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Indo-European Languages and Historical Linguistics

edited by Jonathan Slocum

These online books by Winfred P. Lehmann et al. are about Indo-European languages and historical linguistics, broadly interpreted. They are made available in online form in order to ensure their long-term, widespread accessibility; they may be accompanied by more recent, introductory essays (author/editor notes). In a few instances, minor errors or omissions in the original texts have been corrected; in rare instances, as much as a paragraph may have been rewritten in light of important new findings. On the other hand, digitization may have introduced new errors, for which the series editor offers apology; if attention is drawn to them, repairs will be effected whenever possible.

Hot-links below and in the left margin lead to online volumes by Winfred P. Lehmann and others that have been digitized and formatted for web presentation. We list the books here, for quick reference, but it may help to read the following Textual Conventions and Unicode sections before viewing any of these books.

Lehmann Books:

Other Books:

Textual Conventions

These linguistic studies, like all others of their ilk, were and are written using a large number and wide variety of characters: letters in Roman (Latin), Greek, and other scripts, with overstrike diacritics etc. We are compelled to represent them all in this series; for this, we employ Unicode (see below). However, some textual conventions may be changed in accordance with more modern online publishing practice and/or to facilitate the display of citation forms, e.g. with special characters. For example, italics and/or a font shift may replace underlining (which, in a web page, generally signals hot-links).

Original page numbers, being irrelevant in an online resource, are not visible: they are present, if at all, only as comments in the underlying HTML source. Index and table of contents entries that refer to page numbers are converted to hot-links that lead to the location where, in the printed book, that page commenced.

Each book chapter is contained in a single web page. Any footnotes are relocated to the end of a chapter (i.e., to the end of the web page containing them), generally with hot-links from the footnote number.

Unicode® - Short Story

In order to read these books online, your computer must employ Unicode-compliant software and have available a large Unicode-compliant font with the requisite character glyphs. All modern software is Unicode-compliant; most older computer systems can be upgraded to modern software. Large Unicode fonts are available for purchase or, in some cases (at the time of writing), free download; often a suitable font is already installed, or may be installed as an option with a word processor for example. Refer to vendor documentation for details.

Unicode® - Long Story

It would serve no useful purpose to attempt to render these texts using a grossly simplified character set in order to accommodate the relatively few aged computer systems that remain incapable of displaying the many characters. Adequate software has been available from all major vendors for years, and adequate hardware, for decades.

Accordingly, these texts are published online only in the Unicode (a.k.a. ISO-10646) character set: the international standard means of encoding texts written in multiple scripts. These pages are intended to reflect accurately the original document content, although the font face used to render text online necessarily depends on the one(s) installed on your computer, and what your personal software settings are -- factors beyond the control, or even the knowledge, of web servers.

For technical reasons that cannot be explained in brief, our web page stylesheet can only recommend to your display software that it choose one font or another from its list. If your software is configured to ignore such recommendations, or if it is inadequate for any reason, you're on your own. Anyone wishing to read online texts in their native scripts should acquire and enable software that fully supports the Unicode standard; some resources are free, while others may require payment. The University of Texas cannot, and does not, make vendor recommendations. For convenience we list here, in alphabetic order and without evaluation, a few Unicode-compliant fonts that appear to meet the requirements of these pages:

  • Alphabetum Unicode (6.5 or above);
  • Arial Unicode MS (Windows only?);
  • Code2000;
  • Everson Mono Unicode;
  • Gentium;
  • Lucida Grande (Macintosh only);
  • Lucida Sans Unicode (Windows only);
  • TITUS Cyberbit Basic.

What this means is that, in order to read these books online, you must employ Unicode-compliant software and it must have available a Unicode-compliant font -- such as one of those listed above, or an equivalent -- with the requisite character glyphs. Even the default "serif" and "sans-serif" fonts used by your browser may be assumed to contain Unicode characters such as a-with-macron and s-with-caron. These requirements are generally met, on Macintosh, only by OS X 10.2 or later with a suitably advanced browser. As we become aware of the existence and wide distribution of other large Unicode-compliant fonts having [typically] thousands of glyphs covering the characters in these books, we will add them to our style sheet.

Trademarks, including font names, are the property of their respective owners.


Readers interested in Indo-European languages may be especially interested in our "Early Indo-European Online Lessons" series; use the EIEOL link here or on any web page in this book series.

Jonathan Slocum
August 30, 2006

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