CODE Zika Brazil

Papers

Publications 

Live Births and Fertility Amid the Zika Epidemic in Brazil

Marteleto, Letícia J., Gilvan Guedes, Raquel Z. Coutinho, and Abigail Weitzman. 2020. “Live Births and Fertility Amid the Zika Epidemic in Brazil.” Demography.

Available online through SpringerLink; pdf here.






Abstract: In late 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization classified the increase in congenital malformations associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV) as a public health emergency. The risk of ZIKV-related congenital syndrome poses a threat to reproductive outcomes that could result in declining numbers of live births and potentially fertility. Using monthly microdata on live births from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC), this study examines live births and fertility trends amid the ZIKV epidemic in Brazil. Findings suggest a decline in live births that is stratified across educational and geographic lines, beginning approximately nine months after the link between ZIKV and microcephaly was publicly announced. Although declines in total fertility rates were small, fertility trends estimated by age and maternal education suggest important differences in how Zika might have impacted Brazil’s fertility structure. Further findings confirm the significant declines in live births in mid-2016 even when characteristics of the municipality are controlled for; these results highlight important nuances in the timing and magnitude of the decline. Combined, our findings illustrate the value of understanding how the risk of a health threat directed at fetuses has led to declines in live births and fertility.

Signifying Zika: Heterogeneity in the Representations of the Virus by History of Infection

Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho, Raquel Zanatta Coutinho, Leticia Marteleto, Wesley Henrique Silva Pereira, and Denise Duarte. 2018. “Signifying Zika: Heterogeneity in the Representations of the Virus by History of Infection.” Cadernos De Saude Publica 34(5):e00003217.

Available online through Scielo; pdf here.

Abstract: Despite having been broadly advertised by the mass media, many negative consequences of the Zika virus have been less significant than originally predicted. It is likely that after a few months from the epidemic’s onset, personal experience with the virus has altered the person’s way to deal with the disease. This study explores the relation between exposure to Zika virus and the social representation of the epidemic. More specifically, one analyzes if increased exposure to the risk of Zika infection changes the characteristics of the web of meanings surrounding the epidemic. Between August and November of 2016, 150 interviews were conducted in the municipality of Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Based on the Free Words Association Technique, data on evocations related to the Zika virus were modeled by social network analysis, allowing the characterization of the web of meanings by level of exposure to the risk of Zika infection. The analysis performed here suggests that those never infected by any disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito have a lesser representation, incorporating information from the media through lay thinking. In contrast to those with low levels of exposure, the social representation of people infected by Zika is associated with meanings related to the most common symptoms, such as pain, rash, and itching. Personal experience seems to shape the social representation of the disease, increasing the focus on its proximate consequences. Public campaigns designed to foster protective behavior should take into consideration the heterogeneity in the representations of this epidemic to improve adherence to preventive behavior.

Why Social Perception Matters during Disease Outbreaks: Looking at How Individuals Understand the Zika Virus by Self-Reported History of Infection

Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho, Raquel Zanatta Coutinho, Leticia Marteleto, Wesley Henrique Silva Pereira, and Denise Duarte. 2018. “Why Social Perception Matters during Disease Outbreaks: Looking at How Individuals Understand the Zika Virus by Self-Reported History of Infection.” Cadernos de Saúde Pública 34(9):e00139718.

Available online through Scielo; pdf here.

Abstract: We respond to the comment to our article Signifying Zika: Heterogeneity in the Representations of the Virus by History of Infection with the goal of reassuring our findings.

Women's Reproductive Intentions and Behaviors during the Zika Epidemic in Brazil

Marteleto, Letícia J., Abigail Weitzman, Raquel Zanatta Coutinho, and Sandra Valongueiro Alves. 2017. “Women’s Reproductive Intentions and Behaviors during the Zika Epidemic in Brazil.” Population and Development Review 43(2):199–227.

Available online through Wiley Online Library; pdf here.



Abstract: The epidemic caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV), beginning in 2015, is a major public health shock for Brazil, confronting reproductive-age women with an array of potentially dire risks for pregnancy and for the health of their children. As these risks have become more widely known, we would expect to see responses on the part of vulnerable women in changed childbearing intentions and in sexual and contraceptive behavior. In this study we investigate these responses. In particular, we examine the interplay of women’s desires, behaviors, and healthcare access and use during the frst 18 months of the epidemic, drawing on rich new qualitative data.

 


Working Papers

  • Coutinho, Raquel, Aida Villanueva, Abigail Weitzman and Letícia Marteleto. "Zika Virus: Understanding the Mechanisms of Gender Inequality in Brazil.”
  • Dondero, Molly, Leticia J. Marteleto, Gilvan Guedes and Laís Picinini Freitas. 2020. “Maternal Exposure to the Zika Epidemic: Impacts on Birth Weight and Preterm Birth in Brazil.” Accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association.
  • Marteleto, Letícia J. and Alexandre Gori Maia. 2020. “Weather Shocks and Fertility Amidst Arbovirus Outbreaks.” Accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C. (Conference canceled).
  • Marteleto, Letícia J., Ana Maria Hermeto Camilo de Oliveira, Andrew Koepp and Julia Almeida. 2019. “Perceived Risk to Microcephaly and Live Births throughout the Zika Epidemic in Brazil.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York (NY), August 10.