Preface

Marked advances in the study of Indo-European phonology have resulted when new data were discovered and linguistic methodology refined. The initial investigations in IE studies at the beginning of the nineteenth century were due to the discovery of new materials, chiefly Sanskrit; the great series of improvements after 1870 to the application of more rigorous techniques of analysis. In the past twenty-five years further refinements in method have been achieved, chiefly in structural linguistics. Moreover, new data have been provided by Hittite, and by reexamination of phonological phenomena which have hitherto been disregarded or left unexplained. Yet there have been few comprehensive attempts to revise our description of IE phonology. In this monograph I suggest a reformulation of PIE phonology based on an examination of such new data according to the principles of structural linguistics.

My dependence on the standard works in IE grammar, those of Brugmann, Hirt, Meillet, the etymological dictionaries of Feist, Walde, Boisacq, the grammars for individual dialects such as those of Braune for Old High German, Noreen for Old Icelandic, will be obvious even when not specifically mentioned. Attempts to reformulate phonological problems in IE and the dialects without a knowledge of previous scholarship are useless; a list of all the materials consulted, however, would be unduly cumbersome.

René Derolez, George Lane, Alf Sommerfelt, and Edgar H. Sturtevant have read parts of the manuscript, Ruth Lehmann and W. F. Twaddell the entire manuscript; to them and to linguists who have commented on sections of the text which were read before the Linguistic Society of America I am indebted for many suggestions. A part of the monograph was written during the summer of 1948 while I held a Fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies at the Linguistic Institute. Publication has been made possible by a grant from the University of Texas Research Council.

Winfred P. Lehmann
Austin, Texas
October, 1951


Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction 1
    • 1.1. Reconstruction of the PIE consonants in the 19th century 1
    • 1.2. Reconstruction of the vowels 3
    • 1.3. Formulations of the vocalic system 3
    • 1.4. Methodological differences between 19th century and current linguistic theory 5
  • 2. The Phonological System of PIE 7
    • 2.1. Criteria for describing the PIE phonological system 7
    • 2.2. The allophonic variation of the resonants; no diphthongs in PIE 10
    • 2.3. The structure of the PIE root, and the origin of the ablaut variations 14
    • 2.4. The general principle of PIE metrics 19
    • 2.5. The phonemic system of PIE and its use in further study 20
  • 3. The Laryngeal Theory 22
    • 3.1. Definition of the laryngeal theory and a sketch of its history 22
    • 3.2. Arguments adduced by Saussure and Möller for the theory 23
    • 3.3. Hittite evidence in favor of these arguments 24
    • 3.4. The Hittite evidence in favor of the laryngeal theory 25
    • 3.5. Various approaches to the laryngeal theory 28
    • 3.6. Evidence in the IE dialects in favor of the laryngeal theory 29
    • 3.7. Suggestions about the allophones of laryngeals 34
    • 3.8. Laryngeals tentatively assumed for PIE 34
  • 4. Lengthened /w/ and /y/ in the Gmc. Dialects 36
    • 4.1. Evidence for lengthening in the various Gmc. dialects 36
    • 4.2. Proposed explanations 37
    • 4.3. Proposed explanations by means of the laryngeal theory 39
    • 4.4. The words in which lengthening is found 41
      • 4.41. -eww- 41
      • 4.42. -aww- 43
      • 4.43. -uww- 44
      • 4.44. -ayy- 44
      • 4.45. -iyy- 45
      • 4.46. Forms of uncertain etymology 45
    • 4.5. The conditions under which /w/ and /y/ were lengthened 46
  • 5. PGmc. /g/ and /k(k)/ corresponding to PIE /w/ 47
    • 5.1. Evidence for the development of PGmc. /g/ and /k(k)/ 47
    • 5.2. Proposed explanations 47
    • 5.3. The words in which /w/ became /g/ 47
    • 5.4. The words in which /w/ became /k(k)/ 49
    • 5.5. The conditions under which these developments took place 52
  • 6. Laryngeals in the Neighborhood of Gmc. /r l m n/ 53
    • 6.1. Gmc. reflexes of PIE /r l m n/ and laryngeals 53
    • 6.2. Words in which vowels are found after Gmc. /r l m n/ 53
    • 6.3. The conditions under which these developments took place 54
  • 7. The Old High German r-preterites 56
    • 7.1. The forms attested in our documents 56
    • 7.2. Proposed explanations 56
    • 7.3. The two groups of r-preterites 58
    • 7.4. The origin of the preterite of 7th class verbs in NWGmc 58
    • 7.5. Evidence for laryngeals in cognates of r-preterites 59
    • 7.6. The conditions under which r developed 60
    • 7.7. The history of the r-preterites after OHG 61
  • 8. Developments of the PIE Resonant System in Gmc 62
    • 8.1. Assumption of laryngeals imperative for the IE from which Gmc. developed 62
    • 8.2. Gmc. developments of PIE /w y r l m n/ in the neighborhood of laryngeals 62
    • 8.3. Further Gmc. evidence in support of the assumption that reflexes of laryngeals survived into PIE in the neighborhood of /w y r l m n/ 63
  • 9. The Origin of PGmc. Long Close e 66
    • 9.1. The forms in which long close e is found 66
    • 9.2. Proposed explanations 67
    • 9.3. Substantives with long close e 67
    • 9.4. Seventh class verbs with long close e 69
    • 9.5. Forms with long close e from [iz] 71
    • 9.6. Long close e in borrowings and pronouns 72
    • 9.7. Explanation by means of the laryngeal theory 72
  • 10. PIE 'Initial y' in Greek 74
    • 10.1. Development of ζ from PIE 'initial y-' 74
    • 10.2. Explanations of ζ < y- as a Gk. development 74
    • 10.3. Explanation of ζ < y- on the basis of PIE 75
    • 10.4. Words in which such ζ is found 76
    • 10.5. Origin of such ζ in /γy-/ 79
  • 11. The Indo-Iranian Voiceless Aspirates 80
    • 11.1. Evidence for the origin of the voiceless aspirates in voiceless stop plus laryngeal 80
    • 11.2. The problem of the time of origin 81
    • 11.3. Origin of voiceless aspirates in Indo-Iranian 82
    • 11.4. Voiceless aspirates from voiceless stops plus PIE /h/ 83
  • 12. The Laryngeals in PIE 85
    • 12.1. Laryngeals survived into PIE; their distribution and allophones unclear 85
    • 12.2. Reflexes of short vowel plus laryngeal in PIE 85
    • 12.3. Laryngeals preserved in the dialects after [r̥ l̥ m̥ n̥] 86
    • 12.4. [i· u·] from [i u] plus laryngeal already in PIE 90
    • 12.5. [e· a· o·] also PIE. Their unaccented forms 91
    • 12.6. The influence of laryngeals on neighboring accented vowels 95
    • 12.7. The development of PIE /e/ in the dialects 96
    • 12.8. Four laryngeals assumed for PIE 98
  • 13. The PIE Phonemic System 99
    • 13.1. The PIE phonemes 99
    • 13.2. The problem of the IE 'interdental spirants' 99
    • 13.3. The problem of the IE palatals, velars, and labio-velars 100
  • 14. The Allophones of the Laryngeals 103
    • 14.1. Necessity of determining allophones 103
    • 14.2. Evidence in Hittite 103
    • 14.3. Attempts to determine allophones in IE : HS studies 104
    • 14.4. Evidence in the IE dialects for continuant articulation 105
    • 14.5. Evidence for fricative articulation 106
    • 14.6. Further evidence for relatively open articulation 107
    • 14.7. Evidence for voice 107
    • 14.8. Summary of the evidence 108
  • 15. The Development of the PIE Phonemic System 109
    • 15.1. Bases for suggesting earlier IE phonemic systems 109
    • 15.2. Accent changes in pre-IE 109
    • 15.3. Change of /e/ to /o/ and resultant disruption of the pre-IE phonemic system 109
    • 15.4. Earlier development of /e/ 111
    • 15.5. The pre-stress stage of pre-IE 112
    • 15.6. The various stages of pre-IE 112
    • 15.7. Changes between PIE and the dialects 114

Abbreviations: Books and Periodicals

  • AfdA: Anzeiger für deutsches Altertum. Berlin.
  • A Hittite Glossary: Edgar H. Sturtevant, A Hittite Glossary. 2d ed. Philadelphia, 1936.
  • Arnold, Vedic Meter: E. V. Arnold, Vedic Metre in its Historical Development. Cambridge, 1905.
  • BB: A. Bezzenbergers Beiträge zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen. Göttingen.
  • BHL: Hans Hendriksen, Untersuchungen über die Bedeutung des Hethitischen für die Laryngaltheorie. Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historiskfilologiske Meddelelser 28.2. Copenhagen, 1941.
  • Boisacq, Ety. Wb.: Émile Boisacq, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Paris and Heidelberg, 1916.
  • Brugmann, Gdr: Karl Brugmann and Berthold Delbrück, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. 2 vols. 2d ed. Strassburg, 1897-1916.
  • Brugmann, KVG: Karl Brugmann, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik. Strassburg, 1904.
  • BSL: Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris.
  • Buck, CGLG: Carl D. Buck, Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Chicago, 1933.
  • Couvreur, Hett. .: Walter Couvreur, De Hettitische . Een Bijdrage tot de Studie van het Indo-Europeesche Vocalisme. Bibliothèque du Muséon 5. Leuven, 1937.
  • CP: Classical Philology. Chicago.
  • EI: see Kurylowicz.
  • Eng. St.: Englische Studien. Heilbronn.
  • Gdr.: see Brugmann.
  • GGN: Göttingsche gelehrte Nachrichten.
  • HH: see Sommer.
  • Hirt, Abl.: Hermann Hirt, Der indogermanische Ablaut. Strassburg, 1900.
  • Hirt, HU: Hermann Hirt, Handbuch des Urgermanischen. 3 vols. Heidelberg, 1931-4.
  • Hirt, IG: Hermann Hirt, Indogermanische Grammatik. 7 vols. Heidelberg, 1921-37.
  • IF: Indogermanische Forschungen. Berlin and Leipzig.
  • IG: see Hirt.
  • IHL: see Sturtevant.
  • Introduction: A. Meillet, Introduction à l'étude comparative des langues indo-européennes. 8th ed. Paris, 1937.
  • Karstien, Redup. Perf.: C. Karstien, Die reduplizierten Perfekta des Nord- und Westgermanischen. Giessen, 1921.
  • Kent, S of L.: Roland G. Kent, The Sounds of Latin. 3d ed. Baltimore, 1945.
  • Kluge, Ety. Wb.: Friedrich Kluge, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 11th ed. Berlin and Leipzig, 1934.
  • Kurylowicz, EI: Jerzy Kurylowicz, Etudes indoeuropéennes 1. Cracow, 1935.
  • KVG: see Brugmann.
  • KZ: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. Berlin.
  • La Roche, HU: J. La Roche, Homerische Untersuchungen. Leipzig, 1869.
  • Lewis-Pedersen: Henry Lewis and Holger Pedersen, A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar. Göttingen, 1937.
  • Mém.: see Saussure.
  • MSL: Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris.
  • Munro, Horn. Gram.: D. B Munro, A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. 2d ed. Oxford, 1891.
  • Noreen, Abriss: A. Noreen, Abriss der Urgermanischen Lautlehre. Strassburg, 1894.
  • NTS: Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. Oslo.
  • Orig.: Émile Benveniste, Origines de la formation des noms en indo-européen 1. Paris, 1935.
  • PBB: Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur. Halle a. S. Pedersen, Cinq.: Holger Pedersen, La cinquième déclinaison latine. Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser 11.5. Copenhagen, 1926.
  • Pedersen, Hitt.: Holger Pedersen, Hittitisch und die anderen indoeuropäischen Sprachen. Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser 25.2. Copenhagen, 1938.
  • Pedersen, VGK: Holger Pedersen, Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen. 2 vols. Göttingen, 1909-13.
  • Persson, Beitr.: Per Persson, Beiträge zur indogermanischen Wortforschung. 2 vols. Uppsala, 1912.
  • Prokosch, CGG: Eduard Prokosch, A Comparative Germanic Grammar. Philadelphia, 1938.
  • Pron. of Gk. and Lat.: Edgar H. Sturtevant, The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin. 2d ed. Philadelphia, 1940.
  • RHA: Revue hittite et asianique. Paris.
  • Risch: E. Risch, Wortbildung der homerischen Sprache. Berlin and Leipzig, 1937.
  • RO: Rocznik Orjentalistyczny. Lwów.
  • RP: Revue de phonétique. Paris.
  • Sandbach: E. Sandbach, Die Indogermanischen zwei-silbigen schweren Basen und das Baltische (litauische) praeteritum. Heidelberg, 1930.
  • Saussure, Mém.: Ferdinand de Saussure, Mémoire sur le système primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-européennes. Leipzig, 1879.
  • Schmidt, Vocal.: J. Schmidt, Zur Geschichte des indogermanischen Vocalismus. Weimar, 1871-5.
  • Schwyzer, Gr. Gr.: Eduard Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik I. München, 1939.
  • Sommer, Gr. Lt.: Ferdinand Sommer, Griechische Lautstudien. Strassburg, 1905.
  • Sommer, HH: Ferdinand Sommer, Hethiter und Hethitisch. Stuttgart, 1947.
  • SSP: Gordon M. Messing, Selected Studies in Indo-European Phonology. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 56-7. 161-232. Cambridge, 1947.
  • Streitberg, GE: Wilhelm Streitberg, Gotisches Elementarbuch. 5th and 6th ed. Heidelberg, 1920.
  • Streitberg, Germanisch: Wilhelm Streitberg, V. Michels, and M. H. Jellinek, Germanisch. Geschichte der indogermanischen Sprachwissenschaft, II.2. Berlin and Leipzig, 1927-36.
  • Sturtevant, Comp. Gram.: Edgar H. Sturtevant, A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language. Philadelphia, 1933.
  • Sturtevant, IHL: Edgar H. Sturtevant, The Indo-Hittite Laryngeals. Baltimore, 1942.
  • Wackernagel, Aind. Gr.: Jacob Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik. 3 vols. Göttingen, 1896-1930.
  • Whitney: William D. Whitney, A Sanskrit Grammar. 3d ed. Boston and Leipzig, 1896.
  • WP: Alois Walde, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen, herausgegeben und bearbeitet von Julius Pokorny. 3 vols. Berlin and Leipzig, 1927-32.
  • ZfdA: Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum. Berlin.

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