  • Hypotactic relationships. See Subordinate clauses
  • -i (PIE verbal affix), 59, 93, 94, 99, 103, 125, 130, 134, 137, 179
  • i (Skt.), 214
  • -i ̯a, -a (Hitt.), 155, 160, 162
  • ibai (Goth.), 122, 180
  • id (Lat.), 66
  • Iliad. See Greek examples
  • Imperative, 114, 130, 132, 135, 137-138, 184, 185
  • Imperfective. See Perfective
  • Inchoative, 187-188
  • Indicative, 99
  • Indo-Hittite hypothesis, 143
  • Infinitive, 209-210
  • Injunctive, Vedic, 93, 124, 132-133, 138, 145, 179, 186-187, 205
  • Insular Celtic, 119
  • Instrument, 11, 77, 191
  • Instrumental, 42, 47, 191, 194, 195, 196
  • Intensive, 187-188
  • Interrogative (Int.), 11, 17, 99-102, 121-123, 154, 179. See also Questions
  • Intonation, PIE, 24-25, 52, 100-101, 179
  • invati (Skt.), 108
  • Ionic. See Greek: Ionic iterative preterites
  • Irish, Old
  • is, ea, id (Lat.), 66
  • it (Hitt.), 134
  • it (NE), 40
  • Iterative (Iter.), 11, 106, 147-148, 187, 239-240
  • iti (Skt.), 86, 173
  • íyarti (Skt.), 150, 224, 226, 227
  • Jacobi, Hermann, 3-4, 23
    • on subordination, 60
    • on syntactic structure of PIE, 61
  • jah (Goth.), 160
  • Japanese
    • complement constructions, 164
    • compounds, 76
  • Japanese (continued)
  • Jespersen, Otto: on syntactic elements, 91
  • jigā́ti (Skt.), 188
  • juóste (Lith.), 145
  • Jūpiter (Lat.), 88
  • K (underlying case categories), 10-12
  • ka (Japanese Int. particle), 102, 179
  • -k- affix, use of, in Greek, 152, 247
  • kaí (Gk.), 129, 160
  • Kammenhuber, Annelies: on -ske, 106
  • kann (Goth.), 189
  • kāraka, 10
  • kāš, kē (Hitt.), 202
  • ke (Gk.), 135, 179, 186
  • keȋtai (Gk.), 128
  • key- (PIE), 128
  • ki (Japanese), 204
  • kimono (Japanese), 204
  • Kinship terms, PIE, analysis of, 225, 230
  • Kiparsky, Paul: on change of accent patterns in dialects, 249-250
  • kiru, kita (Japanese), 204
  • koinḗ (Gk.), 19
  • Krahe, Hans: on use of PIE cases, 43
  • -ku, -ku (Hitt.), 160
  • kuiš (Hitt.), relative construction marker, 63
  • kuit clauses, 169-170
  • Kurgan culture, 5, 251
  • kurur (Hitt.), 70, 200, 208, 231
  • kwe (PIE), 160
  • kwi , kwo-, kwu- (PIE), 66, 179
  • -l- (first singular Hitt. Imper.), 185
  • lāman (Hitt.), 123, 135
  • Latin
    • grammar, 3, 27
    • examples, 21, 35, 40, 113, 192
      • Cicero, 41, 181
      • Ennius, Annals: 250, 154
      • Plautus, Asinaria: 884, 101
      • Plautus, Aulularia: 213, 101
      • Plautus, Curculio: 189, 80; 423, 125
      • Plautus, Pseudolus: 273, 111
      • Plautus, Truculentus: 723, 125
      • Praeneste inscription, 53
      • Vergil, Aeneid: 1.2, 181; 1.544, 36
  • laudō (Lat.), 247
  • (Hitt.), 123, 155
  • Lewy, Ernst: on verb systems, 110
  • Lexical analysis of PIE γer, 223-228
  • Lexical entry
  • Lexical features, 10, 12
  • li (Slavic), 102, 122, 154
  • Lisu, 11, 99, 176, 179
  • Lithuanian: optative forms with imperative sense, 137
  • loca (Lat.), 202
  • Locative, 42, 46, 191
  • locus (Lat.), 202
  • -lu (Hitt.), 134
  • -m (PIE), 198
  • m, s, t verbal endings, 93. See also PIE: m- inflection
  • mā́ (Skt.), 123, 124, 185, 186
  • (Tocharian A and B), 123
  • Macdonell, Arthur A.: on analysis of causative, 44
  • magnanimus (Lat.), 80
  • mahhan (Hitt.), 171
  • mā́kis (Skt.), 155
  • man- (Hitt.), 172, 185
  • mān (Hitt.), 171, 172
  • Manner, 11, 78
    • adverbial expression of, 46-47
  • Maori, 60
  • mar (Tocharian A), 123
  • Marked construction
  • mḗ (Gk.), 122, 123, 132, 153, 180
  • me- (PIE), 206, 231
  • (PIE), 102, 123, 124, 132, 155, 180, 185, 186, 216
  • Means, 11, 77
    • adverbial expression of, 47-48
  • mēcum (Lat.), 36
  • Meillet, Antoine
    • on appositional relationships in PIE, 82, 86-87
    • on autonomy of word in PIE, 41, 248
    • on IE distinction between noun and verb, 110
    • on lack of prefixes in PIE, 32-33
    • on meaning of the accusative, 193
    • on reintroduction of nominal sentences in Slavic, 116
  • mekki (Hitt.), 231
  • meli (Turkish), 105
  • memor (Lat.), 70, 208
  • mén (Gk.), 154
  • men- (PIE), 222
  • mḗtis (Gk.), 153, 155
  • -mi (IE), 10, 93
  • mi (Turkish), 9, 102, 153
  • mi- conjugation, 140-143
  • Middle (Mid.), 11, 18-19, 103, 127-130, 183
    • endings, 142
    • first-person singular endings, 94
    • lost as IE languages became VO, 246
    • lost in Greek koinē, 19
    • -o affix, 94, 127, 130
    • relation of, to perfect, 143-144, 182
  • mihi est construction (Lat.), 79
  • m- inflection, 141-142, 201
  • Mitchell, T. F.: on concord, 198
  • Modality, kinds of, 97-98. See also Q
  • Modal logic, 96-97
  • Modification, 24
  • Modifier. See Adjective; Genitive; Nominal: modifying constructions; Relative constructions; Verbal modifying constructions
  • Momentary (Mom.), 11, 107, 140-144, 186-187, 188-189
  • Moods in IE languages, 97, 105-106, 130-139, 184-190
  • n (PIE Caus. affix), 150-151
  • -na (Avestan), 101
  • na (Germanic), 101
  • na (Skt.), 102, 123, 124, 180
  • nákis (Skt.), 135
  • nāman (Skt.), 135
  • našma (Hitt.), 160
  • natta (Hitt.), 122, 124
  • nauta (Lat.), 72
  • ne (Lat.), 122, 123
  • -nē (Lat.), 101
  • ne, n, (PIE), 126
  • ne (PIE), 102, 123, 124, 125, 153, 180
  • Necessitative (Nec.), 11, 105, 130-135
  • nēd (Skt.), 124
  • Negation, sentence, in PIE, 123-126
  • Negative (Neg.), 11, 17, 99, 102
  • nei (PIE), 124
  • nem- (Gk.), 222
  • nēmo (Lat.), 153
  • ni (Goth.), 180
  • (Lat.), 125, 180
  • n(i) (Skt.), 135
  • nioman (OHG), 153
  • nist (Goth.), 124
  • niu (Goth.), 122
  • no (Old Irish), 120
  • nōlo < ne vōlo (Lat.), 124
  • Nominal
  • Nominative, 42, 48, 191
  • nōn (Lat.), 124
  • none (NE), 153
  • nonne (Lat.), 122, 180
  • Norse, Old (ON), 116, 230
  • Noun, 110, 203, 206, 229-230, 235
  • Noun phrase (NP), 13, 57-59
  • nt- participles (PIE), 209
  • nu (Gk.), 122
  • nu (Hitt.), 54, 118, 119-120, 159, 214
  • nu (Skt.), 118, 122, 154
  • (Skt.), 118, 120, 215
  • num (Lat.), 122, 180
  • Number, 71-73, 94, 201-203
  • Numerals, 208
  • -o affix, 94, 127, 130
  • Obligative (Obl.), 105, 130-135
  • Odyssey. See Greek examples
  • oȋda (Gk.), 107, 140, 189
  • Old Church Slavic (OCS). See Slavic
  • Old English (OE). See English, Old
  • Old High German (OHG). See German: Old High
  • Old Hittite, 27, 212
  • Old Irish. See Irish, Old
  • Old Norse (ON), 116, 230
  • Old Persian, 115
  • Old Saxon, 72
  • Optative
  • Order. See Arrangement; OV order; VO order
  • orior (Lat.), 226
  • ǫrn (ON), 230
  • ornis, órnīthos (Gk.), 229
  • órnumi (Gk.), 226
  • ôrto (Gk.), 223, 224, 225
  • Otfrid, 41
  • ou, ouk (Gk.), 122, 123, 129, 153, 180
  • oúte (Gk.), 126
  • OV languages, 12, 39, 168, 204, 235
  • OV order
    • characteristics of, 14-21, 92-95
    • embedding processes, 57-59
    • reintroduction of, 39, 116
    • See also PIE: OV order
  • pad-, Vedic forms of, 206
  • paenitet (Lat.), 111
  • pāi- (Hitt.), 120
  • Pali, 240-241
  • Panini
    • on kāraka, 10
    • on injunctive, 93
    • paptas (Vedic), 146
  • parā (Hitt.), 118, 232, 233
  • parā (Skt.), 232, 233
  • paraśús (Skt.), 236
  • Parataxis, 158-162
  • Participial constructions in place of relatives, 37
  • Participles, 208-211
  • Particles, 116-120, 197, 211-216, 234
  • Partitive object, 49
  • Passive, 108-109, 129, 151-152, 182-184
    • diversity of formations of, in IE dialects, 184
    • increase in forms of, in Sanskrit, 183-184
    • perfect, in Latin, 246
  • Patronymics, 38
  • Paul, Hermann
    • on definition of sentence, 8-9
    • on syntactic means or processes, 24
  • Pedersen, Holger: on causative in Tocharian, 188
  • peγ- (PIE), 41
  • pélekus (Gk.), 236
  • per (Gk.), 234
  • per (PIE), 232-233
  • Perfect, 107-108, 140-141, 143-146
  • Perfective (Perf.), 11, 97, 106-108, 139-141, 186-187
  • Periphrastic constructions, 210
  • Persian, Old: example, 115
  • Person
    • endings for, 94, 142, 201
    • expressed by honorifics in Japanese, 178
    • expressions for, 110
  • phásken (Gk.), 148
  • phére (Gk.), 130
  • philós (Gk.), 129
  • philósophos (Gk.), 81
  • phobéō (Gk.), 108
  • phoréō (Gk.), 108
  • Phrases as syntactic units in PIE, 52-53
  • Phrase-structure rules, 6, 10-12, 41, 78, 216
  • pickpocket (NE), 90
  • PIE
  • pilaqqu (Akkadian), 236
  • piran (Hitt.), 212
  • Pitch in Vedic, 50-51, 249
  • Pivot, 15
  • Place, 11, 78, 191
    • adverbial expressions for, 46
  • Plautus. See Latin: examples
  • pluit (Lat.), 39, 111, 123
  • Plurality in verbal aspect, 147
  • pluti markers, 100, 180, 220
  • pō-, peγ- (PIE), 175
  • Possession, expression for, 79-80
  • Postpositions, 15, 196, 212
    • development to prepositions, 234
    • in Vedic, 31
  • pra (Skt.), 228-229
  • prá (Skt.), 118, 228
  • Praeneste inscription, 53
  • prá-pada (Skt.), 81
  • Prefixes, verbal
    • absent in OV languages, 20
    • absent in PIE, 32-33, 37
    • loss of, in Old Norse, 116
  • Prepositions, 15, 197, 212, 234
  • Present, 107
  • Presuppositions with Int., 122
  • Preterite, iterative, 106, 147-148, 239-240
  • Preverbs, 116-118, 212-214, 228-229, 233-235
  • Primary endings, 93
  • Principle of order, 12
  • pró (Gk.), 118, 139
  • prō (Lat.), 232
  • proérkhomai (Gk.), 229
  • Pronominalization, 17-18
  • Pronominal lexical units, 230-231
  • propátōr (Gk.), 81
  • Propositional elements, 11
  • proprius (Lat.), 81
  • P rules. See Phrase-structure rules
  • purā́ (Skt.), 139, 216
  • Purpose
    • case forms for, 45
    • clauses, absence of, in Hittite, 159
    • infinitives of, 242
    • in PIE, 168
  • púṣṭi-gu (Skt.), 79
  • Q
    • qualifiers, 11, 16
    • affixes, change in meanings of, 112
    • component, elements introduced through, 91-109, 189
  • que (Lat.), 154, 215
  • Quechua
    • obligative and necessitative, 105
    • order of affixes, 103-104
    • reciprocal, 103
    • reflexive, 103
  • Questions
    • clarification, 101, 121, 179
    • confirmation, 101, 122, 180
    • disjunctive, 123
    • modification of modal meanings in, 138
    • presuppositions with, 122-123
    • See also Interrogative (Int.)
  • -r (Celtic and Italic), 184
  • (PIE). See γer-
  • ṛ- (Skt.), 218
  • rāja-putra (Skt.), 81, 84
  • Raman, Carol
  • ṛcháti (Skt.), 227
  • Receptor, 11, 77, 191, 194
  • Reciprocal, 102-103, 126, 130
    • pronouns, late, 246
  • redneck (NE), 9
  • Reduced relative construction, 16, 38
  • Reduplication, 188
  • Reflexive, 48, 126-130
  • Reflexivization, 17-20, 102-103
  • Reintroduction of OV patterns, 39, 116
  • Relative clause, 26
    • determined vs. nondetermined, in Hittite, 64
    • formation of, 58-59, 163, 219
    • markers for, 63, 65-66, 90
    • parallel with subordinate clauses in OV languages, 168
    • reduction of, 13
  • Relative constructions, 15-16, 37, 66, 159, 207
  • Relativization, 13
  • Renou, Louis: on perfect, 141
  • Result, case forms for, 45
  • Result clauses, absence of, in Hittite, 159
  • Resultative, 196
  • Rheme, 220
  • -ri (Hitt.), 103, 127
  • Rigveda, 26. See also Sanskrit: examples
  • rinnan (Goth.), 229
  • Risch, Ernst: on IE compounds, 76, 81
  • ṛṇóti (Skt.), 150, 224, 226, 227
  • Rōmam īre (Lat.), 46, 194
  • Root, PIE, 203-205, 235-236
    • in comparison with roots of OV languages, 204, 235
    • examples of, γer-, 223-228
    • with preverbs, 228-229
  • rosa (Lat.), 72, 248
  • -ru (Hitt.), 127
  • run (ON), 230
  • runs (Goth.), 230
  • ruō (Lat.), 226
  • Russian: expression of aspect, 96-97
  • ryne (OE), 230
  • -s (nominal), use of in PIE, 75, 158, 193, 198
  • -s- (verbal), use of in PIE, 152, 184
  • sa (Skt.), 54, 86, 118, 120, 215, 235
  • sádati (Skt.), 127
  • sam (Skt.), 214
  • Samoyede verb system, 110
  • Sandhi, 24, 248-249
  • Sanskrit
    • desiderative, 105-106
    • grammars, 3, 27
    • third-person singular endings, 104
    • verb system, development of, 187
  • Sanskrit examples
  • sás, sā́, tád (Skt.), 119
  • Śatapathabrāhmaṇa (ŚB). See Sanskrit: examples
  • Saxon, Old, 72
  • Schmidt, Johannes: on IE plural formation, 69, 198
  • Secondary endings, 141-142
  • sed- (PIE), 127
  • Seebold, Elmar: on PIE weyd-, 236
  • seiner (German), 128
  • Selection categories in IE syntax, 24, 247-248
  • Sememe, 9
  • Sentence
  • Separable prefixes in German, 36
  • Sequence of tenses, 112, 172
  • sequor (Lat.), 128
  • sésēre (Gk.), 141
  • śéte (Skt.), 128
  • sew(e)- (PIE), 128, 207
  • s formations, 145
  • sich (German), 128
  • -ske suffix (IE), 106, 147-149, 188
  • Slavic
    • grammar, 3, 28
    • development of verbal system, 187
    • nominal sentences, 116
  • sma (Skt.), 154, 216
  • so-, sā-, to- (PIE), 207
  • Sociative, 191
  • Sommer, Ferdinand: on meaning of genitive, 192
  • Source, 11, 77, 191
  • Squamish, 99, 119, 120, 179, 215
  • Standard, 15
  • Stative, 107, 141
  • sthā-, forms of, in Vedic, 93
  • Stigmata, 15, 22
  • Sturtevant, E. H.: and Indo-Hittite hypothesis, 118-119, 214
  • Stylistic rules, 221
  • šu (Hitt.), 54, 118, 120, 214-215
  • Subject, 14, 40, 156-158
    • appositional in PIE, 113
  • Subjective dominance, 242
  • Subjective quality of verb in IE, 110-112, 172, 239
  • Subjunctive, 138
    • affix for, in PIE, 105, 134, 184
    • endings for, 94
    • in Germanic, 185
    • in Hittite, 185
    • lack of, in Hittite, 162
    • loss of, in dialects, 134
    • in PIE, 131-135
    • in Sanskrit, 185
    • in subordinate clauses, 133
  • Subordinate clauses, 167-174
  • Subordination, 60, 136
  • Suffix, 235
  • šunna- (Hitt.), 140
  • Surface phenomena, interpretation of, 178
  • sva- (Skt.), 129
  • SVO languages, 14, 18
    • requirement of subject, 40
  • Swahili: examples, 71
  • Syncretism in verb system, 187
  • Syntactic change, 189
  • Syntactic explanation
    • based on universals, 5
    • by attraction, 4
    • by borrowing, 4
  • Syntax
    • definitions of, 5-6
    • explanatory, 5-11
    • processes or means of, 24
  • Synthetic. See Compound: synthetic
  • Systematization of paradigms, 247-248
  • -t (Hitt.), 127
  • ta (Hitt.), 54, 118, 120, 214-215
  • tāh, tigon (OE), 50
  • Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa (TB). See Sanskrit: examples
  • Taittirīya Saṁhitā (TS). See Sanskrit: examples
  • takku (Hitt.), 172, 215
  • takšul (Hitt.), 70, 231
  • Target, 11, 12, 77, 191, 194
  • Tatpurusha, 81-82
  • te (Gk.), 154, 215
  • -te (PIE), 130
  • Temporal clauses, 168
  • Tense, 17, 97, 133, 139, 177, 189, 190
    • indicated by particles in PIE, 139, 176, 216
  • tethēlṓs (Gk.), 141
  • tew- (PIE), 206
  • -thē- (Gk.), 184
  • Thematic vowel, 247-248
  • Theme, 220
  • Thurneysen, Rudolf
    • on IE inflection, 93
    • on the imperative, 99
  • -t(i) (Hitt.), 103
  • Time, 11, 77, 191
  • Titles, order of, 23, 87-88
  • to (Japanese), 173
  • Tocharian, 123-124, 188
  • Topicalization, 13, 156-158, 220-221
  • tozan (Japanese), 76
  • Transformational rules, 13
  • Transitive, lack of formal distinction for, in early PIE, 181-182
  • Transportation processes, 13, 122, 152-156
  • tu (Skt.), 118
  • Turkish
  • Typology, 6, 15-16
  • u (Goth.), 122, 154
  • -u. See Imperative: affix -u
  • uk (Hitt.), 202
  • úkṣati (Skt.), 145
  • Urteil (German), 213, 229
  • utá (Skt.), 158-159
  • uttar, uddanaš (Hitt.), 231
  • uu̯a- (Hitt.), 120
  • V, definition of, 15
  • (Skt.), 154
  • v affix, in Latin, 152, 247
  • ve (Lat.), 154
  • véda (Skt.), 107, 140, 186, 187, 189, 205
  • Vedic, 30-34, 50-51, 62, 93, 131, 136, 151, 170-171, 206, 249. See also Injunctive, Vedic
  • ver- (Turkish), 204
  • Verb, 110. See also PIE: verb; PIE: verbal system
  • Verbal modifying constructions, 16-17
  • Verbal noun, 23
  • Verdeutlichungsfragen, 101, 121, 179
  • Vergil. See Latin: examples
  • Verkuyl, H. J.: on aspects, 188
  • verlieren (German), 118
  • Verner, Karl: on pitch in Germanic, 50
  • vetus (Lat.), 70
  • vīdi (Lat.), 140, 189
  • vigil (Lat.), 70
  • VO languages, 12
    • gender in, 199
  • VO order
    • characteristics of, 15-20
    • inconsistent in Classical Greek and Latin, 238
    • in Saint Augustine, 241-242
  • vocas (Vedic), 146
  • Vocatives, 86, 114, 190
    • modifiers to, 87
  • Voice, 181-184
  • Volitional, Voluntative (Vol.), 11, 105, 135-139
  • Vormund (German), 118
  • Vowel harmony, Turkish, 92
  • VSO
    • relative constructions, 67-68, 90
    • sentence connectives, 119
  • Wachowicz, Krystyna: on multiple question words, 121
  • Wackernagel, Jacob
    • contributions of, to syntactic study, 28
    • explanations of, for syntactic phenomena, 4, 37-38
    • law of, 52, 122, 152-154, 221
    • on lexical expression for tense, 176
    • on meaning of perfect, 141
  • wahsjan (Goth.), 145
  • wait (Goth.), 107, 140, 189
  • watar, wetenaš (Hitt.), 147, 206
  • Watkins, Calvert
    • on position of preverbs, 117
    • on primary function of genitive, 74, 193
  • wē̆ (PIE), 160, 216
  • wēš (Hitt.), 202
  • wetenaš (Hitt.), 147, 206
  • wey- (PIE), 236
  • weyd- (PIE), 140, 144, 176, 186, 189, 235, 236
  • wid- (PIE), 144, 176
  • widār (Hitt.), 147
  • woid- (PIE), 176, 186
  • Words, as syntactic units in PIE, 53
  • wot (English), 140
  • WP (Walde-Pokorny lexicon of IE), 222-223
  • Würzburg glosses, 67-68
  • ya- (Skt.), 169
  • yadā (Skt.), 171
  • yad clauses, Vedic, 131, 136, 170-171
  • yadi (Skt.), 138
  • yaj- (Skt.)
    • forms of, in TB, 98
    • illustrations of middle use of, 127
  • yamanobori, Japanese, 76
  • yāstē (Avestan), 143
  • yatra (Skt.), 171
  • -yeʔ- (PIE). See Optative
  • yo- (PIE), 168
  • -yo- (PIE), 182, 184
  • yo relative clause, 26
  • yod (PIE), 168-169
  • yomimono (Japanese), 204
  • yomu, yonda (Japanese), 110, 204
  • yos, yā, yod (PIE), 66
  • yuváti (Skt.), 143
  • zēh, zigum (OHG), 50
  • zeiaí (Gk.), 201
  • Zeû páter (Gk.), 88

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